Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is an important cause of increasing the hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. By increasing intra-renal vasoconstriction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can increase the risk of CI-AKI. We sought to investigate whether LVEF can impact the incidence of CI-AKI after cardiac catheterization and whether it can be used to predict CI-AKI.
Methods: Patients underwent cardiac catheterization from December 2017 to February 2018 at Jersey Shore University Medical Center were enrolled in the study. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or an increase of ≥ 25% from the pre-procedure value within 72 hours post-procedure. The maximum allowable contrast dose was calculated using the following formula: (5* (weight (kg)/creatinine level (mg/dL)). A multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for potential confounders, were used to test associations between LVEF and CI-AKI.
Results: 9.6% had post catheterization CI-AKI. A total of 18 out of 44 (44%) of patients who had CI-AKI also had ongoing congestive heart failure. No statistically significant association found neither with maximum allowable contrast (p = 0.009) nor ejection fraction (p = 0.099) with the development of CI-AKI.
Conclusion: In spite of the fact that no statistically significant relationship found between the percentage maximum contrast dose and the ejection fraction with the post-procedure CI-AKI, we heighten the essential of employing Maximum Allowable Contrast Dose (MACD) and ejection fraction in patients undergoing PCI to be used as a clinical guide to predict CI-AKI.
Introduction: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from damage to the tubulointerstitial tissue due to infection, trauma, or use of medication. It is clinically non-specific.
Case: A teenager with multiple trauma, hospitalised after lowering of level of conscience, and convulsion fits. While in the emergency ward, he received: midazolam, fentanyl and phenytoin. The cranial and abdominal CT scans were normal. He was stable with no signs of shock, trauma or infection; he developed oliguria and serum creatinine (Scr) 1.7mg/dL), 12 hours after the admission. After 36 hours, Scr levels were at 3.4mg/dL and urea at 55mg/dL. He had AKI according to pRIFLE (66.2% reduction in clearance). After other causes of AKI had been ruled out, the possibility of ATIN was raised; the phenytoin was suspended and pulse therapy, with methylprednisolone, was promptly initiated. After the first pulse, there was already a decline in the creatinine and urea readings; 48 hours later: Scr at 2.2mg/dL and urea at 86mg/dL. Thirty days after being discharged from hospital, the patient was in good health and had full restoration of kidney function.
Discussion: The singularity of this report relies on the rarity of ATIN secondary to the use of phenytoin and also in the importance of recognizing this aetiology as being one of the origins of AKI.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis allows the reversal of AKI through suppression of treatment with phenytoin and introduction of corticosteroid therapy, when necessary.
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious clinical complication in patients with severe malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of AKI in a large population of hospitalized patients with a primary admission diagnosis of malaria, and to investigate the robustness of the KDIGO criteria for predicting the need for dialysis, length of hospital stay and hospital mortality.
Results: We studied 695 consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnoses of malaria, in a 6 months period. AKI occurred in 86 (12.4%) patients (Stage 1 in 30.2%, Stage 2 in 23.3% and Stage 3 in 46.5%), and 19 (22.1%) patients required hemodialysis. No patient in the no-AKI or AKI Stage 1 groups (admission or maximum AKI Stage) required hemodialysis, and the requirement of hemodialysis was higher in patients with AKI Stage 2 (23.1%) and Stage 3 (42.4%). The length of hospital stay was longer (7.3±7.4 days vs 5.1±3.0 days; t=4.996, p<0.0001), and mortality was higher in patients who developed AKI than in those who did not (22,5% vs 2,5%; χ2=79.52; p<0.0001). Patients with AKI Stage 1, 2 and 3 had significantly higher hospital mortality (11%, 23% and 30%, respectively), compared with 2.5% for patients without AKI [odds ratio 5.2 (1.40-19.11, p=0.0331), 13.2 (4.24-41.06, p=0.0002), and 16.9 (7.26-36.65, p<0.0001)], respectively.
