Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and affects people of all ages. But having an asthma patient with a good overall fitness level helps reduce the chances of getting a seizure. Aqua-aerobic exercises is appropriate programs for the treatment of asthma. The aim of this study was to propose a rehabilitation program using aqua-aerobic exercises and to determine its effect on some functional parameters (forced Expiratory Volume in first Second Fev1, Peak Expiratory Flow PEF, and the Forced Vital Capacity FVC), and improve the respiratory functions to reduce the intensity and severity of asthma attacks for asthmatic children.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is rarely seen in the prostate. Most of prostatic tumors are benign. However, local aggressively invading the adjacent organs and recurrence are frequent. Rarely, the malignant transformation and metastasis occurs, especially in elderly patient. The definitive diagnosis in a small biopsy is challenging. The correct diagnosis preoperatively will help to avoid unnecessary radical prostatectomy. Interval follow up is recommended. Here we reported two cases of prostatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with literature review.
Background: Several epidemiologic studies indicate that up to 50% of patients with heart failure have a preserved ejection fraction, and this proportion has increased over time. The knowledge of its severity and associated comorbidity is determining factor to develop adequate strategies for its treatment and prevention. This study was focus on the creation of a cohort and follow-up of Mexican population and to analyze its severity as well as its interaction with the comorbidity of other cardiovascular risk factors.
Methods: We included patients from different sites of Mexico City than were sent to the Cardiology hospital of the National Medical Center in Mexico City for the realization of an echocardiogram as part of their assessment by the presence of dyspnea, edema, or suspicion of hypertensive heart disease. Complete medical history, physical examination and laboratory studies including Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) serum levels were performed. Diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction was based on symptoms and echocardiographic data including time of deceleration, size of left atrium, e´ septal and e´ lateral, as well as E wave, A wave and its ratio E/A. All patients had left ventricle ejection fraction > 45%.
Results: We included 168 patients with HFpEF. The most common risk factor was hypertension (89.2%), followed by overweight and obesity (> 78.5%), dyslipidemia (82.1%) and diabetes (42.8%). Women were dominant, 108 (64.3%); the mean age was 63 years old. When we classify by severity of diastolic dysfunction, we found that 41.1% were grade I, 57.1% were grade II and only 1.8% were grade III. The risk factors most strongly associated with the severity of diastolic dysfunction were hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. We found BNP levels highly variables, but the levels were higher detected as the ejection fraction was approaching to 45%. At one year of follow up mortality was not reported.
Conclusion: HFpEF is a frequent entity in patients with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexico. The most common risk factor was hypertension. The combination of hypertension, overweight and dyslipidemia predicted the severity of diastolic dysfunction. We recommend that all Mexican patient with hypertension and overweight or obesity should be submitted as a part of its medical evaluation to an echocardiogram study in order to detect diastolic dysfunction even though the signs or symptoms are or not evident.
The age-old battle between plants and viruses has many twists and turns. Plants acquired the RNAi factors to checkmate the viruses and the viruses encode VSRs to defeat RNAi for their own survival. Plants designed mechanisms to neutralize the toxic effects of VSRs and the viruses, in their turn, use host microRNAs to strengthen their infection processes. The infightings between these two entities will take different shapes with prolonged evolution and accordingly the researchers will dig these novel forms of duels not only to throw lights in the involved mechanisms but also to manipulate various antiviral strategies. Some of the research courses that might come up in the immediate future are discussed.
We present below a mechanistic molecular approach for development of Anti-Inflammatory biomarkers of Probiotic Bacteria in Fermented Foods. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote human health by counteracting the noxious toxic gut microflora in human intestine, by modulating of the tight junctions, and by increasing mucin production, enforcing intestinal epithelial cell barrier function, modifying microbial community within the gut intestinal disorders, and improving immune responses associated with chronic inflammation in experimental animal models, collectively enhancing human health. Cytokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages are regulated by probiotics through key signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated kinases, resulting in alleviation of several disorders such as allergies, diabetes, obesity, heart diseases and cancer. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression by inhibiting gene translation. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches in cell lines and mice models to study effects of probiotic conditional media and heat-killed bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory effect to elucidate the mechanisms by which probiotics affect signaling pathways, and by using global cytokine and microRNA gene expression analyses arrroaches to develop biomarkers for studying different pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, and using statistical approaches to analyse the data, we show that cytokines and miRNAs have an essential role in regulation of cancerous and inflammatory bathways. This mechanistic approach will result in developing specific disease biomarkers for the early diagnosis of certain pathogenic states, as well as evaluating the effect of different dietary componenents on developed biomarkers in health states that will promote and enhance human health. Comparing the concordance of the in vitro to the in vivo research findings will confirm the correspondence of both approaches to each other. Moreover, this study will have a major public health relevance in elucidating the role of miRNAs and their targets in inflammation, paving the way to diagnosing and treating of pathogenic human disease stages.
Background: Skin diseases is a common worldwide problem. It affected every aspect of patients’ quality of life (QOL) mainly physically, socially and psychologically.
Objectives: to assess the impact of skin disorders on patients’ quality of life and to identify factors associated with it.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatient dermatology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. A random sample of 145 patients with acne, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were interviewed using DLQI questionnaire during their scheduled follow-up appointments at dermatology clinic.
Main outcome measure: Self-reported patients’ QOL due to their skin diseases.
Results and discussion: Out of three skin diseases psoriasis patients had the highest prevalence (39.3%) followed by AD (34.5%) and acne (26.2%). Patients’ QOL was highly influenced by their skin conditions especially on working/schooling domain. Furthermore, several factors were identified, namely age, working environment, concurrent skin diseases, usage of supplement for skin diseases and type of food as aggravating factors—that may influence patients’ QOL. QOL among females and younger adults was found to be more significantly influenced as compared to males and elderly. With respect to working environment, those who had both indoor and outdoor working environment showed the highest impact of their skin conditions on their QOL. Single patients were more influenced by their skin conditions when compared to those who are married, however it was not significant.
Conclusion: Our findings revealed skin disease had negatively impacted individual QOL with different level of aspects. Among the three diseases, AD patients had the worst impact on QOL. Significant predictors of QOL did not relate solely to skin diseases but also other factors such as type of food and working environment.
Purpose: To compare the outcomes of Abdelhamid technique in treatment of inguinal hernia to conventional TAPP with mesh stapling, Prolene hernia system (PHS) and Lichtenstein repair.
Background: the mesh is applied and fixed externally aiding in decreasing port size and cost. There is controversy concerning the necessity of securing the mesh during laparoscopic TAPP repair.
Patients: The study was carried out at the faculty of medicine – Beni Suef University, Egypt from September 2008 to April 2018. 672 patients with unilateral inguinal hernia participated in the study. 432 were treated using Abdelhamid Technique, 382 of which were unilateral primary inguinal hernia and 50 were unilateral recurrent. 50 patients were treated using Prolene Hernia System (PHS). 50 patients with recurrent hernias were treated using Lichtenstein repair and 140 patients went TAPP with mesh stapling.
Results: Abdelhamid technique showed more cost effectiveness than stapling (1800$ vs 3000$) , pronounced less recurrence rate in comparison with Liechtenstein and PHS (2% vs 4%), same LOS compared to other techniques and mean operative time of 76 minutes which is longer than stapling (60 mins), Liechtenstein (65 mins) and PHS (55 mins).
Conclusion: Abdelhamid technique was a more lengthy operation costing more than open surgery but less than mesh stapling. The recurrence rate is considerably reduced with shorter recovery period. The technique is done with smaller port size that leads to cost reduction
Primary closure of the common bile duct following exploration has been safely and effectively performed, as advocated by Halsted, provided no evidence of pancreatitis, cholangitis, or ampullary obstruction exists. This study was to gain back confidence to primary closure in selected cases. This study was conducted at Beniswaif University Hospital. Between July 2008 to May. 2014. Using this precedent, the operative management and post-operative course of 19 patients undergoing common bile duct (CBD) exploration for choledocholithiasis were studied, twelve had primary closure of the common bile duct following choledochotomy and exploration, and seven had T-tube placement.
Patients were selected for T-tube if there were pancreatitis, cholangitis, undue trauma, ampullary obstruction. Two patients in that study had bile leak, one in each group. Intravenous fluids were less in primary suture (P<0.001). The long of stay were significantly less in primary suture (P<0.001). The outcome of this study greatly support the safety of primary common bile duct closure in selected cases.
