Coronary disease

Short and Medium-Term Evaluation of Patients in Coronary Post-Angioplasty: Préliminary results at the Cardiology Department of the Hospital University Aristide Le Dantec of Dakar (Senegal): Study on 38 Cases

Published on: 20th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286354250

Introduction: Coronary angioplasty is a safe therapeutic method for coronary disease. However, its major obstacles remain the occurrence of stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term and medium-term results of coronary angioplasty patients in the cardiology department of Aristide Le Dantec hospital in Dakar. Methodology: It was a longitudinal, descriptive and analytical study over a period of 12 months (April 2014 to April 2015) with a follow-up at 6 months. Was included any patient who had a coronary angioplasty with stent placement. Results: Thirty-eight patients had been included with a male predominance and a sex ratio of 5.32. The average age was 57.94 years. Cardiovascular risk factors were mainly smoking (57.9%) and coronary heredity (42.1%), followed by hypertension (39.5%) and diabete (34.2%). The indications for angioplasty were acute coronary syndromes TS(+) and TS(-) respectively (50%) and (23.7%) and stable angina (26.3%). The right femoral approach was almost exclusive (97.4%). Coronary angiography revealed a predominance of anterior interventricular affection (84.2%). Type B lesions were the most frequent (68.4%). The single-truncal valve affection was predominant (76.3%). Direct stenting accounted for 63.2% of procedures. Twenty-one bare stents (55.3%) and 17 active stents (44.7%) were implanted. The results were excellent (94.7%). One case of acute stent thrombosis was noted. Echocardiography of dobutamine stress during follow-up was positive in 04 patients (12.5%). The control coronary angiography performed in two patients revealed an ISR. The predictive factors for restenosis were dominated by a deterioration in the segmental kinetics (p=0.009), in the diastolic function (p=0.002), the systolic function (p=0.003), a high post angioplasty troponin (p=0.004), the presence of calcifications (p=0.004) and a high SYNTAX score (p=0.021). Conclusion: According to these results, Angioplasty is an effective therapy for coronary disease. However, a correct intake of double platelet antiaggregants and clinical and non-invasive screening are required for follow-up to avoid stent thrombosis or restenosis.
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Indications and Results of Coronarography in Senegalese Diabetic Patients: About 45 Cases

Published on: 20th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286426513

Introduction: Coronary disease accounts for 75% of diabetic mortality. Coronary angiography reveals lesions that are often diffuse, staggered and multi-truncated. The objective of this study was to determine the indications and results of coronary angiography in diabetic patients. Method: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study which took place from May 2013 to July 2015 at the cardiology clinic of the Aristide Le Dantec hospital. We have included all diabetics who have benefited from coronary angiography by studying clinical and paraclinical data, particularly coronary angiography ones. Results: During this period, 400 patients had coronary angiography, including 45 diabetics, a hospital prevalence of 11.25%. The average age of our patients was 62.27 y/o with extremes of 44 and 85 y/o. The sex ratio was 1.6 in favor of men. Diabete was revealed in 42 patients. Almost all patients were type II diabetics (44 patients) since 9.94 years in average. The associated cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension 66.7% and dyslipidemia 49.6%. Only 4 patients had typical chest pain. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in 84.4% of cases with 26 cases of SCA ST +. Coronary angiography was abnormal in 37 patients with significant stenosis in 30 patients. A single-truncular lesion was found in 14 cases, 8 had bi-truncular and other 8 had tri-truncular one. The anterior interventricular artery and the segment II of the right coronary were the most affected branches. Concerning the management, 14 patients had angioplasty with an active stent, 8 patients had medical treatment alone and 9 patients had coronary artery bypass surgery. Accidents occured for 4 patients, two of whom had arterial spasm, one of a vagal discomfort and another had an occlusion of the circumflex that led to the implantation of a stent. Conclusion: Diabetes is accompanied by progressive coronary atherosclerosis, which has an adverse effect on patients' prognosis. Tri-truncal affection and indications for coronary artery bypass surgery are common
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Long-Term Impact of Coronary Artery Disease in Lung Transplantation