Conclusion: In a relatively large cohort of patients with falciparum malaria infection, the KDIGO criteria identified 12.4% with a diagnosis of AKI. The KDIGO classification was robust in this population for predicting the need for dialysis, length of hospital stay and hospital mortality. The results support the utilization of the KDIGO criteria in diagnosis and to predicting outcomes for patients with malarial AKI.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with balanced general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and fluid requirement, and on postoperative patient outcome.
Design: The study design was a retrospective data analysis of patients undergoing open hepatectomy at a single tertiary care center from May, 2013 to June, 2016. Patients undergoing hepatectomies were separated into two groups: patients not receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (either no epidural or epidural catheter not used intraoperatively) were designated the control group and patients receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (bolus and/or continuously). Patients were excluded if they underwent laparoscopic or non-elective procedures.
Results: 103 patients were included in the data analysis: Control n=14, Epidural = 89 patients. There were no major differences in demographics between groups. Epidural patients did not have higher requirements in intraoperative intravenous fluid administration, blood loss, or vasopressor use compared to control patients. Patients who received epidurals required less intravenous opioids with better post-operative pain scores initially and also on post-operative day 2. There were no differences in length of time to ambulation, or post-operative acute kidney injury amongst groups.
Conclusions: This study shows that patients undergoing hepatectomies using combined epidural and general anesthesia: 1) have no increased requirement for intraoperative crystalloid, colloid, or blood component therapy, 2) require lower total intravenous opioid dose, and 3) subjectively report better pain control. Therefore, intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia may be advantageous for ERAS protocol based oncological procedures.
Background: AngioJetTM rheolytic thrombectomy has been used in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome. Though not widely appreciated, it has the potential to cause intravascular haemolysis.
Report: A 37 year old man with no previous medical history presented to his GP with a three week history of progressive right upper limb swelling. Doppler imaging confirmed right upper limb DVT and CT scan demonstrated thoracic outlet syndrome. The patient underwent AngioJetTM thrombectomy followed by IV heparin infusion. Successful revascularisation of the occluded vein was achieved. Overnight he developed haematuria, which was initially attributed to IV heparin. Urinalysis however revealed no red cells or casts. Apart from an Hb drop from 134 to 117 his blood profile and blood film showed no abnormality. He subsequently developed progressive oliguria with marked oedema and acute kidney injury (AKI). His creatinine peaked at 1070umol/l at 96 hours post procedure and he was started on intermittent dialysis. He remained dialysis dependent for 6 days. Ultrasound imaging excluded urinary obstruction. Autoimmune and vasculitic serology were negative. Intravascular haemolysis and haemoglobinuria was confirmed by raised LDH (1714u/L) and low haptoglobin (<0.1units). Direct Coomb’s test, Cold agglutinin test and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria screen were negative. The patient’s renal function normalised over 3 months.
Conclusions: The likely cause of this man’s AKI is heme pigment nephropathy from intra-vascular haemolysis. Increased awareness of this condition may allow early identification and intervention to reduce the risk of renal injury from AngioJetTM associated haemolysis.
Background and objectives: New AKI biomarkers (on the top of it NGAL biomarker) have demonstrated better performance for prediction of AKI in critically ill patients with heterogeneous illness. Renal angina index was recently reported to enhance prediction of severe AKI at the time of intensive care unit admission. This study tested the hypothesis that incorporation of uNGAL in patients with renal angina improves the prediction of severe AKI.
Design, setting, participants & measurements: In our study 53critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit in Zagazig university hospital, Measurement of urine neutrophil gelatinase– associated lipocalin (uNGAL) was determined individually by ELISA kit and in combination with the RAI which is calculated in each critically ill child for severe AKI. Statistical analysis was done for these data.
Results: Individual uNGAL demonstrated marginal discrimination for severe AKI (area under curve [AUC]: NGAL, 0.877), little higher than prediction by RAI (AUC=0.847). Incorporation of uNGAL significantly added to the renal angina index AKI prediction (AUC=0.847, increased to 0.893).
