We evaluated a total of 115 patients diagnosed with anal cancer, who were treated at our clinic from 1995 to 2012. Their average age was 61 years, most often were diagnosed in stages II and III, in most cases it was a squamous cell carcinoma located in the anal canal. The mean follow-up was 83 months (minimum 1 month and maximum 240 months). We combined external radiotherapy with boost of brachytherapy or boost of external radiotherapy and possibly a combination of both boosts. Half of the patients received concomitant chemotherapy. We specifically evaluated local tumor regression, overall survival and the impact to therapeutic effect of the chosen irradiation technique. Complete regression was achieved in 92 patients, partial regression in 21 patients. Overall survival, regardless of stage, was 80% 3-year, 74% 5-year and 67% 10-year. The age of patients, the size of their own primary tumor and the therapeutic method used had a statistically significant effect on survival - especially the importance of brachytherapy was irreplaceable.
Anal melanoma is a rare and highly aggressive mucosal melanocytic malignancy. It is the third most common after melanomas of the skin and retina. The peak incidence in seen in the sixth and seventh decades. The clinical symptoms are pain, anal mass, bleeding per rectum, tenesmus or change in the bowel habits. It affects anal canal, rectum or both with a tendency to spread along submucosal planes. It is mostly beyond complete resection at the time of diagnosis and majority of patients die of metastasis. MR imaging significantly increases the diagnosis of anal melanoma in its early stages.
Mohamed Hassin Mohamed Chairi*, Francisco José Huertas Peña, Marta Santidrián Zurbano, Tomás Torres Alcalá and Jesús María Villar del Moral
Published on: 4th May, 2022
Crohn's disease is a chronic syndrome of the gastrointestinal tract that produces idiopathic inflammation. Approximately half of the patients develop abscesses and/or fistulas throughout their history that are located, mainly, in the perianal region. Current treatments are based on individualized plans that generally use combined pharmacology for symptomatic relief based on glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants or immunomodulators, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, probiotics, and antibodies, or surgical therapies such as intestinal resections or ostomizations (colostomy and ileostomy) that tend to cause notable side effects in a considerable percentage of patients and a significant decrease in their quality of life.Perianal fistulas consist of abnormal tracts, inflammatory tunnels, or chronic tracts of granular tissue that connect two surfaces lined with epithelium, have an external hole in the skin that borders the anus, and an internal hole located inside it around the anal canal, rectus and sphincters. Treatment is a complex process that requires a multidisciplinary approach and the combination of several treatments. In the short term, the goal is to drain abscesses, reduce inflammatory and infectious processes, guard the fistulous tract with seton or lax lines, facilitate patency, and hinder new formations. In the long term, a total cure and the avoidance of complications that require surgery or the creation of intestinal stomas are pursued.For this reason, new effective remedies with fewer adverse effects continue to be investigated, one of the most promising being the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration and cure of perianal fistulas and the remission of symptoms. The present bibliographic review delves into this new therapy and analyzes the current state of the situation regarding its efficacy and safety.
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