Published on: 26th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8440605468

Background: Adoption of the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) has led to increased listing of older patients and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for lung transplantation (LTX). Older patients and those with IPF have higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), a relative contraindication for LTX. The impact of the LAS on CAD prevalence and cardiovascular morbidity in LTX recipients is unknown. Methods: Retrospective review of single institution database from January 2000 to December 2010. Patients with and without CAD were compared by age, gender, LAS, single vs double LTX, and transplant indication. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and statistical significance determined by log-rank method. Survival analysis was performed on all patients and by 3:1 propensity matching. Differences in CAD, gender, and indication were determined by Chi-squared test. Differences in LAS and age were calculated with a two-tailed t - test. Results: In the pre-LAS era, 6.2% (9/145) recipients had CAD vs. 9.2% (17/184) in the post-LAS era (p = 0.411). Among all patients, recipients with CAD had a worse long term survival as estimated by Kaplan-Meier method (p = 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference after propensity matching ((p = 0.14). Although more recipients in the post-LAS era had a diagnosis of IPF [15/145 vs. 71/184 patients, (p < 0.001)], there was no difference in the prevalence of CAD in the IPF cohort compared to others. There were no differences in cardiovascular deaths among recipients with CAD, with IPF, or in the post-LAS era. Patients with a pre-transplant diagnosis of CAD had an descreased risk of new onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) (p = 0.007; HR:0.133; CI:0.030-0.583). Conclusion: Adoption of the LAS was not associated with a significant change in proportion of recipients with CAD who underwent LTX at our institution, despite an increase in recipients with IPF. Recipients with CAD had a higher risk of developing new postoperative AF and worse survival than patients without CAD. Differences in survival, however, could not be attributed directly to CAD based on propensity matched analysis
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Surgery and new Pharmacological strategy in some atherosclerotic chronic and acute conditions

Published on: 18th August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317601909

Introduction In actual pharmacological therapy we can see that some drugs can be added to other medical instruments to improve their activity: in example we can see medicated stent for some coronary disease, or hormonal medical devices used in pregnancy prevention, but other example are known today. In example Carmustine wafer is delivered by delivery systems in some brain cancer and radioactive seed implants in prostatic cancer. Ocular intra vitreal implants for some macular degenerations (MABS or cortisones) other implants delivery systems drugs, naltrexone implant for opiate dependence. Other strategies imply carrier use to deliver the drugs in the site of action: In example MABS linked to radioactive isotopes in some relapse of severe Hodgkin disease but many other example we can see in therapy used today. So we can think that other chronic conditions can be treated using a combination of drugs with other instrument to improve the clinical outcomes. This to make possible that the ERLICH MUGIC BULLETS can act in the right site reducing the side effect. In example today we can see various medical interventional radiological strategy to treat in coronary and hearth disease with medicate stents positioning or to local use of contrast agents or other valvle surgery procedures with global good clinical results.
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Unrecognized myocardial infarction in the elderly

Published on: 22nd September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286428021

This study presents the frequency of old myocardial infarctions (OMI), and the frequency of unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) in elderly people in a forensic material. It was also examined if predisposing factors of UMI could be identified. Of special interest was also to investigate the value of the police’s records as a source for medical information in a forensic setting. The study is based upon medico-legal autopsies of persons above the age of 60 at the time of death during the period 1999-2003. The study included 325 cardiovascular deaths. Of these, 166 died from OMI. UMI accounted for 123 of these (74%). Most UMI were located in the interventricular myocardial septum and left anterior wall (>60%), but no significant differences could be found between UMI and recognized MIs (RMI). No obvious reason could be found as to why the UMI remained unrecognized. Police records were inferior to the hospitals records, regarding medical information to the pathologist, with information about cardiac disease in about 60%, and with information about OMI in 11-17%. Hospital records supplying information about OMI were found in half the cases. It is concluded that unrecognized myocardial infarction is not uncommon among elderly persons, and with a high risk of sudden death. More emphasis should be put in recognizing OMI in ECGs to attempt to reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death.
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