Adipose tissue

Stemness of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Published on: 29th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325064423

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types including chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. MSCs reside in bone marrow, adipose tissues, cord blood, peripheral blood, placenta, Wharton’s jelly, fetal liver and lung among others. MSCs represent one of the most promising stem cells for regenerative medicine due to their multipotency, immunoprivileged properties and easy expansion in vitro. So far, MSCs are already in various phases of clinical application [1-4].
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Autologous grafts in radiotherapy received breast cancer patients

Published on: 9th February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347013999

German surgeon, Vincenz Czerny, transplanted a patient’s own lipoma located in the hip to it’s breast after gland excision due to mastitis in 1895. Dr. Vincenza reported that for at least a year he didnt observe any problem on the operated breast [1]. Injection of adipose tissue to the breast has been used in breast cancer patients during breast reconstruction and lumpectomy. And in cases of revision autologous tissues are used for reconstruction. In clinical practice, many breast cancer patients apply to the clinics mostly after radiotherapy for reconstruction. Rigotti et al used purified autologous lipoaspirates in breast cancer patients with late term complications of radiation therapy and observed increase in neovascularization and wound healing [2]. Panettiere and colleagues compared aesthetic and functional features of fat grafts in radiotherapy received breast cancer patients and control group. In the fat graft group, all clinical symptoms and aesthetic scores were significantly higher than the control group [3]. In plastic surgery especially after the surgical treatment of breast cancer, prosthetic techniques, various autologous flaps or combinations of both are performed for breast reconstruction. Particularly breast reconstructions following adjuvant radiotherapy have less success rates due to adverse effects of radiotherapy [4-10]. There are reports showing reduced complications rates with use of fat grafts before and after breast reconstruction with prosthesis in patients received radiotherapy after lumpectomy or mastectomy. With that, in patients receiving radiotherapy after fat grafting, local complications such as fat necrosis, infection can be seen more [3,11]. It was reported that adipocytes may had paracrine and endocrine interactions with tumor cells and stromal elements [12]. The fat grafts used in breast cancer were thought to cause local recurrence, distant metastasis or development of new cancers; there was no relationship in the clinical series. There is aromatase activity in the adipose tissue. Thus, fat tissue is the main source of post-menopausal estrogen hormone. Tumor cells and surrounding tissue were found to be higher in aromatase activity. Therefore, when fat tissue is injected subcutaneous or under the gland rather than into the parenchyma local recurrence risk is low [2]. When fat tissue is injected to breast, a good physical examination and mammography should be performed. After fat injection, sometimes calcifications are formed as a result of undergoing necrosis and they interfere with malignancy. Therefore before and after the procedure, mammography must be taken for comparison and existing and or newly developed calcifications should be determined.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Role of toll-like receptors and their ligands in adipocyte secretion

Published on: 8th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9031345560

Background: Adipose tissue is one of the main sites of energy homeostasis that regulates whole body metabolism with the help of adipokines. Disruption in its proper functioning results in adipose tissue remodeling (primarily hypertrophy and hyperplasia) which directly influences the secretion of said adipokines. Obesity characterized as chronic low-grade inflammation of the adipose tissue is one such condition that has far reaching effects on whole body metabolism. Inflammation in turn results in immune cells infiltrating into the tissue and further promoting adipocyte dysfunction. Purpose: In our study we explored this adipose tissue-innate immunity axis by differentiating adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) into white and beige adipocytes. We further stimulated our cultures with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, or meteorin-like, glial cell differentiation regulator (METRNL) to trigger an inflammatory response. We then evaluated Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA expression and secretion of interleukin (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in these cultures. Results: We found that TLR2 is the highest expressed receptor in adipocytes. Further, LPS and METRNL are strong activators of TLR2 in white and beigeBMP7(-) adipocytes. TLR4 was not significantly expressed in any of our cultures despite LPS stimulation. TLR9 expression is upregulated in ADSCs upon LPS and METRNL stimulation. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion is increased upon LPS stimulation in white adipocytes. METRNL activates both IL-6 and IL-8 expression in adipocyte cultures. Lastly, BDNF and NGF is secreted by all adipocyte cultures with beigeBMP7(-) and beigeBMP7(+) secreting slightly higher amounts in comparison to white adipocytes. Conclusion: ADSCs and adipocytes alike are capable of expressing TLRs, but white adipocytes remain the highest expressing in both control and stimulated cultures. TLR2 is highly expressed in white and beige adipocytes whereas TLR4 showed no significant expression. LPS and METRNL trigger IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in adipocytes. Products of white adipocyte “browning” are capable of secreting higher amounts of BDNF and NGF in comparison to white adipocytes.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Brown fat tissue: Therapeutic potential for insulin resistance, new hopes for tomorrow

