In 1874 J.M. Charcot was the first to describe ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a disease with an high non response therapy rate also to the actual therapy.
ALS is not clearly associate to only single etio-patogenetic movens but many process seem involved.
Also the strange geographic diffusion of different forms contribute to a complex syndromic pathology.
The introducing of new theories and approach can help to find more efficacy therapeutic strategies.
In this work the different neuronal damage movens and new therapeutic strategies are analyzed to produce a Unic global response to the pathologic process useful in next clinical application.
Genetic factors must be considered also added to environmental movens but also to the endogenous microenvironment of motoneuron involved.
A toxicological-biochemical-imunological approach can be useful tool to find new therapeutic strategies.
Or to improve local availability of pharmacological molecules.
Aim of this work is to verify the effect of some neurotoxins, physical factors and geography in presentation of some Relevant Neurological disorder like some form of ASL, PD, AD.
The geographic diffusion of the ASL/PD in west pacific (GUAM foci), and mutation of SOD 1 and other mutations are interesting facts to verify the recent literature about the neurotoxic process.
Related to the references presented a global conclusion about the pathogenetic progression of some neurological disease will be produced as instrument for new hypothesis and for the introduction of new innovative therapeutic strategies.
Background: Drosophila models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been widely used in understanding molecular mechanisms of ALS pathogenesis as well as discovering potential targets for therapeutic drugs. Mutations in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause ALS by gain of toxic functions and induce toxicity in fly motor neurons.
Results: In this study, we have determined that human carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) can alleviate mutant SOD1-induced motor neuron toxicity in the transgenic fly model of ALS. Interestingly, we found that motor neuron expression of CA1 could independently induce locomotion defect as well as decreasing the survival rate. In addition, CA1-induced toxicity in motor neurons is anhydrase activity-dependent. Mechanistically, we identified that both SOD1- and CA1-induced toxicity involve the activation of eIF2α in the ER stress response pathway. Downstream activation of the JNK pathway has also been implicated in the induced toxicity.
Conclusion: Our results have confirmed that SOD1-induced toxicity in fly motor neuron also involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. More importantly, we have discovered a new cellular role that CA1 plays by antagonizing mutant SOD1-induced toxicity in motor neurons involving the ER stress pathway. Such information can be potentially useful for further understanding disease mechanisms and developing therapeutic targets for ALS.
The biological changes caused by oxidative stress (OS) are known to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. The brain is particularly vulnerable to OS due to its high lipid content and extensive consumption of oxygen. OS processes, particularly the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), play a critical role in how neurodegenerative disorders develop. This is evidenced by in vivo studies investigating various biomolecules related to OS, such as products of lipid and DNA oxidation. Accordingly, ROS can also cause oxidative-related damage in neurodegenerative disorders, including dopamine auto-oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, glial cell activation, α-synuclein aggregation, excessive free iron, and changes in calcium signaling. Furthermore, excessive levels of cellular oxidants reduce antioxidant defenses, which in turn propagate the cycle of OS. As such, it is increasingly important to determine the linkage between a high intake of antioxidants through dietary interventions and a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, in addition to modulating the immune system, optimal nutritional status is capable of changing various processes of neuroinflammation known to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Accordingly, a better understanding of the role ROS plays in the etiology of neurodegeneration is needed, along with the identification of dietary interventions that may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for both the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, this review presents a comprehensive summary of the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, nutrients believed to be useful for mitigating and counteracting ROS are discussed.
Blood vessels that supply and feed the central nervous system (CNS) possess unique and exclusive properties, named as blood–brain barrier (BBB). It is responsible for tight regulation of the movement of ions, molecules, and cells between the blood and the brain thereby maintaining controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu required for appropriate functioning. It also protects the neural tissue from toxic plasma components, blood cells and pathogens from entering the brain. In this review the importance of BBB and its disruption causing brain pathology and progression to different neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD) etc. will be discussed.
Objectives: To describe a patient with facial-onset sensory-motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) that later developed Huntington’s disease (HD).
Case report: A 62-year-old woman complained of progressive dysphagia 8 years before referral. At initial evaluation, there was excessive salivation, dysphagia, and sensory-motor trigeminal impairment. Denervation was noted on the upper limbs and the tongue. Blink reflexes were abolished. Genetic study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes was normal. She was diagnosed with FOSMN syndrome. Her clinical state progressively worsened with corneal anesthesia, severe denutrition, right arm and axial weakness. Seven years after referral, she was unable walk and developed generalized chorea. Abnormal huntingtin gene repeat expansion confirmed the diagnosis of HD. She died 16 years after onset of dysphagia.
Conclusion: Cases with both HD and ALS have already been reported but not FOSMN and HD, to our knowledge. Some FOSMN cases have been linked to ALS-related gene mutations and HD phenocopies have been associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. Recently, huntingtin repeat expansions were described in the ALS population. Although a chance association cannot be excluded, data from the literature are in favor of a pathogenic relationship between FOSMN and HD in this particular case. We suggest that huntingtin gene be more systematically studied in patients with FOSMN.
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