Five key sectors of transport have been selected as the target groups: seafarers, truck drivers, dockworkers, rail workers and airline workers. Transport workers often operate under stressful working conditions, long-work hours, lack of good sleep, healthy diet and physical exercises that contribute to fatigue, impaired well-being, mental ill-health, stress and chronic diseases. The hypothesis is that good mental health workplace culture depends on good education, staffing and management.
Objectives: To create, implement and evaluate a research based mental health culture promotion program
Determinate existing researches and training programs,
To study the knowledge, skills and needs for specific training in diferent age-groups
Create and implement effective and relevant training,
Produce training materials and scientific evidence available for ship owners, students and workers and to develop proposals for new mental health policies, legislations and regulations
Methods: Multidisciplinary training and research methodology with quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used. Validated mental health culture promotion methods with new programs for the specific sectors.
• Significant less sickness absence and suicides
• Benefit for the workers’ health including benefit for the company economy.
• Policies developed for improved mental health culture based on the research.
• The training programs are ready to be continued at the end of the project.
Background: Chronic Kidney Disease is no longer considered just a health burden today but a major health priority owing to its high treatment costs and poor outcome. World Kidney Day and International Women’s Day in 2018 coincided, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women’s health, and specifically their kidney health. The current study aims to identify chronic kidney disease in women through a cross sectional screening in hospital based camp in Varanasi on World Kidney Day.
Methods: 138 females attending a health camp were screened for clinical parameters like serum creatinine, random blood sugar, and pregnancy complications. Demographic and anthropometric parameters were noted. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictors of chronic kidney disease stages.
Results: The median age of the participants was 36 years. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 6.4% with 1.4% of Stage 1, 2.1% of Stage 2, 1.4% of Stage 3 and 1.4% of Stage 4. Women with diabetes were nearly 4 times at a greater risk of developing higher stages of chronic kidney disease compared to women without it. With a unit increase in serum creatinine levels, women were nearly 13 times more likely to develop higher stages of chronic kidney disease.
Conclusion: Serum creatinine levels and diabetes were the significant predictors for the development of higher stages of chronic kidney disease. Early screening for kidney diseases in women could reduce the load of health care delivery system that is involved in renal replacement therapies.
Background: A structured multidisciplinary team is very important during every phase of the amputation process and a good communicative team guarantees a greater tranquility for the patient, thanks to more homogenous information, that is already discussed between the clinicians.
Aim: The aim of this study was to define the efficacy and outcome value of an innovative procedure tool (TRIA-MF protocol) in the treatment of lower limb amputees before and after prosthesis use with the purpose to quantify the quality of the procedure and its economic impact on the clinical patients’ recovery.
Setting: A rehabilitation institute for the treatment of neurological and orthopaedic gait disorders.
Methods: 12 patients (4 women and 8 males) subjected to lower limb amputation and admitted according to the principles of inclusion criteria of the TRIA-MF protocol at the Rehabilitation Department of the Clinical Institute Città di Brescia were recruited in this study. All patients were included in an integrated and task-specific management protocol of the amputee, which allowed to follow the rehabilitation process from amputation to the final restoration, for a period of 6 months for each patient. Patients were evaluated 5 times during the study, collecting their degree of pain (VAS), their independence profile (Barthel Index) and the cirtometry of their amputation stump. Data on the duration of their admission to the rehabilitation unit, the inter-time between the amputation and acquisition of the temporary prosthesis, and between temporary prosthesis acquisition and the final prosthesis acquisition were also reported.
Results: Patients of our sample, at the end of their hospitalization, highlight a significant modification of the temporal data at 1 month and 6 months from their hospital discharge. A statistical significant increase of the Barthel Index value was observed in all patients recruited in this study proceeding from time T0 to time T4; in the same way, a statistical significant decrease of the VAS scale was observed in all patients recruited proceeding from time T0 to time T4; the cirtometry of the amputation stump (expressed in cm) showed a statistical significant decrease in all patients recruited proceeding from time T0 to time T4. We haven’t observed a statistical significant correlation between the duration of the rehabilitative hospitalization and our clinical data; no statistical significant correlation was observed between the amputation stump cirtometry time-related modification and our intertime data.
