Chronic kidney disease

Use of Rivaroxaban and Apixaban, Two Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs), in Renally Impaired Patients - the limits of our knowledge

Published on: 11th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893782754

Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of thromboembolic complications and are therefore often managed with anticoagulation therapy [1]. While these patients are traditionally treated with Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the Non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), such as rivaroxaban and apixaban are being used with increasing frequency. Relatively new to the anticoagulant treatment arsenal, both compounds are direct Factor Xa inhibitors and represent an alternative to traditional VKA treatments, such as warfarin. However, because these compounds are at least partially renally eliminated, achieving safe and effective anticoagulation in this vulnerable population has proven to be a challenge [2,3]. With limited published data, there is often uncertainty surrounding which of the NOACs can be safely used.
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Anemia response to Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol-Epoetin Beta (Mircera) versus Epoetin Alfa (Eprex) in patients with chronic Kidney disease on Hemodialysis

Published on: 5th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317633426

Objective: Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease, usually develops because of erythropoietin deficiency. Maintaining target hemoglobin (Hb) with minimal variability is a challenge in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study is to compare the long- and short-acting erythropoietin erythropoietin stimulating agents such as Mircera and Eprex in achieving these targets. Results: The response rate in the evaluation period was higher in patients treated with methoxypolyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera) than with epoetin (Eprex) alfa: 36 of 50 (72%) mean Hb concentration (10.51g/dl) versus 29 of 50 (58%) mean Hb concentration (9.81), with statistically significant p-value <0.0001. Conclusion: Treatment with (Mircera) administered intravenously once monthly was superior to treatment with (Eprex) administered subcutaneously three times weekly for maintaining haemoglobin concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
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Chronic kidney disease in women: a cross sectional screening in a tertiary care hospital in Varanasi

Published on: 18th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7985982265

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease is no longer considered just a health burden today but a major health priority owing to its high treatment costs and poor outcome. World Kidney Day and International Women’s Day in 2018 coincided, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women’s health, and specifically their kidney health. The current study aims to identify chronic kidney disease in women through a cross sectional screening in hospital based camp in Varanasi on World Kidney Day. Methods: 138 females attending a health camp were screened for clinical parameters like serum creatinine, random blood sugar, and pregnancy complications. Demographic and anthropometric parameters were noted. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictors of chronic kidney disease stages. Results: The median age of the participants was 36 years. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 6.4% with 1.4% of Stage 1, 2.1% of Stage 2, 1.4% of Stage 3 and 1.4% of Stage 4. Women with diabetes were nearly 4 times at a greater risk of developing higher stages of chronic kidney disease compared to women without it. With a unit increase in serum creatinine levels, women were nearly 13 times more likely to develop higher stages of chronic kidney disease. Conclusion: Serum creatinine levels and diabetes were the significant predictors for the development of higher stages of chronic kidney disease. Early screening for kidney diseases in women could reduce the load of health care delivery system that is involved in renal replacement therapies.
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Chronic Kidney Disease: A single day screening on World Kidney Day for five consecutive years

Published on: 12th March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8049477489

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is a costly and burdensome public health concern. Delayed recognition and treatment of CKD may predispose patients to unfavorable future outcomes and burden the healthcare services. The early detection of disease via screening programs is widely recommended. The present study is a hospital camp-based screening for detecting patients with chronic kidney disease in Varanasi from 2014-18. Methods: The study subjects constituted 436 apparently healthy adults (age ≥18 years) of Varanasi. Information on socio-demographic profile, personal characteristics and clinical investigations were recorded. Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis was applied to find the significant predictors of chronic kidney disease. Results: Median age of the study subjects was 40.5 years. There were 39.7% males and 60.3% females. Chronic kidney disease was found in 23.9% subjects. Underweight, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking status and higher creatinine levels came out as significant predictors of chronic kidney disease. Conclusion: We screened apparently healthy individuals and found very high percentages of chronic kidney disease and its predictors. Henceforth, understanding the preventable and modifiable risk factors of chronic kidney disease becomes a prerequisite to intervene before risk populations reaches to irreversible stages of adverse future outcomes.
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Challenges of haemodialysis: A single centre experience in South West Nigeria

Published on: 28th March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8049457944

