Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance to infection control of various dental laboratories in Durban.
Study design: This was a qualitative survey.
Setting: Dental laboratories in Durban area, South Africa.
Subject: Registered laboratory technicians.
Study methodology: Convenient random sampling method was used.
Results: There was poor compliance to infection control procedures by most dental laboratories. Majority, 66.67%, of the dental laboratories relied on dental clinics for disinfection of dental impressions; therefore, they did not disinfect the impressions. On the other hand, only 33.33% carried out disinfection of dental impressions on their own. A high number (53.3%) of the respondents had disinfection areas within their dental laboratories, 6.7% had no disinfection areas while 40% depended upon dental clinics for all disinfections. About 60% of the dental technicians had valid vaccinations against Hepatitis B Virus while 40% had no vaccination against HBV.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there was substantial nonconformity to infection control measure in all dental laboratories. There should be comprehensive inspection of dental laboratories prior to licensing and thereafter by the South African Dental Technician Council’s inspectors to ensure that all dental laboratories comply with the various infection control measures.
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory and antifibrotic properties, and therefore used for treatment of many of chronic liver disease . Although there are many reports on the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and chronic liver diseases, but the relationship between hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) and vitamin D level is still unclear.
The modification and prevention of vitamin D deficiency needs an accurate illustration of the current position in each region. Vitamin D level in patients with HBV is relatively an important issue, which has been studied in many researches. As different papers published in national and international journals.
Objective: to determine the incidence of HBV and HCV in pediatric ward.
Sitting: 2ed March teaching hospital, sebha Libya.
Materials and Methods: this was a prospective hospital base study of pediatric cases admitted to 2ed March teaching hospital during a period from March 2018 to February 2019. Pediatric cases were studied for the incidence of HBsAg and HCV Ab by ELISA, Rapid technique. The positive result was confirmed with line immuno-assay.
Results: the study showed positive HBsAg in 12 patients and HCV in 2 cases out 25 cases represented with acute hepatitis from a total of 1763 pediatric cases were submitted in this study, with incidence rate of 0.68% and 0.11% respectively.
Conclusion: the incidence of HBV and HCV are low in Sebha, therefore active program need to be applied to control the spread of infection among the population.
Background: In sickle cell anemia (SCA), compromise of the renal vasculature due to sickled red cells has been recognized.
Objectives: To assess the renal function and blood pressure pattern in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) presenting in a tertiary institution.
Method: A cross-sectional study of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) over six months involving the use of questionnaires, general physical examination, blood pressure, investigations for haemoglobin genotype, urinalysis, serum creatinine, screening for hepatitis B and HIV.
Results: 51 children with SCA were seen. The prevalence of impaired renal function as defined by reduced eGFR <90mL/min/1.73m2 in this study was 27.5%, previous hospital admission and blood transfusion were associated with reduction in eGFR but blood pressure did not have significant correlation with the eGFR. The overall mean age at diagnosis of SCA was 4.09 ± 3.33 (years).
Conclusion: Impaired renal function is a major comorbid condition in children with SCA. In countries/locations where there is no newborn screening for sickle cell disease, diagnosis is delayed, thus detecting impaired renal function may be delayed, therefore the need for early detection and management is imperative.Introduction
Background and Aims: the Aim of the study was to find the level of protection among the healthcare workers (nurses, doctors, housekeeping staff and general duty assistants) by doing Anti-HBsAb titer and vaccinate those who were not properly immunized against HBV infection.
Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the Institutional review board of the Hospital. The study group included doctors, nurses, technical staff and lab attendants. Anti-HBs antibody titer was done on Vitros 3600 (OCD, USA). Tests were performed according to manufacturer’s instruction. Vaccine provided was Engerix B (GSK Glaxo, Belgium). Vaccination was provided to all employees had titer below 10 miu/ml.
Results: 489 of 794(61.5%) HCW had no history of previous vaccination and only 293 (36.9%) subjects had complete vaccination. Only 60.8 % (482/794) of the total subjects had titer above 10 miu/ml and were protected against Hepatitis B. Around 80.6% (246/305) of those who were fully vaccinated and 40.8% (237/489) of those who were not vaccinated previously had protective anti-HBs titers(>10 miu/ml). Majority (86.8%, 271/312) who had titer below 10 miu/ml were unvaccinated. Two of eight employees who had history of needle stick injury in past were found non-immune to Hepatitis-B infection.
