Acute pancreatitis

Hypertriglyceridemia induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: Learning experiences and challenges of a Case report

Published on: 14th May, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8163913407

Hyperglyceridemia induced pancreatitis in pregnancy accounts for 4% of all cases of acute pancreatitis. Though rare, hypertriglyceridemia induced pancreatitis may lead to fatal maternal and fetal complications, even maternal death. Its management during pregnancy remains a challenge for many physicians. Management options are limited in pregnancy. In the refractory cases, management options and timing of delivery is debatable. Here we report a case of hyperglyceridemia induced pancreatitis and the challenges faced in the management.
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The influence of Infliximab on the development of Experimental Pancreatitis

Published on: 25th August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317596410

Aim: To identify the possibility of correction of motor function of the gastro-intestinal tract in experimental pancreatitis with the administration of infliximab. Material and methods: Pancreatitis was modeled by the administration of picrylsulfonic acid retrogradely into the pancreatic duct of rat (n=5) and 4 animals were control. Electromyogram (EMG) of the pancreatic duct was monitored immediately after the administration of picrylsulfonic acid and on the 15th day of pancreatitis simulation before and after the administration of infliximab. The morphological investigation of pancreas was conducted on the 15th day of development of pancreatitis and on the 15th day of treatment of pancreatitis with infliximab. Results: Infliximab restores the motor function of pancreatic duct and structure of pancreas during acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: Protective action of infliximab during acute pancreatitis was shown.
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Severe hypertriglycerdemia in pregnancy

Published on: 12th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8932530930

31 year old female presented with abdominal pain and respiratory distress in the third trimester of her second pregnancy. Her blood workup revealed a lipemic sample (Figure 1) due to markedly elevated serum triglycerides of 8178 mg/dl (Glycerol Phosphate Oxidase method). Total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein were elevated at 1701 mg/dl and 788 mg/dl respectively. There was no family history of lipid disorders. Diagnosis was consistent with gestational hypertriglyceridemia with acute pancreatitis (Serum Amylase-50 U/L, Serum Lipase- 96 U/L), though genetic tests to rule out pre-existing primary hypertriglyceridemia was not feasible. In view of the life threatening condition, she was initiated on Insulin-Dextrose infusion and offered one session of Plasma Exchange. Figures 2,3 depict membrane plasma separation with the obtained effluent as lipemic plasma. Her serum triglycerides showed a declining trend and was discharged in good health (serum triglycerides at discharge-651 mg/dl). 
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Aggressive hydration in early resuscitation phase does not provide mortality benefit in acute pancreatitis

Published on: 5th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8457482467

Introduction: Fluid management is the cornerstone of treatment for acute pancreatitis (AP), but the proper rate and volume is still controversial. We aim to evaluate the role of aggressive hydration in AP patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 279 hospitalized patients of AP. Severity was determined by the Revised Atlanta classification; validated clinical scores were also calculated based on clinical information upon presentation. We extracted amount of fluid received by at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after presentation. Aggressive hydration was defined as amount higher than 10 ml/kg bolus followed by infusion at 1.5 ml/kg/h. After direct comparison between aggressive versus non-aggressive hydration groups, propensity-score match was performed to control severity, APACHE II and BISAP score. Post-match comparison as well as a subgroup comparison were conducted. Results: At 24 hours, 125 (44.8%) patients received aggressive hydration averaged at 5.1 L (2-18 L), while 154 (55.2%) patients received non-aggressive hydration averaged at 2.5 L. Post-match comparison showed that aggressive hydration group had longer hospital stay (MAP: 5.3 vs 4.5, p = 0.145, MSAP/SAP: 8.3 vs 4.8 d, p = 0.007), and higher rate of intensive care unit admission (mild: 12.9% vs 4.4%, p = 0.042, moderately severe or severe: 36.8% vs 3.1%, p = 0.001), while showed no difference in rate of mortality or re-admission by 1 year. In patients who presented without organ failure, aggressive hydration did not change the rate of development of organ failure (14.1% vs 12.5%, p = 0.731), but the aggressive hydration group had a trend towards longer hospital stay (5.5 vs 4.6 d, p = 0.083) and higher rate of MICU admission (12.1% vs 4.8%, p = 0.051)
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Acute pancreatitis with uncommon presentation of myocardial infarction

Published on: 21st May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8616347855

Acute pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that may be accompanied by a systemic inflammatory response which results in impairment of the functioning of various organs, systems. Pancreatitis associated vascular complications very often cause morbidity and mortality. There are various cardiovascular complications like shock, hypovolemia, pericardial effusion, and sometimes ST–T changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) presenting as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Acute myocardial infarction complicating acute pancreatitis has rarely been studied and the exact process of myocardial injury still remains unclear. We here report a case of Acute Pancreatitis associated with acute myocardial Infarction.
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Clinical significance of Urinary Amylase in Acute Pancreatitis

Published on: 27th June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317596310

Acute pancreatitis forms a major bulk of our inpatient admission due to gall stone disease. Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis remains a challenge even now. Serum amylase remains the most commonly used biochemical marker for its diagnosis but its sensitivity can be reduced by late presentation, hyper-triglyceridemia and chronic alcoholism. We conducted a study to determine the levels of serum and urinary amylase in patients with acute pancreatitis and compared their sensitivity and correlation with CT findings vis-à-vis the severity of the disease. The study was taken as a post graduate research model in the Post graduate Department of General and Minimal Access Surgery, Govt. Medical College Srinagar, J&K, India 2014-2016 and submitted for the award of masters in General Surgery. A total number of 150 patients were enrolled in the studies which were admitted in our unit as acute pancreatitis. 73 (48.7%) belonged to the age group of 30-44 years, 15(10%) patients aged >60 years with 86 (57.3%) males and 64 (42.7%) females. We had 81 (54%) patients with biliary tract diseases, followed by 21 (14%) patients with worm induced, 20 (13.3%) had hyperlipidaemia and only 4 (2.7%) patients had post ERCP etiology. Tenderness in epigastrium was the presenting sign in 111 (74%), followed by chest signs in 25 (16.7%) patients, diffuse tenderness in 19 (12.7%), icterus in 11 (7.3%), low grade fever in 9 (6%) patients, shock in 5 (3.3%). Diabetes mellitus as a comorbidity was observed in 48 (32%) patients followed by hypothyroidism 37 (24.7%) patients. Hypertension was seen in 31 (20.7%) patients, COPD in 19 (12.7%) patients and obesity in 13 (8.7%) patients. Twenty two (14.7%) needed ICU admission; while as 128 (85.3%) were managed in the general ward. All the enrolled patients in our study were managed conservatively. Out of a total of 150 patients, 148 (98.7%) survived while as only 2 (1.3%) of our patients expired. At the time of admission in the hospital, 120 (80%) patients had serum amylase level of >450 U/L, 19 (12.7%) patients had 150-450 U/L levels while as 11 (7.3%) patients had <150 U/L serum amylase levels. CT has been shown to yield an early overall detection rate of 90% with close to 100% sensitivity after 4 days for pancreatic gland necrosis. The correlation of urinary amylase with the CECT Severity Scoring in a patient of acute pancreatitis is still ambiguous.
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Acute necrotising pancreatitis masquerading as psoas abscess: A report of two cases

Published on: 15th July, 2020

Acute pancreatitis is commonly diagnosed clinically, with its classical presentation of upper abdominal pain, backed by raised serum levels of enzymes amylase and lipase. However, unusual presentation of this common surgical emergency as a psoas abscess is a rare finding which can lead to missed diagnosis with a fatal outcome. We present here two such cases of acute necrotising pancreatitis masquerading as psoas abscess, with no classical clinical symptoms and only mildly raised levels of serum amylase and lipase. The region of pancreas involved by necrosis influenced the site of presentation of the psoas abscess. In the first case, acute necrotising pancreatitis involving head and neck of pancreas presented as psoas abscess presenting in the right lumbar region, while the left side collection due to pancreatitis involving body and tail of pancreas manifested as an abscess in left flank. While evaluating the aetiology of a psoas abscess, a differential diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis should be kept as a possibility.
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A rare case of acute necrotising pancreatitis in a paediatric patient

Published on: 8th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8848126015

The diagnosis of acute necrotising pancreatitis is a rare event in the Paediatric Emergency Department (ED). We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a paediatric patient, diagnosed in our ED, a tertiary level paediatric hospital. This child presented with vague symptoms of constipation, abdominal pain and back pain, and on clinical examination had a distended abdomen with peritonism. She rapidly deteriorated and needed aggressive fluid resuscitation in the ED for treatment of septic shock. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) was only considered once elevated amylase levels were apparent. Whilst AP is an important differential diagnosis in a patient who is presenting with acute abdominal symptoms, the diagnosis in children in particular is seldom and thus easily overlooked in the previously healthy child.
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SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated detrimental effects on the various human organs

Published on: 26th October, 2021

The SARS-Cov-2 virus was firstly identified in Wuhan, China and caused catastrophic destruction all over the world. COVID-19 virus primarily effects lungs of its hosts and impairs it in number of ways. It can also damage multiple organs like Heart, kidney, endocrine glands, skin, brain and several others. Kidneys are also damaged to a great extent. In Heart it can cause acute coronary syndrome, Heart failure, Myocardial infarction. SARS-CoV-2 effect brain especially psychologically. It also causes serious lymphocyte apoptosis. It also neutralizes human spleen and lymph nodes. SARS-CoC-2 can be harmful for those having already liver diseases. Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 has a direct impact on endocrine glands. It is responsible for the various injurious changes in hormones, causes various diseases like acute pancreatitis, decrease in GH, hypoparathyroidism etc. and lead to cause tissues damage in glands. It also some minor effects on nose, and respiratory pathways. It also has some minor effects on eyes and ears whereas it causes several devastations in GIT.
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