Climate change

Livestock insurance a tool to reduce economical loss of farmers from climate change related Hazards

Published on: 23rd July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815003571

Climate change brings extreme events like drought, landslide, flood and anticipated more constraint to profitable livestock production causing huge economical loss in the livestock sector of the country. Deaths of livestock and damage to farms and farm infrastructure is causing a huge loss, small livestock holders are highly venerable to such climatic hazards. So to cope with these uncertain climatic hazards livestock insurance is the one of the best strategies. This study reveals that different climatic hazards is been experienced by the livestock holders of Kaski, Dolakha and Jhapa district of Nepal, 62% of the respondent has observed the change in climate. Of the total respondents perceived around 47% farmer have insured their livestock in Kaski district, 33% in Jhapa and 20 % in Dolakha district. Beside the proper vaccination, deworming, management and feeding of animals people are insuring their livestock assets due to uncertain in the climatic pattern and its consequences, this shows that livestock insurance is the one of the tool to mitigate with changing climate and climate relate hazard in livestock sector of Nepal.
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How Bruguiera gymnorhizza seedlings respond to climate change induced salinity rise?

Published on: 22nd September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286422995

A study was undertaken during August 2017 to evaluate the effect of salinity on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid and proline contents of hydroponically grown seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorhizza. The primary aim was to observe its tolerance to changing salinity. The selected seedlings were exposed to five different salinity levels (2,5,10,15 and 20psu) for a period of 30 days and observations were done at a regular interval of 7,14,21 and 30 days respectively. The concentrations of chlorophyll exhibited significant positive correlations with salinity (p<0.01). The chlorophyll a:b ratio in the plant varied between 2.39 to 3.71 throughout the period of investigation. The salinity fluctuation did not affect the carotenoid level and proline content in the leaves of the species as evidenced from the insignificant r values. The results show that Bruguiera gymnorhizza of Indian Sundarbans region can tolerate and adapt to high saline condition as witnessed in the central sector of the deltaic complex around the Matla River.
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Micropollutants in wastewater irrigation systems: Impacts and perspectives

Published on: 9th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8199206316

Climate change and the increasing global population pose a severe threat to the availability of freshwater in the world. Over consumption of water and deteriorating water quality are problems that should be addressed in order to ensure water availability for the coming decades. In this context, the increasing presence of micropollutants in water has shown to cause detrimental impact on water quality, given the negative disturbances that they can cause on human health and on the environment. Thus, it is important to study and quantify the presence of micropollutants in water bodies and also in regenerated wastewater based irrigation systems. 
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Cyn d 1 airborne allergen in a Southern Brazilian city

Published on: 26th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8971180635

By researching the factors related to exposure to indoor and outdoor allergens, such seasons, climate changes and particulate matter, allergists can screen the sensitization profile of individuals according to their exposures and conduct preventive treatment and individualized immunotherapy. Molecular allergology has improved aerobiological screening of allergenic components toward more specific results on allergic exposure, sensitization, and symptoms [1,2]. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a colorimetric enzyme immunoassay technique used to quantify soluble substances such as proteins, peptides, antibodies, and hormones. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity, ELISA can quantify substances at low concentrations, such as allergens [3].
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Current challenges in plant breeding to achieve zero hunger and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses induced by the global climate changes: A review

Published on: 28th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9204610537

According Sustainable Development goals until 2030 we should have zero hunger and undernourished people in the world. But to achieve this goal plant breeders must improve plants in order to produce at least the double than is produced now. This is not a easy pathway because we have only few years, but considering that plant breeding programs normally take several years to produce improved genotypes, also the further improved plants should face with pest, disease and other abiotic factors that are increasing with the current climate changes. In this review we will discuss the situation of hunger in the world and the remaining available land to increase food production, point out effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the food production and present some ways that can be used to fastening plant breeding.
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The Trans-zoonotic Virome interface: Measures to balance, control and treat epidemics

Published on: 9th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8870064677

The global virome: The viruses have a global distribution, phylogenetic diversity and host specificity. They are obligate intracellular parasites with single- or double-stranded DNA or RNA genomes, and afflict bacteria, plants, animals and human population. The viral infection begins when surface proteins bind to receptor proteins on the host cell surface, followed by internalisation, replication and lysis. Further, trans-species interactions of viruses with bacteria, small eukaryotes and host are associated with various zoonotic viral diseases and disease progression. Virome interface and transmission: The cross-species transmission from their natural reservoir, usually mammalian or avian, hosts to infect human-being is a rare probability, but occurs leading to the zoonotic human viral infection. The factors like increased human settlements and encroachments, expanded travel and trade networks, altered wildlife and livestock practices, modernised and mass-farming practices, compromised ecosystems and habitat destruction, and global climate change have impact on the interactions between virome and its hosts and other species and act as drivers of trans-species viral spill-over and human transmission. Zoonotic viral diseases and epidemics: The zoonotic viruses have caused various deadly pandemics in human history. They can be further characterized as either newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases, caused by pathogens that historically have infected the same host species, but continue to appear in new locations or in drug-resistant forms, or reappear after apparent control or elimination. The prevalence of zoonoses underlines importance of the animal–human–ecosystem interface in disease transmission. The present COVID-19 infection has certain distinct features which suppress the host immune response and promote the disease potential. Treatment for epidemics like covid-19: It appears that certain nutraceuticals may provide relief in clinical symptoms to patients infected with encapsulated RNA viruses such as influenza and coronavirus. These nutraceuticals appear to reduce the inflammation in the lungs and help to boost type 1 interferon response to these viral infections. The human intestinal microbiota acting in tandem with the host’s defence and immune system, is vital for homeostasis and preservation of health. The integrity and balanced activity of the gut microbes is responsible for the protection from disease states including viral infections. Certain probiotics may help in improving the sensitivity and effectivity of immune system against viral infections. Currently, antiviral therapy is available only for a limited number of zoonotic viral infections. Because viruses are intracellular parasites, antiviral drugs are not able to deactivate or destroy the virus but can reduce the viral load by inhibiting replication and facilitating the host’s innate immune mechanisms to neutralize the virus. Conclusion: Lessons from recent viral epidemics - Considering that certain nutraceuticals have demonstrated antiviral effects in both clinical and animal studies, further studies are required to establish their therapeutic efficacy. The components of nutraceuticals such as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid may be useful for developing a combo-therapy. The use of probiotics to enhance immunity and immune response against viral infections is a novel possibility. The available antiviral therapy is inefficient in deactivating or destroying the infecting viruses, may help in reducing the viral load by inhibiting replication. The novel efficient antiviral agents are being explored.
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