Cystoid macular edema

The management of Irvine-Gass Syndrome in a patient using Inhaler Steroid

Published on: 7th February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355942124

Irvine-Gass syndrome, is one of the most common causes of painless decrease in vision following even uneventful cataract surgery. It usually responds well to medical therapy, but, there are no widely acceptedconsensus on the efficacy of various therapeutic options for the treatment of Irvine-Gass syndrome. The patient presenting in this case report, has systemic hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and he use oral anti-hypertension medication and inhaler steroid. He diagnosed as Irvine-Gass syndrome due to presence of decrease in visual acuity and macular edema with hyporeflective cystic intraretinal spaces in optical coherence tomography (OCT) since4th weekcontrol visitfollowing uneventful cataract surgery. After the responsiveness of several medications including topical steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF), intravitreal sustained-release dexamethasone implant was applied. The visual acuity improved to 0.00 logMAR at 1st month after intravitreal dexamethasone therapy and consecutive OCT images showed complete resolution of macular edema with a normalization of the foveal profile.The visual acuity and foveal architecture remained stable in 2-year follow-up period and additional treatment was not needed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reportthatmentions the increment of visual acuity after a single dexamethasone implant, even though it did not response anti-VEGF combined with topical steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 
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Place of beta-radiation in the etiology and treatment of cataract

Published on: 9th February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355970716

Among eye diseases, cataract is the most commonly encountered lens disease and the leading cause of reduced vision. Cataract caused by radiation develops due to neck & head, central nervous system tumors, eye localized tumors and total body irradiation. Today, the only treatment of cataract is surgery. Beta radiation is seen to have an important place both in the etiology and treatment of cataract. Beta-radiation creates cataract in the lens as an adverse effect. However, beta radiation implementation is used for delay or prevention of cataract in glaucoma surgery. Effects of beta-radiation on the etiology and treatment should be supported by further prospective clinical studies.
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Alternative treatment methods in eyes with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema

Published on: 3rd January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7970379228

Cystoid macular edema is a common cause for unexplained painless vision loss after cataract surgery. Even the pathogenesis of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) still remains undefined, it can most frequently occur in eyes with high vasoactive profile, had complicated cataract surgery such as posterior capsule rupture and risk of inflammation. Increased inflammation, ultimately leading to the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier and cystic accumulation of extracellular intraretinal fluid. The natural history of PCME is spontaneous resolution without any treatment in most of patient, but it may take weeks or months, in addition permanent visual morbidity may occur in some cases. Therefore there is lack of consensus regarding treatment approach for this common ocular condition. In this review treatment alternatives of PCME and its relation with underlying patho-physiologic mechanism are evaluated.
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Two different patterns and outcome of neodymium YAG capsulotomy

Published on: 25th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553878059

Visual impairment is a global health problem. Cataract is responsible for 50% of blindness worldwide [1]. Posterior capsular opacification is the most common late complication of cataract surgery as a result of proliferation of residual lens epithelial cells overall 25% of patients undergoing extra-capsular cataract surgery develops visually significant PCO within 5 years of the operation [2]. Nd: YAG laser provides the advantage of cutting the posterior lens capsule, thereby avoiding and minimizing infection, wound leaks, and other complication of intraocular surgery. Thus Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is noninvasive, effective and relatively safe technique [3]. However, this procedure is associated with complications such as- postoperative increased intraocular pressure (IOP), cystoid macular edema (CME), disruption of the anterior vitreous surface, uveitis, lens subluxation, increased incidence of retinal detachment and pitting of the IOL [4]. Laser shots can be applied in several patterns such as “Cruciate or Cross pattern”, “Can opener”, inverted “U-Method” and in a “Circular pattern”. Many authors promote the use of a cruciate pattern in the Centre of the visual axis, with the clinician starting off on both axes away from the Centre to avoid pitting the lens centrally [5]. This study mainly aims to analyze the effect of various forms of PCO capsulotomy openings on visual function after Nd: YAG capsulotomy.
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Changes in intraocular pressure after ND-yag laser posterior capsulotomy

Published on: 20th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8605488676

The Nd-Yag L has been developed in Europe since the mid-1970s [10]. Today Nd-Yag LPC has become an established procedure for after cataract. Before the Nd-Yag L came into use, the capsulotomy was done by performing a small puncture with a needle knife or 27 gauge needle, either at the time of original operation or as a secondary procedure through the limbus in aphakic or through pars plana in pseudophakic. The Nd-Yag L preferred because it is non-invasive and infection cannot occur. The most important complication is a transient rise in IOP 1-3 hrs of Nd-Yag LPC [1]. Occasionally the pressure rise is high and can cause serious damage to the optic nerve, so that the IOP should be monitored and appropriate measures should be taken if necessary. Only if we can minimize its frequency or, better still, avoid it, altogether, can we accept Nd-Yag L as a safe procedure in our effort to restore vision. In otherwise normal eyes, a mild elevation of IOP is of no consequence because it usually resolves within 24 hour especially when the patient receives anti-glaucoma drugs before and after laser application. However in eyes with pre-existing glaucoma, the incidence of IOP elevation is higher and its duration is longer than in otherwise normal eyes. Some glaucomatous eyes may therefore require additional glaucoma therapy for several weeks following Nd-Yag LPC [3]. So monitoring is particularly important in the cases of glaucoma with optic nerve damage and field loss as these eyes are susceptible to small pressure rises for even a short period. A single rise to 40mmHg for a few hours can cause irreversible damage to the damaged optic nerve and lead to permanent visual loss or even blindness [1]. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes in IOP at 1hour,24hour and 1 week after Nd-Yag LPC.
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