Cervical cancer constitutes an issue in public health, becoming the leading cause of death by cancer in women between 20-40 years of age in Latin America. In Argentina 5000 new cases are diagnosed each year, where more than 56% are in advanced stages. The aim of the present current opinion or critical review article is to remark the importance of the prognostic significance of the Central Tumor Size in stages IIB and IIIB cervical cancer, as well as to propose a new FIGO Staging System for Cervical cancer and trying to find out a role for the different therapeutic strategies for those cases.
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer (CC), a common malignancy among Kenyan women. New CC screening methods rely on oncogenic HPV (“high-risk”, or HR-HPV) detection, but most have not been evaluated in swabs from Kenyan women.
Methods: HPV typing was performed on 155 cervical swabs from Kenyan women using the Roche Linear Array® (LA) and careHPV™ (careHPV) assays. Detection of 14 oncogenic HPV types in careHPV assay was compared to LA results.
Results: Compared to LA, sensitivity and specificity of careHPV assay was 53.0% and 80.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from women with cervical dysplasia was 74.1% and 65.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from HIV-infected women was 55.9% and of 96.4%, respectively. Overall agreements of careHPV assay with LA was substantial.
Conclusion: The results for careHPV assay are promising for oncogenic HPV detection in Kenyan women. The low sensitivity of careHPV for detection of HR-HPV could limit it’s benefit as a screening tool. Thus, a full clinical validation study is highly desirable before the careHPV assay can be accepted for cervical cancer screening.
Human cervical cancer tumours expressing the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) were induced in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice. The tumours were significantly reduced by the i.p. administration of either free IL-2 or liposomes containing this growth factor. No toxicity was observed in the mice even at the highest doses of IL-2 in liposomes. We did not detect any IL-2 in the blood plasma pointing to a strong retention of the liposomes on the cavity. We concluded that this preclinical study for the treatment of tumours expressing IL-2R in the peritoneal cavity is effective and safe. The liposomes were stable and their IL-2 active for up to one year when kept at -14oC in a cryopreservation media approved by the FDA for human use.
The role of human papillomavirus infection as etiological factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer is well established. However, the presence of this virus is not sufficient condition for developing of cervical cancer. Currently, the contribution of other viral, environmental and host cofactors in triggering of this neoplasm is being investigated. Some metabolic risk factors have been associated with the development of several gynecological cancers such as endometrium, ovary and cervix. However, the mechanisms through which these factors contribute to carcinogenesis are complex and not fully elucidated. Few interventions regarding host metabolic factors have been performed on women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Some specific treatments and or changes in lifestyles could be carried out to avoid or delay progression to this kind of cancer. This paper aims to enlarge and update this topic based on the article ¨Association between components of the metabolic syndrome and degree of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Cuban women¨, with emphasis on possible mechanisms that explain the link between central adiposity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with risk of premalignant lesions and cervical cancer.
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