Context: Perioperative management of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery is challenging. Lacking standardized perioperative protocols, complication rates may be high. This retrospective study aims to quantify the incidence of significant blood pressure decreases on induction of anesthesia and intraoperative hypoxemia, before implementation of a standardized protocol designed for bariatric surgery.
Design: Retrospective, observational study.
Setting: A 250-bed county hospital in northern Sweden.
Subjects: 219 morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2008.
Main outcome measures: Incidence of systolic blood pressure (SAP) falls to less than 70% of the preoperative baseline during induction of anesthesia and incidence of perioperative hypoxemia.
Results: The incidence of confirmed SAP falls to below 70% of baseline at induction of anesthesia was 56.2% (n = 123/219). This incidence rose with increasing age (p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI). 3.7% (n = 8/219) of cases were marked as difficult intubations. A transient period of hypoxemia was observed in 6.8% (n = 15/219) and was more common with increasing BMI (p = 0.005). Fourteen different drug combinations were used in the study population. Of those administered an induction anesthetic drug, 72.6% (n = 159/193) were given an overdose when calculated by lean body weight, but this did not correlate significantly to SAP falls (p = 0.468).
Conclusion: The incidence of a significant blood pressure fall upon induction of anesthesia was common. The incidence of airway and ventilation problems were low. Overdosing of anesthetics and excessive variation in applied anesthesia methods were found.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass surgery is superior to medical treatment for short- to medium-term remission of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) . Recent research indicates that the improvements in insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery are associated with elevated circulating bile acid concentration and remodeling of gut microbiota . Gut microbiome can be considered as a target of dietary interventions or medicines to prevention/treatment of hyperglycemia in T2DM. Since, the glucose-lowering effects of metformin are mediated by changes in the composition and function of gut microbiota [3,4].
Introduction: Obesity may cause progressive chronic kidney disease. Weight loss in the postoperative follow-up of bariatric surgery may improve renal function in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to give insight on the subject using a sensible biomarker.
Methods: This cross sectional study was performed in the Obesity Department from Campina Grande – Paraiba, Brazil. It was randomly enrolled 23 postoperative patients (7 bypass and 16 sleeve), with at least two years of follow-up, from the outpatient Department and 29 (18 bypass and 11 sleeve) in the preoperative period for bariatric surgery. They were homogeneously from both genders with ages ranging from 25 to 57 years. Serum levels of creatinine and cystatin C were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the CKD Epi (chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration) cystatin-creatinine equation. The investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee.
Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the preoperative group was significantly greater than the postoperative group (p ≤ 0.0001). The mean serum levels of C cystatin was significantly greater in the postoperative group as compared to preoperative (p= 0.0197). However, there was no mean difference between creatinine serum concentrations comparing the two groups (p = 0.3252). The mean glomerular renal function rates of the groups were similar (p = 0.1240).
Conclusion: There is no definitive evidence for supporting the hypothesis that there is improvement in the kidney renal function after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Prospective cohorts are necessary to enlighten the answer for this important question.
In 1955, nutrient malabsorption following upper gut surgery was shown to be related to altered upper gut microbiome. In individuals with abdominal symptoms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, we have reported that small intestinal glucose malabsorption is associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth. We hypothesize that individuals with abdominal symptoms after vertical sleeve gastrectomy have glucose malabsorption associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth, and to test this hypothesis, bacterial overgrowth and potential glucose malabsorption are examined after sleeve gastrectomy. This is a retrospective study of individuals with medically-complicated obesity who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2013 to 2016 with subsequent glucose hydrogen breath testing to evaluate abdominal symptoms. A fasting breath hydrogen or methane of ≥10 PPM or rise of ≥8 PPM ≤45 minutes after oral glucose is bacterial overgrowth, while glucose malabsorption is a second rise of ≥8 PPM at >45 minutes. Seven females (mean age: 48.0 years; mean body mass index at surgery: 45.7 kg/m2) are described. Five subjects (71%) have an early rise in hydrogen or methane, while three (43%) have a second rise in hydrogen or methane >45 minutes after glucose. The mean percent excess weight loss at one year was 40% in three individuals with a second peak and 46% in four subjects without a second peak. After sleeve gastrectomy, subjects have glucose malabsorption associated with the presence of bacterial overgrowth. Completion of a larger prospective study is needed to confirm and expanding upon these findings. Further work should examine the potential effects of bacterial overgrowth on expression of intestinal glucose transporters.
