Drug targets

Microbiome and Gastroesophageal Disease: Pathogenesis and Implications for Therapy

Published on: 21st May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8603898545

There is growing evidence that gastroesophageal disease is influenced by the esophageal microbiome, and that commensal bacteria of the oropharynx, stomach, and colon are thought to have a role in modulatiing pathogenesis. These emerging hypotheses are based on observed changes in the composition of the esophageal flora, notably, repeated observations: 1. There is an abundance of gram-positive bBacteria in the healthy esophagus. are more gram positive prevalent 2. The esophageal bacterial population becomes increasingly gram negative with disease progression. Associated with this shift to a more gram negative prevalence is an increase in the potential for the presence of antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The immunoreactivity of LPS endotoxin thought to promote susceptibility to inflammation and disease. The pathogenesis of the more common diseases of the esophagus e.g. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal dysmotility (achalasia), eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal cancer, are well-established. Emerging data suggest however, that these are all characterized by an immune-mediated inflammatory cascade, propogated by a dysbiotic state. Thereby, the ability of the healthy “normative state” to protect against foreign bacteria is compromised. This dysbiosis thereby can create adverse inflammatory or immunoregulatory responses with progression of disease. In the normal healthy state, the esophageal microbiome is constituted in-part, by a multitude of gram positive bacteria, many of which produce antibacterial peptides called bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are selective and used to maintain population integrity by killing off foreign bacteria. When the “normative biome” is interrupted (e.g. antibiotics, medications, diet, environmental factors), the constitutional changes may allow a more hospitable imbalance favoring the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Therefore it seems rational that defining, perhaps that defining, perhaps cultivating, a protective bacterial community that could help prevent or mitigate inflammatory diseases of the esophagus. Furthermore, in conjunction with evidence demonstrating that some bacteriocins are cytotoxic or antiproliferative toward cancer cell lines, further exploration might provide a rich source of effective peptide-based drug targets. Therapeutic options targeting the microbiome, including prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and bacteriocins, have been studied, albeit the attributable effects on the esophagus for the most part, have been unrecognized by clinicians. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the involvement of the microbiome in esophageal diseases (most notably GERD/Barrett’s esophagus/esophageal cancer) and identifies emerging new concepts for treatment.
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Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus a green plague-Current status of available drug and new potential targets

Published on: 14th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124811236

Pigeonpea is one of the important legume crops with high protein content and nutritional traits. It has enormous potency for its widespread adoption by farming communities. It is affected by various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In the context, of biotic stresses Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) is one of the severe diseases in pigeonpea which ultimately lead to the drastic yield loss. The virus belongs to the genus Emaravirus, family- Fimoviridae. SMD is associated with two diverse types of Emaravirus, Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus1 (PPSMV-1) and Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2). It is transmitted by the mite (Aceria cajani), mainly environmental contributing to the feasibility for the mites for the inoculation of the virus. The SMD is mainly governed by two genes SV1 that includes the dominant allele and serves as an inhibitory action on the resistance of the SV2. Methods for identification of the virus include RT-PCR, DIBA and ELISA using alkaline phosphatase or penicillinase. To control SMV disease farmers generally adopted intercropping methods. There are few potential drugs have been identified for the administration of the disease such as 0.1% Fenazaquin, Dicofol, Imidacloripid, Carbosulfan; Spiromesifin includes the inhibition of the mite inoculation on the pigeonpea plant. The present review describes compressive and systematic insights on SMV protein targets and potential drugs that could be utilized as the presumed drug targets for the finding of true drugs against the SMD in pigeonpea.
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A Perspective on therapeutic potential of weeds

Published on: 18th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628652609

Nature gives us a diverse plethora of floral wealth. Weeds have been recognized as invasive plant by most of scholars in today’s world with extraordinary travel history. They are considered to be noxious for adjoining plant species and also as economic hazard. Weeds inhabited in almost entire biomes and have capability to survive in harsh conditions of environment thereby become source of inspiration for finding novel phytoconstituents. Weeds play a significant role in absorbing harmful micro pollutants that are affecting ecosystem adversely. There are so many examples like canna lily, bladder wort, coltsfoot, giant buttercup etc. playing crucial part in sustaining environment. Different isolation and characterization approaches like high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy etc. have also been fetched for obtaining novel constituents from weeds. The main aim of this review is to analyze the therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and effort to unfold the wide scope of its applications in biological sciences. Upon exploration of various authorized databases available it has been found that weeds not only are the reservoir of complex phytoconstituents exhibiting diverse array of pharmacological activities but also provide potential role in environment phytoremediation. Phytoconstituents reported in weeds have immense potential as a drug targets for different pathological conditions. This review focuses on the literature of therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and tried to unveil the hidden side of these unwanted plants called weeds.
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Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): An extensive study on evolution, global health, drug targets and vaccines

Published on: 5th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272394662

The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has become a worldwide pandemic and the scientific communities are struggling to find out the ultimate treatment strategies against this lethal virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2). Presently, there is no potential chemically proven antiviral therapy available in the market which can effectively combat the infection caused by this deadly virus. Few vaccines are already developed but it is not clear to the scientific community how much efficient they are to combat SARS-CoV-2. Mode of transmission and symptoms of the disease are two important factors in this regard. Rapid diagnosis of the COVID-19 is very much important to stop its spreading. In this scenario, a complete study starting from symptoms of the disease to vaccine development including various SARS-CoV-2 detection techniques is very much required. In this review article, we have made a partial analysis on the origin, virology, global health, detection techniques, replication pathways, doses, mode of actions of probable drugs, and vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2.
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