Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. This study aimed to isolate, identify and determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella sp associated with acute diarrhea among children in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted among children less than 5 years diagnosed with acute diarrhea and admitted to paediatric ward of Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital Kano. Stool samples from a total of 37 (20 male and 17 female) subjects were used to isolate and identified the pathogen. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted using disc diffusion method. The result showed 12 out of 37 samples were positive for Shigella sp which accounted for 32.4%. Higher incidence of Shigella sp was found among subjects of age between 2 – 3 years. The isolates were 100% resistant to Ampicillin. High resistance was also observed in Amoxicillin (83.33%), Chloramphenicol (58.33%) and Tetracycline (25%). The isolates are 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 66.7% to Levofloxacin and Gentamicin each and 58.33% to Erythromycin. Three (3) isolates were resistance to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin, 5 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin while 2 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin. It is concluded that Shigella sp is one of the etiological agent of diarrhea in children. Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and Gentamicin are drugs of choice for treating diarrhea caused by Shigella sp.
A series of Schiff bases of diphenylamine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic both Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli using ciprofloxacin as standard drug at conc. of 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of IR and 1H-NMR spectral analysis. The compound (3d) displayed potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (17 and 15mm) and Escherichia coli (19 and 17mm) by disc diffusion method.
Hypoxis hemerocallidea Lam is one of the 43 Hypoxis species in South Africa, marketed extensively as over the counter herbal product for the management of several diseases. The plant commercial products link efficacy to hypoxoside 4, its aglycone (rooperol), or β-sitosterol. This study investigated antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities of four other molecules and two extracts from the Hypoxis plant. Visual antioxidant limit of detection and free radical scavenging activities of test samples were determined using 20 mM hydrogen peroxide, 0.4 mM DPPH or ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Quantitative free radical was determine by spectrophotometric method while antibacterial activity was evaluated using MICs against uropathogens: S. aureus (ATCC25923), S. marcescens (ATCC 14041), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9721), P. mirabilis (ATCC 33583) and E. coli (ATCC 10536).
Anti-oxidant activities visual limit of detection of 0.06 mg/mL and percentage free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.048 - 0.032 mg/ml) for pure compounds 1 - 4 and (IC50 = 0.037 - 0.039 mg/ml) for extracts were obtained. The reducing power IC50 ranged between 0.15 - 0.23 mg/ml for extracts and 0.11-0.35 mg/ml for standards. Antibacterial potentials show a noteworthy to moderate MIC values of 0.20 - 1.56 mg/ml against S. aureus (ATCC 25923), S. marcescens (ATCC 14041), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9721), P. mirabilis (ATCC 33583) and E. coli (ATCC 10536). Galpinoside 5, hemerocalloside 3 and curculigoside C 2 are the other active compounds in Hypoxis plant.
Burns injuries induce a state of immunodepression that predisposes to a bacterial infectious complication that leads to several comorbid diseases and high mortality rate. Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L.and Matricaria recutita L. are acknowledge by antimicrobial effects.
Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L. and Matricaria recutita L. are knowledge by antimicrobial effects. Bacterial cellulose membrane (nature BCM) is a potential carrier as a drug delivery system in the wound and burn treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts of A. vera, C. officinalis, and M. recutita incorporated in BCM against bacterial strains commonly present in wound and burns. The agar-dilution susceptibility testing was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The standardized extracts of A. vera, M. recutita, and C. officinalis were, respectively, used at 3.25% of total polysaccharides, 1% of apigenin 7-O-glucoside and 0.084% of total flavonoids expressed in quercetin. The BCM incorporated with A. vera extract was efficient to prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. BCM loaded with C. officinalis inhibited the growth of S. aureus. The BCM loaded with A. vera and C. officinalis extract showed better antibacterial activities against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and, consequently, properties to prevent infectious disease in the wound or burn caused by these bacteria.
Laura Silva Fernandes, Ygor Ferreira Garcia da Costa, Martha Eunice de Bessa, Adriana Lucia Pires Ferreira, José Otávio do Amaral Corrêa, Glauciemar Del-Vechio Vieira, Orlando Vieira de Sousa, Ana Lúcia Santos de Matos Araújo, Paula C Castilho* and Maria Silvana Alves*
Morbidity and mortality of the infected patients by multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased, emphasizing the urgency of fight for the discovery of new innovative antibiotics. In this sense, natural products emerge as valuable sources of bioactive compounds. Among the biodiversity, Eryngium pristis Cham. & Schltdl. (Apiaceae Lindl.) is traditionally used to treat thrush and ulcers of throat and mouth, as diuretic and emmenagogue, but scarcely known as an antimicrobial agent. With this context in mind, the goals of this study were to investigate the metabolic profile and the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract (EE-Ep) and hexane (HF-Ep), dichloromethane (DF-Ep), ethyl acetate (EAF-Ep) and butanol (BF-Ep) fractions from E. pristis leaves. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed to stablish the metabolic profile and revealed the presence of 12 and 14 compounds in EAF-Ep and HF-Ep, respectively. β-selinene, spathulenol, globulol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and lupeol derivative were some of phytochemicals identified. The antibacterial activity was determined by Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the broth micro-dilution against eight ATCC® and five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical strains. HF-Ep was the most effective (MIC ≤ 5,000 µg/µL), being active against the largest part of tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, including MRSA, with exception of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and (ATCC 27853). These results suggest that E. pristis is a natural source of bioactive compounds for the search of new antibiotics which can be an interesting therapeutic approach to recover patients mainly infected by MRSA strains.
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Ayman M Abu Mustafa
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