Background: Beta 2- micro globulin (β2-MG) is involved in human malignancies. Increased synthesis and release of β2-MG, as indicated by elevated serum, plasma, or urine β2-MG concentration, occurs in several malignant diseases.
Objective: The study was designed to assess the role of serum Beta2- micro globulin in the support of the diagnosis of different types of pediatric malignancies.
Subjects and Methods: This case - control study was carried out on 137 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed pre-treated malignant diseases who were admitted to pediatric oncology center at Basra Children’s Specialty Hospital, their ages ranged from 3 months to 15 years, during the period from the 1st of November 2014 till the end of October 2015, 71 were males and 66 were females and 148 healthy children and adolescents (83 were males and 65 were females) matched for age and sex regarded as control group. Cases and control characteristics were assessed from data collection by special questionnaire. All patients and control group were investigated for Beta2- microglobulin by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The study had revealed that level of Beta2-microglobulin was significantly higher in patients with malignancy in comparison to control group, P value < 0.001.Also the serum Beta2- microglobulin level for both hematological malignancies and solid malignancies was assessed and it was found that significantly higher percentage of elevated serum Beta2- microglobulin level was present in patients with hematological malignancies in comparison to solid malignancies, P value <0.01.The study also had revealed that there was a significant correlation between the initial white blood cells count ≥ 50000 cells/ml and abnormal serum Beta2- microglobulin level, P value < 0.01,but there was no significant differences in serum Beta2- microglobulin level in relation to risk groups and immunophynotypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ,morphological subtypes of acute myloid leukemia, stages of each type of lymphoma (Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and the histopathological subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. After subjecting variables (specific to acute lymphoblastic leukemia) to logistic regression analysis, the significant independent risk factor that associated with abnormal serum Beta2- microglobulin level was high initial white blood cells count (≥50000 cells/ml).
Conclusion: Serum Beta2- microglobulin level is significantly higher in patients with hematological malignancies and high initial white blood cells count(≥50000cells/ml) .From this study, serum Beta2- microglobulin could be recommended in the initial work up for diagnosis of childhood malignancy.
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