Background: Haemodialysis is the commonest method of Renal Replacement Therapy in Nigeria. Despite an advancement in the technicality and better understanding of haemodialysis, a number of complications are known to be associated with this procedure.. Objective: We aimed to highlight our experiences and share some of the uncommon complications encountered during haemodialysis and present the outcome of our patients. Subjects and methods: A retrospective review of 101 patients during the last two years was done. Data extracted include: sociodemographic characteristic, aetiology of kidney disease, type of vascular access, intradialytic complication and outcome of treatment. Results: The total number of dialysis session during the period was 823. Males constituted a higher proportion (64.4%) and were found to be older than female patients 49.8 vs 42.8 years (P=0.001). Majority (89.1%) had chronic kidney disease while chronic glomerulonephritis was the main cause of CKD as seen in about 45% of the patient. Due to the cost implication, only 2(1.98%) were able to undergo 3 sessions of dialysis per week for up to 1 month. Vascular access was femoral (66.3%), internal jugular vein (25.7%), while only 2% used Artero-venous-fistula and one patient had femoral vessel pseudoaneurysm from frequent cannulation. The commonest complication was hypotension which was present in 15.8%. Twenty-eight deaths were recorded, 44(43%) were either lost to follow up or absconded while 5% were transplanted at a referral centre. Conclusion: Challenges of renal replacement therapy is overwhelming in our country due to poor human and financial resources. Early diagnosis and adequate government support are advocated.
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Impact of Diabetes on the Nutritional Status of CKD Patients

Published on: 9th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317654942

Background: Prevalence of malnutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients is due to their lower appetite level. Diabetic patients experience polyphagia. Hence it is necessary to understand the impact of diabetes on the nutritional status of CKD patient. Aim: To compare the nutritious status between the CKD patients with and without diabetes. Objectives: To find out the impact of diabetes on the nutritional status of CKD patients. Method and Materials: A prospective random sampling method was adopted to select the subjects. Eighty CKD patients were divided equally into two groups. Tool which has been used to collect the data was SOAP format. Results: While comparing BMI between group 1(CKD without diabetes) and group 2(CKD with diabetes) it was noticed that the percentage of normal nourished subjects in group 2 were greater than that of group1. About 63% and 25% of subjects with CKD in group1 had normal BMI and grade 1 undernourished respectively. In group 2, about 75% and 10% of patients had normal BMI and grade 1 over nourished respectively. About 80% of subjects in group 2 were on insulin treatment. About 88% of subjects in group1 were anorexic and about 55% and 25% of subjects in group 2 had polyphagia and normal appetite respectively. The difference in the energy and protein intake between the two groups was statistically significant at p<0.01 level. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the above study that a better nutritional status was found in the CKD patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) than the CKD patients without DM which may be due to their normal appetite/ polyphagia, hence allowing a better food intake among group2 subjects. Weight gain in CKD with DM patients may be due to increase in fat mass which is subsequent to lipogenic effect of insulin.
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Causes of hospital admission of chronic kidney disease patient in a tertiary kidney care hospital

Published on: 21st June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8172399426

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at the risk of increase hospital admission as compared to the general population, due to various reasons. They have increased vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as infections, therefore they usually got admit in health care units due to various reasons. The causes of hospitalization in CKD patients in this part of the world are not studied well. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in The Kidney Centre Post Graduate Training Institute (TKC-PGTI) of Karachi. Variables included in the study were age, gender, are of residence, ethnicity, smoking status and level of education. Comorbid conditions like causes of CKD and causes of hospitalization. Data analysis performed by using software IBM SPSS 21. Results: Total of 269 patients were enrolled in our study. The male 148(55%), mean age was 55 years. The most common cause of hospitalization in our population was infection148 (55%) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common site of infection 55 (20%) followed by sepsis of unknown origin 29(10.8%). Cardiovascular events like volume overload 32 (11.4%) and acute coronary syndrome 20(7.4%) were the second most important cause of hospitalization. Conclusion: Hospitalization of CKD patients is high, and in our population infection is found to be the leading cause of hospital admission. Infection originating from urinary tract is more common in all stages of CKD patients, while blood born infection originating from double lumen (DL) dialysis catheter or arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation is more common in dialysis population. Cardiovascular events, both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary edema due to volume overload followed the infections.
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Complications of Internal jugular catheters in haemodialysis patients at a kidney care center in Nigeria

Published on: 11th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8199204365

