Forensic science

Comparison of Vitreous Protein Profiles of Rabbits subjected to Acute Carbon Monoxide poisoning and normal animal after death

Published on: 6th June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286357384

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is caused by the inhalation of large quantity of CO within short time leading to morbidity and mortality. In this study, a total of eighteen (18) rabbits were divided into three (3) groups of six (6) animals each. The first group first group was poisoned with CO and labelled carbon monoxide death (CD). The second group of animals was killed prior to exposure to CO and labelled disguised death (DD), while the third was the control group (CG). The vitreous humour samples were collected from all the animals using standard methodologies. The vitreous humour total protein and albumin were estimated while its globulin content and albumin/globulin ratio were derived mathematically. Pearson correlation analyses were used to establish relationships between vitreous protein profile components and the acute graded carbon monoxide concentrations. Results indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in vitreous total protein and globulin of the studied groups. This observation was more pronounced in the CD group of animals. Therefore the marked elevation of vitreous total protein and globulin may serve as a useful tool in the confirmation of death due to carbon monoxide poisoning.
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Organic compositional analysis of propellant powders using monolithic material sorption extraction (MSSE)-a feasibility study

Published on: 5th September, 2017

The application of monolithic material sorption extraction, specifically MonoTrapTM, to the extraction of organic gunshot residue (OGSR) compounds from unburnt propellant powders is described. Four different MonoTraps were assessed for their capability to extract OGSR compounds from two different ammunition types. Extracts were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the carbon disc was suitable for the extraction of OGSR compounds from unburnt propellant powders. Quantities for major compounds were comparable to methanol extractions. The method was successfully used to detect a wide range of OGSR compounds, including nitrotoluenes, nitroglycerin, diphenylamines and centralites and is expected to be applicable to a wide range of ammunition types.
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Sensitivity and Intertextile variance of amylase paper for saliva detection

Published on: 12th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550282807

Contemporary forensic science hinges on DNA analysis to link an individual to a crime scene. Sources of DNA include bodily fluids, including saliva. Amylase is a primary enzyme in human saliva and thus, if detected, indicates possible presence of human saliva. Amylase paper can be used to map apparent saliva and thus provide a source from which DNA can be extracted and analyzed. In this study, the sensitivity of amylase paper was tested, firstly, using dilutions of an amylase standard and subsequently also tested using fresh human saliva. Three trials total were conducted, the first two using an amylase standard and a third using fresh saliva. The first two trials demonstrated firstly that detection of amylase is dependent on the material upon which amylase is deposited. The third trial demonstrated that amylase levels in human saliva may drop significantly somewhere around 48-72 hours. All trials were consistent in the concentration of amylase that Seratec Amylase Paper will detect.
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Awareness level on the role of forensic DNA database in criminal investigation in Nigeria: A case study of Benin city

Published on: 15th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872659590

Pieces of evidence have continued to emerge, demonstrating the extensive efficiency and effectiveness of the DNA database in assisting criminal investigations around the world. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the awareness level on the prominent role of Forensic DNA Database on Crime Investigation in Nigeria: a case study of Benin City. In conducting this research, a total of 458 questionnaires were distributed around Benin City between the periods of 12th January 2020 to 21st March 2020, with a particular focus on security agents and students. The questionnaire comprised of three main categories: Socio-demographic characteristics, Information about the National Forensic DNA Database, and Information about DNA evidence, and Nigeria Criminal Justice system. For the analysis of data collected; the statistical tool used was also Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 22 for windows. Responses were compared using chi-square and presented as counts and percentages. In determining the level of awareness, the following responses were obtained. Of the total population: 53.28% had no idea about forensics, 19.21% were uncertain and 27.54% knew about forensics. The same trend was observed with Forensic DNA profiling, 42.14% did not know, 22.27% were uncertain and 35.59% demonstrated good knowledge of Forensic DNA profiling. On the knowledge about the National Forensic DNA Database, 48.47% had no knowledge, 22.27% were uncertain and 29.26% were knowledgeable about it. The result of the present study revealed that the awareness level of the forensic DNA Database was found to be inadequate.
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Awareness level on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation in Nigeria

Published on: 15th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9305467463

The main aim of forensic science is to gather intelligence to enable the judge to credible and logical decisions in the court by means of scientific approach through evaluation of evidence for the administration of justice, and country around the world now considers forensic methodology as the gold standard for criminal investigation. Therefore, the present study examined the level of awareness on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation in Nigeria. The design used in this study is the survey research design and the sample size of this study was a total of one hundred personnel of law enforcement and the judiciary. The study adopted descriptive statistics which involves the use of frequency and percentage. The result of the present study revealed that the participants were distributed socio-demographically as follows; there was an observable higher number of male participants (68%) relative to the female participants (32%), As per age distribution, a larger population of the participants were found to be > 40 years of age with 55%, and it was observed that age between 35-39 years ranked the least with 15%. On educational level, the result of the present study revealed that majority of the participants possesses a bachelor’s degree as the highest level of educational qualification with 75% from a pool of 100% of participants. The present study further examined responses on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation, and the result revealed an inadequate level of awareness on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation. Therefore, the study recommends that the Nigerian Police Force and the Judiciary should collaborate with Universities running programs on forensics for trainings.
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Extraction of DNA from face mask recovered from a kidnapping scene

Published on: 7th January, 2022

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction has considerably evolved since it was initially performed back in 1869. It is the first step required for many of the available downstream applications used in the field of molecular biology and forensic science. Blood samples is one of the main body fluid used to obtain DNA. This experiment used other body fluids such as saliva, sweat tears and mucus. There are many different protocols available to perform nucleic acid extraction on such samples. These methods vary from very basic manual protocols to more sophisticated methods included in automated DNA extraction protocols. This experiment used extraction kit (Zymo research). The DNA result from isolated saliva samples on the facemask range from 133.7, 213.6, 599.1 and 209.1 mg/ml. theoretically; such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. The DNA from isolated tears samples on the face mask ranges from 707.7, 202.5, 99.2, and 62.6 mg/ml. Theoretically, such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. The DNA from isolated tears samples on the face mask ranges from 615.3, 66.2, 78.5, and 68.2 mg/ml. theoretically, such DNA is of much quantity and quality and can be used for forensic investigation when recovered from a crime scene. Extracted DNA from saliva and sweat produced visible bands on agarose gel, mucous stain produce obscure band on agarose gel and the tears stain produce invisible bands. DNA from sweat satin, saliva stain, mucus stain and tears stain in face mask can be used as alternative for forensic investigation.
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