Published on: 14th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8870086504

The well recognized white adipose tissue is an endocrinal organ secreting various hormones and this article simply indicates to the physiologic concepts brown fat tissues (BAT) which are extremely active endocrine organs and play various metabolic active roles in intermediate metabolism. The physiologic function of Brown adipose tissues contributes to energy-producing parts of the cell. Its amount is rare up to approximately one hundred and thirty gram and implies important characteristics for mammals. An increase in energy expenditure could be an aim by activation of BAT, seems futurity to reduce body weight that needs a vast majority of fundamental research to facilitate its occurrence [1]. Brown fat tissue generates heat and has valuable importance for human metabolism [2,3]. Brown fat tissue is decreased in overweight and obese people and possibly activating brown fat tissue might help for reducing weight and weight-related metabolic disorders like insulin resistance.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Indian spices and Caffeine treatment for Obesity and Cardiovascular disease

Published on: 31st January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355979500

The global obesity epidemic that was previously reported [1,2] is now to worsen with obesity to double in 73 countries around the world [3,4]. Improving the health of obese individuals by dietary restriction, anti-obese foods and increased physical activity [1] has not reduced the global obesity epidemic. Obesity is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [5,6] with complications relevant to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease [7]. Appetite control has become critical to endocrinology and metabolism with the apelinergic pathway and nuclear receptor Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) now connected to the endocrine system [8] and critical to metabolism. The apelin-Sirt 1 interaction involves nitric oxide (NO) [9] that is now considered as the defect [10] in the interaction between the peptide apelin and calorie sensitive gene Sirt 1 involved in NO imbalances in the adipose tissue, liver and the brain.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

The blubbery protrusions: Lipoma arborescens

Published on: 15th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8870468711

Preface Lipoma arborescens is an exceptional condition comprised of frond-like excrescences of mature adipose tissue. The condition was originally described by Albert Hoffa in 1904 with characteristic morphology of macroscopic, villous, frond- like excrescences recapitulating a tree-like appearance, as denominated by the term “arborescens” [1]. Lipoma arborescens is additionally designated as “diffuse articular lipomatosis”, “villous lipomatous proliferation of synovial membrane” or “diffuse lipoma of joint”. The essentially benign condition appears within large joints and typically exhibits adipose tissue infiltration of sub-synovial connective tissue. Synovial sheaths of tendons are infrequently incriminated [1,2].
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

The role of genetic mutations in genes LMNA, PPARG, PLIN1, AKT2, CIDEC in Köbberling–Dunnigan Syndrome

Published on: 22nd February, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8022277557

Köbberling-Dunnigan syndrome, also known as partial familial lipodystrophy, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal distribution of adipose tissues. Many people with Köbberling-Dunnigan syndrome develop insulin resistance, a condition in which body tissues cannot adequately respond to insulin hormone. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate the level of your blood glucose. Köbberling-Dunnigan syndrome can be due to mutations in several different genes. However, type 2 Köbberling-Dunnigan syndrome is caused by the mutation of the LMNA gene, which is located on the long arm of chromosome 1 as 1q22.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Age-related changes in cell yield and viability of feline Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem (fAD-MSCs)

Published on: 1st April, 2022

In the present study, omental adipose tissue was collected from, the animals that underwent ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy, surgical procedures, at the age of seven months to 11/2 years of age groups. The sample was digested with 0.1% (W/V) collagenase type I and transferred to a beaker with a magnetic stirrer and kept in a stirrer with 600 rpm at 37 °C for 30 minutes. The viability of the cell was evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion method using a hemocytometer. Trypan blue had a high affinity to nuclear DNA, which traverse the member in a dead cell and dye it blue. In the present study, the cell yield of fAD-MSCs was 8.15 ± 0.68, 6.55 ± 0.26, 4.85 ± 0.42, 3.90 ± 0.34, and 3.51 ± 0.43 in different age groups viz., 7,8,9 month 1 and 1½ year respectively. In younger age groups, cell yield and viability percentage were more than in animals of higher age groups. In the younger age group, stem cells proliferation status is considered potent for therapeutic application.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat