The harmattan season, which is a period characterized by low temperature, dry air and increased air pollution leads to widespread airborne disease and exacerbation of pre-existing conditions, should be recognized as a period of potential risk of high COVID-19 infection rates. This period also coincides with the Christmas season which comes with so many festivities and can become a COVID-19 super-spreader. With many Nigerians now abandoning the non-pharmaceutical protection measures against COVID-19, the harmattan season and the forthcoming spike in social gatherings might usher in the second wave of the virus which can potentially be more catastrophic. There is need for the Nigerian government to start planning and instituting new protection measures and guidelines for safe Christmas celebration while also educating and encouraging the populace to adopt the protection measures recommended by experts.
It is estimated that even up to 30% of buildings worldwide may be the subject of complaints connected with the quality of indoor air. Potential sources of air pollution can be both organic and inorganic particles. This article focuses on biological air pollutants from living and dead biological sources, especially those connected with fungi. Fungi found in the indoor air of domestic dwellings in a large extent are similar in their species composition to those found on the outside of the building. Microorganisms enters into the buildings during the airing of rooms or through the different slots and can develop on the surfaces of various materials. Intensively develops in a poorly ventilated, damp and dusty environments. For this reason the exposure to the indoor air pollution might be stranger for inhabitants than the expose to the impurities of the outdoor air. Presence of fungi in domestic dwellings can be very danger because of most often is associated with allergic reactions, mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds or even with fungal infections.
Before actual COVID-19 pandemia coronavirus was not so dangerous like now.
In December 2019 - January 2020 in Wuhan first and then in other places this coronavirus was responsible of a first wave of severe pulmonitis responsible of many deaths.
Wuhan and other region involved first was high level air polluted and industrial area.
New COVID-19 variant in last part of 2020 and in first month of 2021 was responsible of great diffusion of this pandemic disease.
UK, South Africa and brasilian new variant show higher diffusion then the first wave of COVID-19.
Aim of this work is to analyze relationship with air pollution and the possibility that mutagen substantia inside of this microenvironment can produce new variant trough an genetic pressure process.
RNA viruses are normally subjected by natural mutation but some phenomena can contribute to accelerate this process and their airborne – aeresols microenvironment is relevant.
Some air pollutants are recognized as mutagen factors by literature.
As per report of WHO  (World Health Organization), air pollution (ambient/outdoor and household/indoor air pollution) kills an estimated seven million people worldwide every year largely as a result of increased mortality from stroke, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute respiratory infections. Data of WHO shows that 9 out of 10 people breathe air containing high levels of pollutants. World Health Organization is working with countries to monitor air pollution and improve air quality. From smog hanging over cities to smoke inside the home, air pollution poses a major threat to health and climate. More than 80% of people living in urban areas and around 91% of the world’s population live in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limits, with developing and under-developed countries suffering from the highest exposures, both indoors and outdoors . While outdoor air pollution comes from the motor vehicles, burning of fossil fuels and other industrialization activities, indoor air pollution is the result of tobacco smoke and burning fuel for cooking & heating. Furniture and construction materials also emit such pollutants. Both outdoor and indoor air pollution are harmful to the human health.
Hypertension is a complex disorder involving multiple organ systems and the primarily modifiable risk factor for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death among both men and women in the World. Although both men and women develop hypertension, distinct gender differences in the incidence and severity of hypertension are well established where men have a higher incidence of hypertension compared with women of the same age until the sixth decade of life [1,2]. Despite gender differences in human hypertension, the treatment guidelines do not differ by gender . Even if the causes of hypertension are complex and are related to genetic factors, lifestyle, diet structure, and environmental factors including air pollution , coupled with the potential determinants of hypertension, sex differences in hypertension-which exist in human populations-are attributed to both biological and behavioural factors. The biological factors include sex hormones, chromosomal differences, and other biological sex differences that are protective against hypertension in women. These factors become prominent in adolescence and persist through adulthood until women reach menopause. Behavioural risk factors for hypertension include high body mass index, smoking, and low physical activity.
Air pollution exposure is among the most prevalent reasons for environmentally-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which are implicated in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The CNS has emerged as an important target for adverse health effects of exposure to air pollutants, where it can cause neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders. Air pollution includes various components of gases, particulate matter (PM), ultraﬁne particulate (UFPs), metals, and organic compounds. An important source of PM and UFPM in the ambient air is associated with air pollution-related trafficking, and primarily diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Controlled animal studies and epidemiological studies show that exposure to air pollution, and in particular urban air pollution or DEPs, may lead to neurotoxicity. In specific, exposure to air pollutants as an important factor may be in neurodevelopmental disorders (eg Autism) and neurological disorders (eg.., Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)). The most noticeable effects of exposure to air pollutants in animals and humans are oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Studies in rats exposed to DEPs showed microglial activity, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuronal accumulation in various areas of the brain, especially the olfactory bulb (OB) and the hippocampus (HI). Disorders of adult neurogenesis were also found. In most cases, the effects of DEP are more pronounced in male mice, probably due to lower antioxidant capacity due to less expression of paraoxonase 2.
Environmental and behavioral factors are very important for exposure to airborne SARS-CoV-2. Indoor environments are related to infection events, including super-spreader events and outbreaks. Indoor, poorly ventilated, and crowded areas, such as restaurants, cinemas, and bars can be effective in the accumulation of aerosols full of viruses, especially if people are in conversations and stay there for a long time period. At longer distances (more than 1.5 meters), small aerosols that can stay in the air for a longer period of time are dominant. The super-spreader events in which people have been infected at a distance away show that this remote transmission occurs. The exposure risk to longer intervals is likely to be more in domestic environments and indoor spaces that lack sufficient ventilation. Layer interventions are of fundamental importance. Therefore, it is important to take preventive measures as much as possible and follow them as carefully as possible, because no intervention alone will be effective in eliminating the risk. These include spacing, lining, hand hygiene, filtration, and ventilation.
The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak has led to some lockdowns and changed human mobility and lifestyle in this country. Mashhad, one of the most polluted cities in Iran has experienced critical air pollution conditions in recent years. In the present study, the potential relationships between air quality conditions (such as popular index and criteria air pollutant concentration) and COVID-19 cases and deaths were investigated in Mashhad, Iran. To do that, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based hybrid deep learning architecture was implemented on AQI, meteorological data (such as temperature, sea level pressure, dew points, and wind speed), traffic index and impact number of death, and active cases COVID-19 from March 2019 to March 2022 in Mashhad. The results reveal the LSTM model could predict the AQI accurately. The lower error between the real and predicted AQI, including MSE, MSLE, and MAE is 0.0153, 0.0058, and 0.1043, respectively. Also, the cosine similarity between predicted AQI and real amounts of it is 1. Moreover, in the first peak of the pandemic (Aug 2021), we have the minimum amount of AQI. Meanwhile, by increasing the number of active cases and death and by starting lockdown, because the traffic is decreased, the air quality is good and the amount of AQI related to PM2.5 is 54.68. Furthermore, the decrease the active cases and death in pandemic causes a significant increase in AQI, which is 123.52 in Nov 2021, due to a decline in lockdowns, resumption of human activities, and probable temperature inversions.
The epidemic of COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and turned into a national crisis, with infected individuals diagnosed all over China [1-3]. In early March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the Wuhan epidemic has turned into a global pandemic. Many European countries have started to know several cases affected by this coronavirus, which is known to be highly contagious. The WHO has launched several recommendations to curb the spread of this virus and to call the general confinement establishment in the affected countries.
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University of Agriculture, Pakistan
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