Internal jugular vein catheters (IJC) is recommended as the central venous access of choice in haemodialysis patients. However it is associated with complications of variable severity. Objectives: To study the complications associated with internal jugular vein catheters in haemodialysis patients in southern part of Nigeria. Methodology: The clinical details of patients who had IJC insertion at the kidney house, Hilton clinics Port Harcourt from 1st October 2011 to 30th September 2016 were documented. Complications from the IJC developed by the patients during the study period were also documented. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 22. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 129 patients had 150 internal jugular catheter insertions. The mean age was 51.4±15.2 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. All the patients had chronic kidney disease; about 80% had tunneled IJC and 96.9% of the catheters were inserted in the right internal jugular vein. Immediate complications were recorded in 10% and late complications in 34.9% of the procedures. The immediate complications were kinking of guide wire (2%), arterial puncture (1.3%) and difficulty in locating the internal jugular vein (1.3%) or tunneling (1.3%). The late complications were infection (12.8%), poor blood flow (9.2%), bleeding (5.5%) and spontaneous removal of the catheter (5.5%). There was no statistical significant difference in both immediate and late complication with age and sex. The ultrasound examination at discharge had a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 87% to detect future symptomatic lymphoceles. The positive predictive value was only 10%. The second ultrasound test had the best test variables to detect symptomatic lymphoceles with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87% and a predictive value of 28%. Conclusion: Internal jugular catheter is froth with immediate and late complications in haemodialysis patients.
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High water intake in preventing the risk of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Published on: 12th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8199212116

Background: Hyperuricosuria, persistently low urinary pH, and low urinary volume are the main risk factors of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Epidemiologic studies suggest that high water intake is protective against the occurrence of symptomatic kidney stone events of all types. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to evaluate the effectiveness of increased water intake to prevent symptomatic uric acid kidney stone events. Methods: Seventeen studies were identified for the meta-analysis. Analysis of Q and I2% statistics revealed that a high heterogeneity in 16 studies, thus, random effects model was used. Protective associations were identified for high water intake individuals (SMD=0.52 L; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.84; p=0.002); a significantly decreased relative super saturation of uric acid versus controls (SMD=-1.15; 95% CI: -2.00, -0.30; p=0.008). Risk factors including urinary uric acid excretion and pH were not significantly related to high water intake (SMD=7.32mg/d, 95% CI: -52.27, 66.91; p=0.81), (SMD=0.14; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.31; p=0.09), respectively. Further subgroup analyses revealed that urinary uric acid excretion was significantly decreased in healthy individuals (SMD=-36.23 mg/d, 95% CI: -65.14, -7.31; p=0.001) compared to stone formers (SMD=27.41 mg/d, 95% CI: -33.18, 88.01; p=0.38); urinary uric acid excretion was significantly decreased in routine water intake groups (SMD=-61.49 mg/d, 95% CI: -120.74, 12.24; p=0.04) compared to mineral water intake groups (SMD=44.50 mg/d, 95% CI: -18.30, 107.29; p=0.16); urinary pH was significantly higher in mineral water groups (SMD=0.13, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.46; p=0.04) compared to regular water groups (SMD=-0.00, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.13; p=0.98). Results: A total of 129 patients had 150 internal jugular catheter insertions. The mean age was 51.4±15.2 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. All the patients had chronic kidney disease; about 80% had tunneled IJC and 96.9% of the catheters were inserted in the right internal jugular vein. Immediate complications were recorded in 10% and late complications in 34.9% of the procedures. The immediate complications were kinking of guide wire (2%), arterial puncture (1.3%) and difficulty in locating the internal jugular vein (1.3%) or tunneling (1.3%). The late complications were infection (12.8%), poor blood flow (9.2%), bleeding (5.5%) and spontaneous removal of the catheter (5.5%). There was no statistical significant difference in both immediate and late complication with age and sex. Conclusion: This meta-analysis identified evidence that urinary uric acid excretion, volume, pH and relative supersaturation of uric acid can be altered with high water intake intervention, reducing the risk of uric acid kidney stones.
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Is there improvement in renal function in patients undergoing bariatric surgery?