Obesity is a multifactorial epidemic disease of environmental origin that affects subjects of all countries and whose origin is not in the stomach or intestines. Surgical treatment represents a unique case of surgery for operating healthy organs, which are not the cause of the disease and do not improve after the operation.
Kremen and Linner  and Varco and Buchwald teams of in Minneapolis, MN began the intestinal deviation (ID) of malabsorption in 1954. Payne  and Scott  developed these ID techniques in the 1960s leaving only 14- 4 inches (35 -10 cm) as an absorption zone and were abandoned in the 1970s due to its serious metabolic (malnutrition) and liver complications (liver failure).
Background: To date, the scientific community has mainly focused on outcomes of obesity surgery such as weight loss and resolution of associated complications. Adverse post-operative events and reoperation rates have been poorly reported even if they are a marker of surgical safety and therefore of great importance in guiding patients and surgeons in the choice of the more suitable operation.
Methods: This retrospective multicenter observational study is based on the data extracted from the Italian Society of Bariatric Surgery and Metabolic Disorders (S.I.C.OB.) database, which covers almost all the bariatric operations performed in Italy. We analysed the 30 days post-operative complications occurring, in the period from 2009 to 2015, after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) and Mini Gastric Bypass/One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (MGB/OAGB) qualitatively, quantitatively and on the basis of the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications. Complications following surgeries were tested using the 95% confidence interval. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS).
Results: In the 2009-2015 time frame, a total of 31,624 operations were performed of which 6,864 RYGB, 10,833 SG and 992 MGB/OAGB. The complication rate was 4.39 %, 4.04 % and 3.83% respectively. The most frequent complications were hemoperitoneum (0.9%) and perforation, fistula and dehiscence (1%) which were higher in SG when compared with RYGB (with a statistical significance) and when compared with MGB/OAGB (without a statistical significance). When dividing the complications by the different grades of the Clavien-Dindo classification, the only significant difference encountered, from a statistical standpoint, was between MGB/OAGB and SG. MGB/OAGB was associated with a lower grade I Clavien-Dindo complication rate (1.31% versus 2.34%).
Conclusion: This study supports a safe profile of obesity surgey in Italy, along with positive bariatric outcomes. The rate of 30 days post-operative complications is progressively lower after MGB/OAGB (3.83%), SG (4.04%) and RYGB (4.39%) respectively. In particular, MGB/OAGB records statistically less low-grade Clavien-Dindo complications compared to SG and RYGB.
Background: The band erosion (BE) is defined as the partial or complete movement towards the lumen of the stomach, is also known as migration, gastric incorporation and gastric inclusion. The presentation of this complication involves failure of bariatric procedures being ineffective and consequently requires the removal of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), usually through laparoscopic surgery.
The objective of this study is to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, surgical procedure, postoperative evolution in the integral treatment of BE. Material and Methods: We captured the data of patients with BE since January 2010 to October 2017. Database included the year of patient care, age, and sex, BMI before band placement, percentage of excess weight loss, number of device adjustments, clinical data and surgical procedure performed for resolution.
Results: A total 379 LAGB complications were diagnosed in our Institution; 210 patients with BE were diagnosed and treated, the average age was 39 years; range from 19 to 66 years, sex was 178 women and 32 men. The diagnosis was endoscopic in the 210 patients (100%). The surgical procedure to solve the problem was: to remove the LAGB, the fistulous orifice was closed and patch of omentum. The hospital stay was 3-5 days. The motility was zero. Complications were minor in 3% of the 210 patients (fever, atelectasis, wound infection). One patient was re-operated for evolving to residual abscess.
Conclusions: The BE is a serious failure in bariatric surgery. The resolution in this group of patients was to remove the band, direct closure of the fistulous orifice with patch of omentum. The surgical technique that was performed in this complication is safe, effective and easily reproducible.
We read with interest the case report entitled “Dieulafoy’s Lesion related massive Intraoperative Gastrointestinal Bleeding during Single Anastomosis Gastric Bypass necessitating total Gastrectomy: A Case Report” published in Archives of Surgery and Clinical Research b Ashraf Imam et al. . We appreciate the authors for managing such a complicated case and for sharing their experience but, we have some conflict about the management, and we wanted to add some comments regarding the importance of EGD before bariatric surgery.
In the published case, no preoperative EGD was done and the authors mentioned that Dieulafoy’s Lesion is very unlikely to be diagnosed in the routine endoscopy. We agree with that statement but, it is not a good reason to eliminate this diagnostic modality before surgery. Though controversial, there is growing evidence which supports the importance of routine EGD prior to obesity surgery . This may alter the surgical or medical plan for the obese patient, Furthermore, we have a different opinion about this patient’s management and, we wanted to share this with the authors.