Conclusion: This study shows that incorporation of uNGAL into the RAI improves detection ability of severe AKI in critically ill children.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a form of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), is a rare disease with an often-occult presentation. It is more common in 4th and 5th decades of life but can be seen in all ages.
This case report details a 76-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain, generalized weakness, and malaise, who was found to have pulmonary nodules on chest imaging. Biopsy of the lung nodule showed organizing pneumonia. Initially, antibiotics were used to treat the patient. However, she developed acute renal failure a few days after presentation and found to have positive serum C-ANCA as well as elevated ANCA-PR3 serologies. A subsequent kidney biopsy demonstrated pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis that was consistent with GPA and the patient was started immediately on combination immunosuppressive therapy, plasmapheresis, and hemodialysis.
GPA’s clinical and radiological presentation can mimic other common conditions such as pneumonia, malignancy, bacterial sinusitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and urinary tract infection. Because of this, a high level of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and treatment to alter the high mortality rate in this disease entity. All forms of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) should be in the differential diagnosis for all patients presenting with multiorgan system involvement particularly in individuals with pulmonary and renal manifesations.
Nehomar Pajaro Galvis*, Jorge Rico-Fontalvo, Rodrigo Daza-Arnedo, Maria Ximena Cardona-Blanco, Emilio Abuabara-Franco, Victor Leal-Martínez, Jose Cabrales-Juan, José Correa-Guerrero, José Bohórquez-Rivero, José Sáenz-López, José Restom-Arrieta, Milton Rivera-Moreno, Estefany Rivera-Moreno, Maria Monterrosa-Robles, Alonso Pomares-Lara, Dayana Ayola-Rosales and Ana Alonso-Henriquez
Acute kidney injury is a common condition associated with high morbidity and short-term mortality. Its pathophysiology varies according to the numerous conditions associated with its genesis. Biomarkers allow detecting changes at the level of kidney function; therefore, they play an important role in the prevention, early diagnosis, therapeutic response and prognosis of acute kidney injury. The search for biomarkers for acute kidney injury began over 15 years ago; initially, only serum creatinine was available for diagnosis. However, throughout history, great advances have been made in research, which have allowed the finding of new biomarkers in order to improve the health and quality of life of patients. A narrative review of the literature is carried out on the basis of available scientific evidence to clarify the role and importance of biomarkers in the context of acute renal injury.
Emilio Rey-Vela, Jesús Muñoz, Rodrigo Daza-Arnedo, Rodrigo Daza-Arnedo, Katherin Portela-Buelvas, Nehomar Pájaro-Galvis*, Víctor Leal-Martínez, Emilio Abuabara-Franco, José Cabrales-Juan, Leonardo Marín, Lucas Daza, Samuel Cuadro, Emir Ortiz, María Raad-Sarabia, Cesar Ferrer, Alejandra Prada, Greisy González, Elkin Mendoza, Klearly Tinoco, Jorge Camacho, Joel Ortega, Carlos Tobón, Juan Montes, Jorge Coronado, Luis Salgado-Montiel, José Correa, Fabio Salas, Amilkar Almanza-Hurtado and Miguel Aguilar-Schorborg
Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications associated with severe COVID-19 infection, and it can present in up to 20% to 40% of the cases; of these, approximately 20% will require renal replacement therapy (RRT).
Objective: To establish clinical and laboratory characteristics in a group of patients from Colombia with COVID-19 infection and AKI that received intermittent and prolonged RRT with the GENIUS® 90 technology in between March and July 2020.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Results: 78.9% of participants were men and 21.1% were women. The main comorbidities were the following: Hypertension (65.3%), diabetes mellitus (38.9%), obesity (26.3%), cancer (5.3%), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.6%), cardiovascular disease (23.2%), active smoking (11.6%). 33.7% had chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the average serum creatinine on admission was 4.4 mg/dl.
The following inflammatory markers were elevated: C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer and ferritin (20.3 mg/dl, 931mcg/l and 1174 ng/ml, respectively). 63.5% of patients underwent sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) (6 to 12 hours) and the rest of the patients (36.35%) underwent conventional hemodialysis (less than 4 hours). The mortality of the total patient sample was 36.9%, lower in patients with CKD than in patients with no previous renal disease history (18.7% and 40.1%, respectively).
Conclusion: Renal complications are frequent in patients with severe COVID-19. The development of AKI could be an isolated prognostic marker associated with an increase in mortality in patients with COVID-19, and one of the options is intermittent and prolonged RRT with the GENIUS® 90 system.
A novel coronavirus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a high rate of human-to-human transmission has emerged, resulting in a worldwide public health crisis of catastrophic proportions. Common initial symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, cough, fatigue, myalgia, and shortness of breath. Complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury, and secondary infections [1,2]. There have been reports of patients infected with COVID-19 who either presented with muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis or developed muscle damage as a late complication during hospitalization [3-8].
Severe Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common, serious problem affecting critically ill children that lacks effective treatment options. Currently, there are no treatment options for AKI other than supportive care. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is employed to reduce Fluid Overload (FO) burden and treat metabolic disturbances in AKI. Identifying patients upon admission who may require CRRT has potential clinical care implications. The aim of this study was to determine if the RAI had diagnostic capabilities to identify patients who would require CRRT.
The analytic cohort consisted of patients who required CRRT and illness severity score matched controls who did not require CRRT at a single center. Patients who required CRRT had higher mortality rates, length of stay, and use of ventilatory and inotropic support. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) assessed and compared the discriminatory accuracy of three scores: 1) the renal angina index (RAI), 2) serum-creatinine (sCr) based AKI on day 0 and 3) modified RAI created with an additional RAI injury tranche that corresponded to severe stage 3 AKI sCr elevation.
Compared to Day0AKI (AUC 0.78, 0.70-0.87; sensitivity 0.63, 0.45-0.79; specificity 0.93, 0.870.97) and RAI (AUC 0.76, 0.69-0.82; sensitivity 0.94, 0.81-0.99; specificity 0.57, 0.47-0.66), the modified RAI had the highest AUC (0.79; 0.72-0.85) with a high sensitivity (0.91; 0.77-0.98) and moderate specificity (0.65; 0.56-0.75) for prediction of CRRT requirements. As a more accurate tool for discriminating patients in need of CRRT, a modified RAI has numerous potential implications. Identifying patients who ultimately require CRRT at an earlier timepoint may influence timing of CRRT initiation in an attempt to avoid further FO, or may influence nephrotoxin administration. The diagnostic capabilities of the modified RAI may be refined by the addition of urinary biomarkers. These findings should be validated in a larger cohort.
Oxalate nephropathy due to Hyperoxaluria and elevated serum oxalate level is a well-known cause for interstitial fibrosis, and ESRD. Conditions associated with high serum Oxalate, should be considered as a possible contributing factor for a patient’s tubular injury.
Well known cause for Hyperoxaluria including enteric Hyperoxaluria (due to gastric bypass, chronic pancreatitis, small Bowel resection, or malabsorption, as well as depletion of enteric oxalate-degrading bacteria [e.g., Oxalobacter). Other known causes of oxalate nephropathy include primary Hyperoxaluria, ethylene glycol intoxication, vitamin B6 deficiency, excessive ingestion of vitamin C or dietary substances rich in oxalic acid, aspergillosis, prolonged renal failure and various drugs (e.g., Known medications to cause Oxalate Nephropathy are: Orlistat, Praxilene, COX-2 inhibitors).
Unusual presentation with Acute Kidney Injury with incidental finding of high serum Oxalate in a patient with a known CKD stage III, recently started on Polyethelene Glycol to treat his constipation.
Background: There is enough evidence to suggest that vancomycin increases the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) but the exact mechanism is not well understood. This study aims to understand the incidence of vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) among hospitalized patients and to identify the risk factors for VA-AKI.
Methods: Patients aged 18 and above who received a minimum of 24 hours of intravenous vancomycin and who had serial creatinine measurements over a 13-month period were identified through electronic records. Patients with pre-existing AKI, or eGFR of less than 30ml/min, and patients with end stage kidney disease were excluded. Results were analyzed using t-test and Fisher’s test. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors for VA-AKI.
Results: From the 598 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 70 developed AKI. Compared to those without AKI, patients with VA-AKI had higher mean serum vancomycin trough levels (22.6 mg/L vs. 14.6 mg/L), and a statistically significant longer duration of vancomycin use (6.7 vs. 5.2 days). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum vancomycin level of > 20 mg/L was associated with a six-fold increase in odds of VA-AKI when compared to those with vancomycin levels < 15 mg/L. The presence of hypotension, iodinated contrast use, and concomitant use of piperacillin-tazobactam were all associated with increased odds of VA-AKI.
Conclusion: The incidence of VA-AKI in hospitalized patients with eGFR > 30 ml/min was 11.7%. Serum vancomycin levels of > 20 mg/L, hypotension and administration of iodinated contrast significantly increased the risk of VA-AKI. Piperacillin-tazobactam, when used with vancomycin, was noted to be an independent predictor of AKI, regardless of serum vancomycin trough levels, prompting a reevaluation of the safety of this widespread practice as empiric therapy. Close monitoring of kidney function, avoiding high serum vancomycin levels, maintaining hemodynamic stability, and avoiding unnecessary use of iodinated contrast seem to be essential for the prevention of VA-AKI.
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Effective preventative and therapeutic treatments remain to be produced. We aim to determine the association between blood glucose and mortality in critical patients with AKI.
Method: This cohort study included 18,703 patients with AKI. The exposure of interest was baseline blood glucose. The outcome was 30-day mortality. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and smooth curve fitting were adopted to assess the independent association between blood glucose and 30-day mortality.
Results: We identified 18,703 consecutive individuals with AKI. The average age of the participants was 66.8 ± 16.0 years, and about 42.7% of them were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 16.9%. Through the multivariate COX regression model and smooth curve fitting, we observed that the correlation between blood glucose and 30-day mortality is nonlinear. An inflection point was found at about 5.93 mmol/L. On the left side of inflection point, the effect size was 0.81 (HR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.89, p < 0.001). On the right side of inflection point, the effect size was 1.02 (HR: 1.02,95% CI 1.01-1.03, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Our study suggested that, among patients with AKI, there was a nonlinearity relationship between blood glucose and mortality in patients with AKI. The optimal of blood glucose associated with the lowest risk of 30-day mortality was around 5.93 mmol/L.
Anas Diab*, Parravani Anthony, Hollie Berryman and Kareem Diab
Published on: 14th July, 2021
Atheroembolic disease (AED), or Cholesterol Crystals Embolism, is a systemic disease presented as a complication of severe atherosclerosis , where older age, male sex, diabetes hypercholesterolemia, smoking and hypertension , are the main risk factors for the development of Atherosclerosis, it is known that spontaneous atherosclerotic renal disease is rare in the absence of any vascular intervention , and in the absence of anticoagulant , or the absence of calcified aorta, with the most common presentation of the disease is subacute kidney injury progress into renal dysfunction occurs in like a staircase pattern and the renal dysfunction is usually observed several weeks after a possible intervention, caused by dislodging the micro cholesterol plaques from a major artery, and start showering multiple organs causing micro and macro embolic phenomena.
In our case, we report acute kidney injury on a previously stable kidney disease in a female with diabetes mellitus type 2 presented with severe anemia, dyspnea, massive fluid overload with bilateral pleural effusion, patient had a history of multiple IV contrast exposures, with peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD), required amputation of right below the knee amputation, presented during the COVID-19 pandemic, found with nephrotic syndrome, a kidney biopsy has shown cholesterol crystal embolization compatible with Athero-embolic Disease with severe Diabetic Nephropathy.
The commonest etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) is Sepsis that results in an escalation of morbidity and mortality in the hospital intensive care units. Existentially, the therapy of septic AKI rather than being definitive or curative is just supportive, without tackling the pathophysiology. Usually, Sepsis gets correlated with systemic inflammation, along with the escalated generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular superoxide. Simultaneously liberation of nitric oxide (NO) subsequently reacts with the superoxide, thus, resulting in the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), that is mostly peroxynitrite. This sepsis stimulated generation of ROS in addition to RNS might cause a reduction in the bioavailability of NO that modulates microcirculation aberrations, localized tissue hypoxia as well as mitochondrial impairment, thus starting a vicious cycle of cellular damage which results in AKI. Here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine PubMed, Google scholar; Web of science; Embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the MeSH terms like septic AKI; ROS; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate(NADPH)oxidase complex; Oxidative stress; Renal medullary hypoxia; Hypoxia inducible factor1; hypoxia responsive enhancer A; mitochondrial impairment; Intrarenal oxygenation; urinary oxygenation; erythropoietin gene; RRT; NAC; Vitamin C from 1950 to 2021 till date. We found a total of 6500 articles out of which we selected 110 articles for this review. No meta-analysis was done. Thus here we detail the different sources of ROS, at the tie of sepsis, besides their pathophysiological crosstalk with the immune system, microcirculation as well as mitochondria that can result in the generation of AKI. Furthermore, we detail the therapeutic utility of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), besides the reasons for its success in ovine as well as porcine models of AKI. Moreover, we discuss preclinical along with clinical for evaluation of Vitamin C’s antioxidant effects as well as pleiotropic effects as a stress hormone that might aid in abrogation of septic AKI.
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is defined as an abrupt decrease in kidney function within hours to days and is caused by multiple factors. Community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI) is common in developing countries, and it is crucial to bring awareness about its epidemiology and simple preventive strategies that can tackle this potentially serious complication. Infections, use of over-the-counter medicines, traditional herbal remedies, animal (and insect) bites, and pregnancy-related complications are common causes of CA-AKI in developing countries. The incidence of vector-borne disease-related AKI and obstetric causes of AKI have decreased following better public health policies in most developing countries. Appropriate fluid management is critical in AKI, both in terms of prevention of development and progression of AKI. Timely initiation and de-escalation of fluid therapy are both equally important. Kidney replacement therapy (KRT) is indicated when AKI progresses to stage 3 and/or patients develop refractory fluid overload or electrolyte imbalances and/or uremic complications. Hemodialysis is the most common modality of KRT in adults, whereas peritoneal dialysis is the dominant modality in small children. Convective renal replacement therapy, such as hemofiltration, is increasingly used in critically sick patients with AKI and hemodynamic instability. To summarize, CA-AKI is a common, serious, and often preventable complication of certain conditions acquired in the community, and is, therefore, a matter of utmost concern from the public health perspective.
Charles Kangitsi Kahindo, Olivier Mukuku*, Stanis Okitotsho Wembonyama and Zacharie Kibendelwa Tsongo
Published on: 6th April, 2022
Background: Assessment of knowledge of acute kidney injury (AKI) among healthcare workers (HCWs) is necessary to identify areas of deficiency and key topics to focus on while organizing educational programs to improve AKI care. The objective of this study was to assess AKI knowledge and practice among health care providers in North Kivu province, the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in six public hospitals in North Kivu province using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 158 HCWs completed the survey, among them 66 (41.78%) were physicians. The mean age of respondents was 36.07 ± 10.16 years and the male gender was 56.33%. Only 12 (7.59%) of the respondents had a good knowledge of the definition and classification of AKI. The respondents’ mean scores were 6.76 out of a total of 18 about risk factors for AKI and 6.29 out of a total of 11 with regard to nephrotoxic drugs. Regarding practices, 28.48% of the respondents assess the risk of AKI in their patients in their daily practices; 31.65% report AKI in the patients’ medical history, and 33.54% call on a nephrologist specialist to get specialized advice. Conclusion: This study found considerable gaps in knowledge and practice regarding AKI among most of HCWs in North Kivu province.
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