Published on: 31st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8199196433

Introduction: Obesity may cause progressive chronic kidney disease. Weight loss in the postoperative follow-up of bariatric surgery may improve renal function in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to give insight on the subject using a sensible biomarker. Methods: This cross sectional study was performed in the Obesity Department from Campina Grande – Paraiba, Brazil. It was randomly enrolled 23 postoperative patients (7 bypass and 16 sleeve), with at least two years of follow-up, from the outpatient Department and 29 (18 bypass and 11 sleeve) in the preoperative period for bariatric surgery. They were homogeneously from both genders with ages ranging from 25 to 57 years. Serum levels of creatinine and cystatin C were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the CKD Epi (chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration) cystatin-creatinine equation. The investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the preoperative group was significantly greater than the postoperative group (p ≤ 0.0001). The mean serum levels of C cystatin was significantly greater in the postoperative group as compared to preoperative (p= 0.0197). However, there was no mean difference between creatinine serum concentrations comparing the two groups (p = 0.3252). The mean glomerular renal function rates of the groups were similar (p = 0.1240). Conclusion: There is no definitive evidence for supporting the hypothesis that there is improvement in the kidney renal function after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Prospective cohorts are necessary to enlighten the answer for this important question.
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Prognostic implications of vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease

Published on: 7th August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8210607964

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent disease, imposing high mortality rates worldwide, and it is closely related to cardiovascular events. Vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent in patients with CKD from the earliest stages of the disease, and it has been associated with higher mortality. In order to assess the prognostic implications of vitamin D deficiency in CKD, we undertook a literature review, searching different databases in October 2018 for publications related to vitamin D in patients with CKD and hypovitaminosis D, and not on dialysis. The main cause of death in these patients is cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D is one of the first parameters that CKD changes and has an important prognostic role in this entity. Deficient levels in blood are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and survival impacts, independently of cardiovascular disease. Treatment with paricalcitol appears to reduce this risk. However, the evidence analyzed is insufficient to establish an association between vitamin D levels and the progression of kidney disease. 
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Diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a rare cause for a very common association

Published on: 20th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8404983788

The authors present the case of a 45-year-old female patient with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). She had unsatisfactory glycemic control, and showed some intellectual limitations. Her urine exam was unremarkable, and her renal ultrasound revealed single right kidney with aspects suggesting ureteropelvic junction syndrome. Her mother had also suffered from diabetes and CKD G5D presenting in the sixth to seventh decade. An hereditary cause for CKD was considered, which led the authors to investigate an autosomal dominant cause for CKD with a tubulointerstitial phenotype, taking into account the personal and family history for diabetes and also the renal imaging; a large deletion in the HNF-1β gene was identified through Multiplex Ligand Probe Assay (MLPA) analysis, explaining the phenotype. Genetic causes of CKD should be considered in the presence of positive family history for CKD, and the coexistence of diabetes with bland urine sediment should raise the possibility of a syndromic cause of the phenotype, namely involving HNF-1β gene mutations or deletions. 
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SGLT2 Inhibitors and nephroprotection in diabetic kidney disease: From mechanisms of action to the latest evidence in the literature

Published on: 21st August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8651234199

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus constitutes a major problem in public health worldwide. The disease poses a high risk of severe microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetic kidney disease is the most common cause of end-stage chronic kidney disease and contributes to the increasing morbidity and mortality associated to diabetes. Sodium-glucose contransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) are the latest oral diabetic medications, which exhibit a great nephroprotective potential, not only by improving glycemic control, but also by glucose-independent mechanisms, such as decreasing blood pressure and other direct renal effects. We conduct a literature review based on the most recent scientific evidence with the goal to elucidate the postulated mechanisms of action of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic kidney disease, which are the base of the beneficial clinical effects that are seen in the condition.
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Acute kidney injury in Colombian patients with COVID-19 who received kidney support therapy with genius® 90 technology

Published on: 11th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8665847570

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications associated with severe COVID-19 infection, and it can present in up to 20% to 40% of the cases; of these, approximately 20% will require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Objective: To establish clinical and laboratory characteristics in a group of patients from Colombia with COVID-19 infection and AKI that received intermittent and prolonged RRT with the GENIUS® 90 technology in between March and July 2020. Design: Cross-sectional study. Results: 78.9% of participants were men and 21.1% were women. The main comorbidities were the following: Hypertension (65.3%), diabetes mellitus (38.9%), obesity (26.3%), cancer (5.3%), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.6%), cardiovascular disease (23.2%), active smoking (11.6%). 33.7% had chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the average serum creatinine on admission was 4.4 mg/dl. The following inflammatory markers were elevated: C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer and ferritin (20.3 mg/dl, 931mcg/l and 1174 ng/ml, respectively). 63.5% of patients underwent sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) (6 to 12 hours) and the rest of the patients (36.35%) underwent conventional hemodialysis (less than 4 hours). The mortality of the total patient sample was 36.9%, lower in patients with CKD than in patients with no previous renal disease history (18.7% and 40.1%, respectively). Conclusion: Renal complications are frequent in patients with severe COVID-19. The development of AKI could be an isolated prognostic marker associated with an increase in mortality in patients with COVID-19, and one of the options is intermittent and prolonged RRT with the GENIUS® 90 system.
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Prognostic factors for chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in patients with lupus nephritis: A retrospective cohort study

Published on: 27th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9022387289

Background: Lupus Nephritis (LN) occurs in approximately half of all patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and it is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. Factors associated with poor renal outcome vary among studies, and researches coming from Brazil are scarce. Objectives: To identify the prognostic factors associated to the development of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in LN patients followed in a tertiary hospital. Design and Settings: We conducted a retrospective cohort study set in a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: We compiled a total of 214 LN patients diagnosed between 1983 and 2015. Data was collected from medical records and further analyzed using logistic regression. Results: LN prevalence was 53.9%. The cohort had a mean follow-up of 11.2 years (SD ± 7.2 years). At the end of follow-up, 93 of 197 patients (47.2%) had CKD, and 49 of 191 (25.6%) were on regular dialysis. The main factors associated for developing CKD after logistic regression analysis were the following predictors: hypertension (HR 2.80; 95% CI 1.30-6.01; p = 0.008), time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.009) and discontinuation of medications (HR 2.41; 95% CI 1.08-5.37; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Hypertension, discontinuation of medications, and time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN are independent variables associated with the development of CKD and ESDR in our study. 
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Impact of a multidisciplinary pre-dialysis program on renal treatment modalities choice

Published on: 5th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124546591

In Portugal, around 2500 patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 5) start a renal replacement therapy (RRT) for the first time each year [1]. They have four main treatment options: kidney transplantation (TX); haemodialysis (HD); peritoneal dialysis (PD) and conservative treatment (CT). RRT selection is quite complex due to the specificities of each option and to their profound effect on patient’s quality of life. Patients must play a decisive role in the choice of treatment modality and select the option that best suits to their values and needs.
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Multifrecuency bioimpedance phase angle as a tool to predict maturation failure of native fistulae for hemodialysis

Published on: 21st July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9198828640

Background and objectives: An arteriovenous fistula is considered to be an ideal vascular access for patients receiving hemodialysis, its main limitation is its high failure rate to achieve maturation and long-term functionality loss. Multiple strategies have attempted to identify patients at risk. Bioelectrical impedance has shown to be a valuable resource in the determination of the hydration status, and the measurement of the phase angle through this method has demonstrated to be a good indicator of the nutritional state and its related as a general marker of survival. The objective of this study is to analyze the role of plasma albumin and phase angle measured through bioelectrical impedance as tools useful for predicting failure of arteriovenous fistulas. Materials and methods: prospective observational study, including 104 patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis who underwent a native arteriovenous fistula during a period of 24 months. Analyzing its clinical characteristics, laboratory and phase angle through electrical bioimpedance, both univariate and multivariate analysis was performed both with logistic regression, furthermore calculation of coordinates and ROC curve to establish a better cut-off point. Results: of the variables that were analyzed only the phase angle measurement showed statistical significance OR 2.61 (1.6 – 4.4) p - value 0.001 for predicting arteriovenous fistula failure. In female patients with a phase angle value of 3.25 had a 90% sensibility and 53% specificity for male patients a value of 3.58 showed a sensibility of 84% and a specificity of 52% with ROC curve of 0.78. Conclusion: phase angle through bioimpedance is a useful parameter, helpful in predicting failure of native arteriovenous fistula, it is also an important tool for identifying patients at risk, in early stages prior to the construction of a vascular access. 
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Safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir based regimen in the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection among hemodialysis patients in Morocco

Published on: 26th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9244749614

The introduction of a new class of drugs known as direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents represents a revolution in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the general population, as these regimens are associated with higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates and fewer side effects. However, for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease suffering from HVC infection, treatment options including DAA remain limited. The aim of this study is to report our experience on Sofosbuvir (SOF) based regimen in the treatment of HCV in hemodialysis patients.In this observational study, we included all patients with chronic HCV infection on hemodialysis who were treated with SOF in our Hospital between April 2016 and March 2018. All patients were treated with a combination of 400 mg of SOF three times a week after hemodialysis and of 60 mg of Daclatasvir daily for a total of 12 to 24 weeks.A total of 20 hemodialysis patients were included in this study. 12 were females and the mean age was 52.1 ± 15.5 years. 11 patients were infected with HCV genotypes 1b. All patients achieved SVR. Clinical and biological tolerance was very good for all patients and none of them had to discontinue treatment because of side effects or developed hepatobiliary and cardiac toxicity. Two patients reported fatigue and another patient reported headaches. However, these symptoms were spontaneously resolved after the end of the treatment.In Morocco, despite the absence of new DAA combination treatment regimens which are not renally eliminated, our study concludes that SOF based treatment without Ribavirin or Peginterferon was effective and safe with minimal side effects. However, larger studies are still needed in order to validate these results.
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A study to correlate the central corneal thickness to the severity of diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Published on: 14th December, 2021