In the reported patient, after control of the bleeding during gastrojejunal anastomosis, the OAGB(One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass) concluded successfully but, the patient was re-intubated because of severe bloody emesis at the recovery room and then an arterial bleeding point in the posterior wall of the lesser curvature close to the esophagogastric junction was found. This does not illustrate the reason for the huge gastric remnant seen at the laparoscopy because it was at least 200 cm far from the pouch and backwards flow of blood is very unlikely. Our opinion is, due to 90% diagnostic rate and about 75-100% success in hemostasis, on-table EGD should have a more highlighted role in treatment of the reported case .
Even if the pouch was dilated, it was not rational to perform a total gastrectomy in such an unstable patient and a laparoscopic pouch resection followed by Roux- en-y esophagojejunostomy could be a better choice in our point of view. Moreover, Feeding gastrostomy could be a better option rather than feeding jejunostomy, if needed.
In summary the essential role of endoscoy for screening the patients before bariatric surgery and, for the management of complications (though controversial), should always be kept in mind by bariatric surgeons.
Background: Minigastric bypass is gaining popularity worldwide as an effective bariatric surgery which has fewer complications than RYGB. There is raising concerns about biliary reflux and its effect on gastric mucosa. In this study we tried to find the link between the presence of bile in the stomach and the incidence of gastritis after MGB.
Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Ain Shams university hospitals from January 2017 to May 2018 including 40 patients. All patients underwent MGB with a 12-month follow-up, UGI endoscopy was performed 9 months after MGB for all patients, where multiple biopsies and gastric aspirate were obtained for bilirubin level
Results: Mean age at operation was 32 years (18–60) and preoperative BMI 44.31 kg/m2. The mean operative time was 95 (± 18 min), Mean % EWL was 81.2% at 12 months. Complete resolution occurred of hypertension in 8 patients (80%) and of Diabetes type 2 in 11 patients (84.2%). Level of bilirubin in gastric aspirate was elevated in 8 patients (20%) all of them had different levels pouch gastritis confirmed by histopathological examination.
Conclusion: Biliary reflux reached about 20% after MGB, the severity of biliary gastritis is related to the elevation of bilirubin level in the gastric aspirates, this results need to be confirmed by further studies on the MGB.
Bariatric Surgery (BS) from the Greek bari = weight and iatrein = cure) treats obesity and began in Spain in 1973. Its greatest development occurs after the founding of SECO (Spanish Society of Obesity Surgery) in 1997. The purpose of this work is to reflect the changes that have occurred in these 22 years.
Obesity is a multifactorial epidemic ailment of environmental origin, affecting subjects from all countries, and whose origins are not in the stomach or intestine. It represents a unique case of surgery to operate healthy organs, which are not the cause of the disease and do not improve after the operation.
Henryson  initiated Obesity Surgery (OS) in 1952. Kremen & Linner  and Varco & Buchwald in Minneapolis, MN teams began the malabsorptive intestinal diversion (ID) in 1954. Payne  and Scott  developed these ID techniques in the 1960s leaving only 14-4 inches (35-10 cm) as an absorptive zone and those were abandoned in the 1970s because of their serious metabolic (malnutrition) and hepatic (liver failure) complications.
Buchwald  initiated the ID of the last third of the intestine for hypercholesterinemia (POSCH) and showed its protective role at 25 years in the development of atherosclerosis. Now it has also been abandoned, not because of lack of effectiveness, but because of the development of nystatin in the medical control of cholesterol. Dr. Henry Buchwald remains active 67 years later, and in 2012 Barcelona was appointed as Honorary Member of the Spanish Society of Obesity Surgery (SECO) and he will participate in Madrid-IFSO 2019. Baltasar  published in 1991 the only three ID in Spain for hypercholesterinemia.
First spanish experienceProf. Sebastián García Díaz of Seville carried out the 1st Scott-type Jejune-ileal diversion (JID) in the Virgen Macarena Hospital on 11.19.1973. He began bariatric surgery in Spain with 12 cases [7-10] and then published 20 more, the 1st work in English by a Spanish author  in the World Journal of Surgery in 1981. For this 2nd work he received the award by the Seville Hospital of the Five Sores in 1979 (Figure 1). His work went unnoticed for 40 years until we rescued them in 2013 .
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