Heavy metals and metalloids are dangerous because they have the tendency to bioaccumulate in biological organisms over a period of time. However, it is conceived that a number of phytochemical agents as well microorganism can act as heavy metal removing agent both from human beings and the environment surrounding. For instance, microbes are used for the removal of heavy metals from the water bodies including bacteria, fungi, algae and yeast. This review shows that bacteria can play an important role in understanding the uptake and potential removal behaviour of heavy metal ions. The bacteria are chosen based on their resistance to heavy metals (incl. their toxicities) and capacity of adsorbing them. Due to specific resistance transfer factors, cell impermeability is drastically inhibited by several ion (i.e. mercury, cadmium, cobalt, copper, arsenic) forms. Between these elements, free-ion cadmium and copper concentrations in the biological medium provide more accurate determination of metal concentrations that affect the bacteria, than with most of the other existing media. Metal toxicity is usually assessed by using appropriate metal ion chelators and adjusting pH factor. Bacteria and metals in the ecosystem can form synergistic or antagonistic relationships, supplying each other with nutrients or energy sources, or producing toxins to reduce growth and competition for limiting nutritional elements. Thus, this relation may present a more sustainable approach for the restoration of contaminated sources.
This study investigated the effect of Portland cement on stabilization of heavy metal contaminated clayey soils that may give range of geo environemntal benefits. The absolute concentration of heavy metals: Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) and Copper (Cu) were measured using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). A series of laboratory scale experiments such as unconfined compression test (UCT), pH test and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were performed to study the effects of curing time and cement content on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching characteristics of heavy metals. According to results, excessive concentration of heavy metals are present in the topsoil of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) among which Pb, Zn and Cd were most prominent. Other test results showed that the dry density of both C4 and C8 soil samples increases with curing time. Similarly the compressive strength (qu)of C4 and C8 samples at 21 d of curing increases by 40% (113 kPa-288 kPa) and 15% (745kPa-864 kPa) respectively, as compared to the 7 d of curing. Besides, the test results showed a prominent decrease in the leached concentration of heavy metals with increasing curing time.
Naturally, microorganisms decompose the organic material existing in nature, both in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of materials such as poisonous chemical compounds, heavy metals, would prevent the treatment process from taking place, lead to the entry of these contaminants into the environment results in the emergence of numerous diseases. In the present study, using the TOXChem4.1 simulation model, attempts were made to simulate a wastewater treatment plant and then assess the dispersions of contaminants including 1,2-Dimethylnaphthalene, 1,3-Dinitropyrene, 1,6-Dimethylnaphthalene, 1,6-Dinitropyrene, and 17a-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in concentrations of a common scenario. The results of computer simulations showed that the EE2 contaminant is of the highest percentage of decomposition among others, due to its wider chemical structure. Consequently, it is clear that such contaminant is of the highest mass in the sludge exiting the treatment plant. In addition, the results of the simulations demonstrated that the highest volumes of gaseous pollutants take place in the modulation and initial sedimentation units.
The service from the journal staff has been excellent.
To the editorial team at HSPI and the Journal of Clinical Nephrology:
Thank you so much for your hard work and collaboration in bringing our article to life. Your staff was responsive, flexible, and communicative and made the process smooth and easy. Thank you!
This is to specify that I have had an extensive and detailed interaction with the Editorial team of Annals of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, USA, lasting over a significant period of time. My interaction has been extremely pleasant, especially with Ms Allie Smith, as I find the communication quite inspiring and crystal clear. The attitude of aforesaid individuals is quite helpful and guiding in pertinent instances. It has been a commemorative journey so far working with the Journal and I hope that the symbiosis will continue, evolve and flourish in the forthcoming years.
I wish the journal, related personnel and aforementioned individuals a fruitful, successful run.
New Delhi, India
"An amazing experience with the Journal of Advanced Pediatrics and Child Health. Very fast blind review with pertinent corrections and suggestions. I highly recommand both the journal and the editor."
It has been a fabulous journey writing articles for your journal because of the encouragement you people provide for writers from developing nations like India. Kindly continue the same. Looking forward for a long term association.
"This is my first time publishing with the journal/publisher. I am impressed at the promptness of the publishing staff and the professionalism displayed. Thank you for encouraging young researchers like me!"
I hope to ability to make some new investigation and publish in Your Company in future.
Regarding to be services, we note that are work with high standards of professionalism translated into quick response, efficiency which makes communication accessible. Furthermore, I believe to be much inviting for the submission of future works for publication purposes.
Amélia João Alice Nkutxi
Really good service with prompt response. Looking forward to having long lasting relationship with your journal
We appreciate the fact that you decided to give us full waiver for the applicable charges and approve the final version. You did an excellent job preparing the PDF version. Of course we will consider your magazine for our future submissions and we will pay the applicable fees then.