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of preventable blindness. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) develop not only DR but also corneal endothelial damage leading to anatomical and physiological changes in cornea. Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a key parameter of refractive surgery and Intraocular pressure (IOP) estimation. The role of CCT and higher glycemic index in DR needs to be researched upon.Objectives: To identify the corneal endothelial morphology in patients with type 2 DM, to measure the Central Corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, to assess the relationship of CCT with HbA1C levels in the study group and to correlate the CCT with the severity of Diabetic retinopathy in the study group.Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between January 2018 and June 2019 in Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. The study included 100 subjects with type 2 DM for 5 years or more. Patients with comorbidities that may affect the severity of DR or alter CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters such as glaucoma, previous ocular surgery or trauma, corneal degenerations and dystrophies, chronic kidney disease and Hypertension were excluded. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy, fundus photography and optical coherence imaging of the macula and graded as per the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification. CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters were measured through specular microscopy. Relevant blood investigations including blood sugar levels were done for all patients.Statistical analysis: Relationship between CCT and grades of DR and HbA1c levels were established using the Chi-Square test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05.Results: The mean CCT in patients with no diabetic retinopathy, very mild and mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe and very severe NPDR and PDR was 526.62 ± 8.084 μm, 542.07 ± 8.713 μm, 562.16 ± 8.255 μm, 582.79 ± 7.368 μm and 610.43 ± 18.256 μm respectively. Analysis of the relationship between CCT and severity of DR showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the two parameters (Pearson r = 0.933, p = 0.001). Beyond this, a correlation was found between all the corneal endothelial parameters and severity of DR. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced DR was positively correlated with CV (r  = 0.917) and CCT (r = 0.933); while it was negatively correlated with ECD (r = -0.872) and Hex (r = -0.811). A statistically significant correlation was also found between CCT and HbA1c. Also increasing age, duration of DM and higher glycemic index were positively correlated with severity of DR. Conclusion: This study, by demonstrating a strong correlation between the central corneal thickness to the severity of DR and HbA1c levels emphasizes the importance of evaluation of corneal endothelial morphology in the early screening and diagnosis of microvascular complications of DM.
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The inflammatory profile of chronic kidney disease patients

Published on: 20th December, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9396216755

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health issue which is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Systemic inflammation exists during chronic renal failure. Recent researches have highlighted the pivotal role of inflammation between renal and cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study is to determine the inflammatory profile of the patient suffering from chronic kidney disease and the influence of hemodialysis on this profile.Methods: We carried out a cross sectional study on 93 patients in the Nephrology Department at Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax, South of Tunisia. Among those patients, 72 patients underwent hemodialysis and 21 patients had chronic kidney disease at stage 3. Clinical data and antecedents were collected. Biological samples were taken after informing the patients and taking their consent. Biological data consisted in lipid profile, albumin rate, hemoglobin rate, uric acid concentration and the usual markers of inflammation noting sedimentation rate, C - reactive protein and orosomucoid.Results: Hemodialysis group of the 72 patients had mean hemodialysis vintage of 54.6 ± 43 months. The inflammatory profile was worse in hemodialysis patients compared to chronic kidney disease patients. Both sedimentation rate, C - reactive protein and orosomucoid were higher in hemodialysis group than in chronic kidney disease group with 71 ± 35.3 mm vs. 42.1 ± 15.5 mm (p < 0.05); 14.6 ± 28.7 mg/l vs. 6.7 ± 8 mg/l (p = 0.02); 1.3 ± 0.7g/l vs. 0.9 ± 0.4 g/l (p = 0.01), respectively.Conclusion: Inflammation increases in dialysis patient. It deserves the nephrologist’s consideration in order to minimize its harmful effects. The monitoring of inflammation markers must be integrated into the nephrologist’s medical practice.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat