Heavy metals and metalloids are dangerous because they have the tendency to bioaccumulate in biological organisms over a period of time. However, it is conceived that a number of phytochemical agents as well microorganism can act as heavy metal removing agent both from human beings and the environment surrounding. For instance, microbes are used for the removal of heavy metals from the water bodies including bacteria, fungi, algae and yeast. This review shows that bacteria can play an important role in understanding the uptake and potential removal behaviour of heavy metal ions. The bacteria are chosen based on their resistance to heavy metals (incl. their toxicities) and capacity of adsorbing them. Due to specific resistance transfer factors, cell impermeability is drastically inhibited by several ion (i.e. mercury, cadmium, cobalt, copper, arsenic) forms. Between these elements, free-ion cadmium and copper concentrations in the biological medium provide more accurate determination of metal concentrations that affect the bacteria, than with most of the other existing media. Metal toxicity is usually assessed by using appropriate metal ion chelators and adjusting pH factor. Bacteria and metals in the ecosystem can form synergistic or antagonistic relationships, supplying each other with nutrients or energy sources, or producing toxins to reduce growth and competition for limiting nutritional elements. Thus, this relation may present a more sustainable approach for the restoration of contaminated sources.
Vegetable production by grafting is a technique which it has made possible to resume agricultural soils which previously could not be produced due to stress generated by various abiotic factors, like a lack of water, stress by high or low temperatures, and or heavy metal contamination, among them. It has been documented and defined a number of graftings which they are tolerant to different factors; however, when it comes to auscultating information related to understand the molecular responses and observe what are the biochemical changes and physiological responses of grafted plants, it is dispersed. The current paper attempts to provide basic information documented on technique, addressing the molecular, biochemical and physiological responses, and thus get a clear perspective on the use of grafts, making this practice be used with most frequently by all its advantages.
This study investigated the effect of Portland cement on stabilization of heavy metal contaminated clayey soils that may give range of geo environemntal benefits. The absolute concentration of heavy metals: Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) and Copper (Cu) were measured using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). A series of laboratory scale experiments such as unconfined compression test (UCT), pH test and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were performed to study the effects of curing time and cement content on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching characteristics of heavy metals. According to results, excessive concentration of heavy metals are present in the topsoil of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) among which Pb, Zn and Cd were most prominent. Other test results showed that the dry density of both C4 and C8 soil samples increases with curing time. Similarly the compressive strength (qu)of C4 and C8 samples at 21 d of curing increases by 40% (113 kPa-288 kPa) and 15% (745kPa-864 kPa) respectively, as compared to the 7 d of curing. Besides, the test results showed a prominent decrease in the leached concentration of heavy metals with increasing curing time.
Naturally, microorganisms decompose the organic material existing in nature, both in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of materials such as poisonous chemical compounds, heavy metals, would prevent the treatment process from taking place, lead to the entry of these contaminants into the environment results in the emergence of numerous diseases. In the present study, using the TOXChem4.1 simulation model, attempts were made to simulate a wastewater treatment plant and then assess the dispersions of contaminants including 1,2-Dimethylnaphthalene, 1,3-Dinitropyrene, 1,6-Dimethylnaphthalene, 1,6-Dinitropyrene, and 17a-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in concentrations of a common scenario. The results of computer simulations showed that the EE2 contaminant is of the highest percentage of decomposition among others, due to its wider chemical structure. Consequently, it is clear that such contaminant is of the highest mass in the sludge exiting the treatment plant. In addition, the results of the simulations demonstrated that the highest volumes of gaseous pollutants take place in the modulation and initial sedimentation units.
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