Conclusions: The protocol was found to be a clear and relevant tool with the definition of the operational profile for each single professional figure involved; it could also be considered as an optimal tool for coding the management and evaluation of the effectiveness of amputee treatment, with a related high reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity profile. In line with the literature, the TRIA-MF protocol has allowed us not to exceed a period of hospitalization in rehabilitation units of more than 23 days, thus showing that it is an excellent tool for optimizing the management costs of the amputee over time.
With the invention of the stethoscope, in the early 1800s, a better diagnosis of heart and lung disorders was opened up. Through the stethoscope's 200-year history, there has been a significant development of the stethoscopy from the use of the simple monaural earpiece to the binaural stethoscope, followed by the electronic stethoscope, which, together with other studies, has enabled a thorough diagnosis of these disorders. Here is a glimpse of this story.
The cross-border investigation
Far back in time, it has been clear that the function of the heart and lungs played an important role in maintaining life. By tapping with the finger (percussion) and putting the ear to the patient's chest (auscultation), it could hear sound from the body telling about the patient's condition, especially about the presence of fluid or air-filled organs. Auscultation is already described in the Corpus Hippocraticum, in the Diseases II section . The doctor puts the ear to the chest of a patient with water sores, to hear the pain as a wine vinegar from the lungs - or the doctor grabs the patient about the shoulders, shakes him and places his ear to his chest to hear in which side his pleuritis is sitting. Since then, auscultation seems to have been partially forgotten, although it has probably been known by Ambroise Paré and William Harvey . It was not until the late 1700s that it became an important diagnostic aid, just like the pulse clock and the medical thermometer [3 p. 277]. Here, Joseph Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809) is considered to be the father of the modern physical examination, which is based on percussion. Percussion he performed by knocking direcly on the thorax with the finger or cupped hands. His discovery of the percussion sounds from the chest during inhaling and exhaling originates from his work in 1760 at the Vienna Military Hospital . In 1761, His little book on thoracic percussion revealing thoracic diseases appeared in 1761 [3p.271], which in 1808 was translated into French by the Parisian physician Jean Nicolas Corvisart des Marets (1755-1821). This contributed to the French doctors starting to use percussion and ausculation more routinely .
The limitation of simple auscultation was the fact that the sound was weak and incomplete and therefore there was a need for improved sound quality. In addition, the direct contact with the patient's body could seem insulting
Mast cells play a central role in the genesis and modulation of allergic and inflammatory responses. The general aim of the present work was to study the interaction between mast cells and the most common additives approved for use in foods. Dose-response studies about the effect of the main food additives (tartrazine, sodium bisulphite and sodium benzoate) on mast cell degranulation were carried out. Rat peritoneal mast cells were incubated with: 1) buffer solution or 2) stimulus. The stimuli were tartrazine, sodium benzoate, sodium bisulphite and the calcium ionophore A23187. A23187 was used as a reference mast cell secretagogue. Different doses and combinations of food additives were used. The viability of the mast cells was evaluated with trypan blue. In the incubation solutions, the release of β-hexosaminidase was quantified by colorimetric reaction and ELISA plate reader. The remaining β-hexosaminidase concentration (not released) was studied in the cells after the incubations, and morphology of the mast cells was analyzed by light microscopy with toluidine blue stain. The food additives tartrazine, sodium benzoate and sodium bisulphite did not stimulate the release of β-hexosaminidase from mast cells at any of the concentrations used. In contrast, tartrazine at concentrations of 0.1 μM and 1 μM, and sodium benzoate and sodium bisulphite at concentrations of 0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM, significantly inhibited the basal release of β-hexosaminidase from mast cells. Considering these findings, we decided to determine the effect of these additives on the degranulation of mast cells induced by the calcium ionophore A23187. Sodium bisulphite inhibited mast cell activation induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 in this experimental model. The present study demonstrates that food additives of usual permitted use do not stimulate basal degranulation of mast cells in an in vitro model of peritoneal mast cells and that the additive sodium bisulphite inhibit mast cell activation induced by intracellular calcium increase. This food additive could represent an interesting alternative in the prevention of pathologies mediated by mast cells, as well as in the field of nutritional biochemistry.
Many pathologic disease can be considered as related to an Endogenous toxicological moves and in time dependent way (kinetics and dynamic of the process). In this work starting from the analysis of relevant literature involved with different disease and related to the endogenous local micro- environment some global conclusion useful as new tools for innovative pharmacological strategies will be submitted to the researcher. Physiology, pathology concept linked to the endogenous toxicological local micro-environment status as new research instruments. The same carcinogenesis process can be related also to endogenous agents that may have a major contribution in spontaneously process. (Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in multiple cellular processes by physiologically transporting signal as a second messenger or pathologically oxidizing DNA, lipids, and proteins).
The study aimed to identify possible environmental risk factors for breast cancer among women in Gaza Strip and conducted in 2010. A case- control study design was used with face to face interviews by structured questionnaire with breast cancer patient women as well as healthy women. Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the collected data. The study population was 288 women, 144 were women with breast cancer (cases) and 144 were healthy women (controls) with response rate 100% for cases as well as controls. The study was carried out in the two main hospitals in Gaza Strip (El-Shifa and European Gaza) and on cases who had a regular follow up in each hospital, while controls have been chosen from women who had no history of breast cancer by mammogram or by self-examination. In this study the main statistically significant risk factors were; marital status, educational status, physical trauma on breast, medication for infertility treatment, eating red meat 500g or more weekly, eating canned food, eating chicken skin, eating raw and cooked vegetables, using oils with saturated fats in cooking, living in or beside a farm, dealing with crops with naked hands, working in a farm during pesticides application or during 24 hours of pesticides application, cleaning pesticides’ equipment, living with people working in a farm or a agricultural field, and application of pesticides personally. In contrary, no statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls in relation to area of residency, exposure to X-ray in the past, having radiation therapy, getting contraceptive pills, using hair dyes, using anti-deodorant underarm, using facial cosmetics, using hair removal ointment, washing vegetables and fruits, buying and transporting pesticides, and wearing protective tools during pesticides mixing and application.
Due to laparoscopic cholecystectomy there is increase in the bile duct injuries. It was 0.2% to 0.4% during open opposed to 0.6% to 0.8% during laparoscopic. Included in the study were 22 patients, 19 patients with two redo operated upon. Between Feb. 1999 to Nov2017 and 3 referral cases. The treatment options were end to end anastomosis and hepaticojejunostomy. Regarding the injuries, according to Stresberg there were 2A .4D injuries with injury in the lateral aspect of the ducts, 8 E1, with hepatic stump > 2cm., 5 E2 with hepatic stump < 2cm. The three referral cases were choledochodoudonostomy E1, and E2. They were treated with si ligation of cystic in two cases, anastomosis in seven cases. The remaining fifteen cases with hepaticojejunostomy .Conclusions: The risk is more proximally. After complex injuries diversion is the best while with simple end to end was acceptable. The insertion of stents has to be individualized according to the situations of each patients and the experience of each surgeon.
Research is the process of searching for knowledge. It is systematic search pertinent information on specific topic of interest. It is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge . It is a scientific way of getting answers for research questions and testing hypothesis. The research question is based on uncertainty about something in the population. This can be formulated by searching different literatures from index and non index journals, books, internet, and different unpublished research work etc. A good research question should follow the FINER criteria i.e. Feasible, Interesting, Novel, Ethical and Relevant .
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering. The subject combines various disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechnology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, systems biology, biophysics, computer engineering, and genetic engineering. Synthetic biology aims to understand whole biological systems working as a unit, rather than investigating their individual components and design new genome. Significant advances have been made using systems biology and synthetic biology approaches, especially in the field of bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Similarly, progress is being made with ‘synthetic approaches’ in genetics and animal sciences, providing exciting opportunities to modulate, genome design and finally synthesis animal for favorite traits.
Trichomonas vaginalis could be seen in Pap smears where it is reported, but because main concerned is placed on malignant cells in Pap smears, not much effort is done to search for this parasite in smears. In this study, 100 cervical and vaginal specimens were examined microscopically by the conventional Papanicolaou method and liquid base cytology (LBC) for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis). 16% were infected with T.vaginalis while 10% of diagnosis based on both perinuclear halo and T. vaginalis presence although the association between perinuclear halo and T, vaginalis is statistically insignificant it is recommended to increase the number of the cases to prove or disprove the association
Annually the list of pesticides is replenished by new ones. One of the main criteria for their registration is toxicological and hygienic assessment and its impact on the environment.
In order to register the new soy herbicide Damu - Safen, EC (fomesafen, 250 g/l) it was necessary to assess its toxicological and hygienic impact on the environment and humans. Therefore, for the first time we conducted studies of the environmental objects under the influence of Damu-Safen, EC (fomesafen, 250 g/l) and the risk assessment of the active substance fomesafen and pesticide Damu - Safen, EC on the workers. According to the results of the assessment of working conditions for the workers of the tanker and the tractor operator, an acceptable risk was obtained that meets regulatory and hygienic requirements. Residual amounts of fomesafen not exceeding the normative levels were found during conducted studies on environmental objects.
Consequently, the results of the risk assessment in the application of pesticide Damu-Safen, EC (fomesafen, 250 g/l) and its impact on the working people and environmental objects indicate the possibility of its application in compliance with optimal environmental conditions and compliance with regulations for appliances and personal protective equipment.
Asthma is a complicated chronic disease of airway and airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, cough, dyspnea and wheezing that are main symptoms of the asthma. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental agents are main factors in pathophysiology of the asthma. Direct and indirect healthcare costs and health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients require more and more attention. A main challenges of asthma control is environment and specially house and building .
Purpose: Deficiency of Fetuin A, as a calcification inhibitor, is assumed to be involved in vascular calcification in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). This study examined the relationship between serum Fetuin-A and vascular and valvular calcification in a cohort of MHD patients.
Methods: The study was conducted on 122 MHD patients. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, and Fetuin-A were tested. Intima-media thickness (IMT) ≥0.8 mm and the presence of stenosis>50% or plaques in carotid doppler sonography were considered as vascular calcification. Calcification of cardiac valves or mitral annular calcification in two-dimensional echocardiography, were considered as cardiac valvular calcification. The presence of any or both of the two conditions was defined as cardiovascular calcification (CVC).
Results: Fetuin-A was lower than normal in 37% of 122. Totally 106 patients (87%) had CVC, who were older (61±14 vs. 38±14 years, P<0.001), more affected by diabetes (54% vs. 13%, P=0.007), had a longer dialysis vintage (median 5 vs. 2 years, P=0.006), lower levels of creatinine (8.9±2.8 vs. 11.9±3.1 mg/dL, P<0.001) and higher levels of calcium (8.7±0.7 vs. 8.4±0.5 mg/dL, P=0.026). There was no significant difference in mean Fetuin-A level between the two groups (P=0.101). In logistic regression increased age (OR=1.1, CI 95%=1.1 - 1.2) and serum calcium (OR=2.8, CI 95%=1.1- 7.6), and diabetes mellitus (OR=7.4, CI 95%=1.1 - 47.4) were risk factors.
Conclusion: This study showed that 87% of our patients had vascular and/or valvular calcification. Increased age and calcium level and diabetes were the predictors of CVC, whereas Fetuin-A was not.
Cystoid macular edema is a common cause for unexplained painless vision loss after cataract surgery. Even the pathogenesis of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) still remains undefined, it can most frequently occur in eyes with high vasoactive profile, had complicated cataract surgery such as posterior capsule rupture and risk of inflammation. Increased inflammation, ultimately leading to the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier and cystic accumulation of extracellular intraretinal fluid. The natural history of PCME is spontaneous resolution without any treatment in most of patient, but it may take weeks or months, in addition permanent visual morbidity may occur in some cases. Therefore there is lack of consensus regarding treatment approach for this common ocular condition.
In this review treatment alternatives of PCME and its relation with underlying patho-physiologic mechanism are evaluated.
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Wollo University, Ethiopia
“Mobile apps and wearable technology are becoming ubiquitous in our environment. Their integration with healthcare delivery is just beginning to take shape. The early results are promising and the possibilities great."
BS, PharmD., MBA, CPHIMS, FHIMSS, Adjunct Professor, Global Healthcare Management, MCPHS University, Chief Strategy Offi cer, MedicaSoft, Senior Advisor, National Health IT (NHIT) Collaborative for Underserved, New York HIMSS, National Liaison, Health 2.0 Boston, Past Chair, Chair Innovation, USA
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With the best wishes of success, creativity and joy in life, prosperity in the medical field.
Ivano- Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine
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NC A&T State University, USA
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