Conclusion: Despite being involved in the procedures with high chances of infections through needle stick or other exposures, only one third of health care workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B. We recommend that all the HCWs should be vaccinated for Hepatitis B and their anti-HBs levels determined at regular intervals.
Background: The measures are being put in place for the management of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Hargeisa, Somaliland among pregnant women remain the most vulnerable to develop chronic hepatitis. Routine screening in pregnant women is therefore necessary for effective control. However, the performance of the commonly used the HBsAg sero test strips has been available. Also, identifying the risk factors of transmission in pregnant women is importance for the implementation of preventive measures. Hence, the goal of this study was to determining seroprevalence and associated risk factors with HBV infection among pregnant women.
Material & Methods: The study area was carried out at Hargeisa group hospital in Somaliland from May 2018 up to December 2018. The researcher was collected research pregnancy woman data through questionnaire & used diagnostics methods such as Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test, antibodies test (HBsAb) by used anti-card test and ELIZA system. In order to find specific full information’s about patients & relationship the associated risk factors with hepatitis B in pregnancy. Data processed and analyzed by used both words and SPSS package. The sample size investigated was 80 patients. Of these, 28 were excluded; among the reasons for exclusion were prior HBV vaccination and known HBsAg sero-positive status.
Aims of Study: The study was designed & aimed to determine seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women. To assess and establish if there is significant relationship between blood transfusion and hepatitis B virus at Hargeisa group hospital (HGH).
Results and Discussion: The results in the current study shown that the pregnancy with hepatitis BV and it relation with appeared some symptoms in our study was 24(46.15%) of patients appeared they have cirrhosis symptom, 12(23.08%) of patients answered they have liver failure, while 9(17.31%) of patients appeared yellowish of eyes & skin and 5(9.62%) showed hepatic cancer.
Overall, HBV prevalence: HBsAg was detected in fifteen 15(31.3%) of the participants while all fifteen (100%) had total HBcAb (both IgM and IgG). Of the HBsAg sero-positive women, 26(42.7%) were positive for HBeAg; eight (13.3%) were positive for HBeAb and four 4(9%) were negative for both HBeAg and HBeAb which was close similar with other previous studies. On the other hand, We found identify statistically significant p-values < 0.05 and high relationship between HBV and some demographic and clinical risk factors such as blood transfusions, levels of knowledge about HBV infection in addition to age and marital status.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the seroprevalence of HBV infections in pregnant women and it relationship with blood transfusion in Hargeisa Group Hospital, Hargeisa, Somaliland is high. However, further studies are needed to assess the role of other demographic and clinical risk. Urgent action is required to improve hepatitis B infection control measures to reduce dependence on blood transfusions and make new policies for treatment of anemia in HGH
Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of liver associated morbidity and mortality with diverse spectrum of disease. It is estimated about 15% to 40% of patients with hepatitis B virus infection progress to chronic hepatitis and about 15% to 25% die from disease complications. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the serological and virological markers of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection to determine the natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection in the Eritrean setting.
Methods: A laboratory-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 305 patients with HBsAg positive who presented to Orotta National Referral Hospital, Halibet Hospital, Sembel Hospital and National Health Laboratory in Asmara, Eritrea from January 2017 to February 2019. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect hepatitis B serological markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg, anti-HBsAb, HBeAg and anti-HBeAg). Hepatitis B DNA viral loads and liver transaminase levels were determined. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 25.0.
Results: A total of 305 patients presented with HBsAg positive serology with a mean age of 41.3 (± 13.7) years ranging from 16 to 78 years. Males were 218 (71.5%) and females 87 (28. 5%).Anti-HBc was positive in 300 (98.4%), of which 293 (97.5%) were positive for HBsAg and 7 (2.3%) positive for anti-HBs. Among these 293 patients, 20 (6.8%) were HBeAg positive/anti-HBe positive, 242 (82.6%) HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe-positive and 31 (10.6%) were HBeAg negative/anti-HBe-positive. Detectable HBV DNA was found in 122(41.6%) of the 293 cases. Alanine transaminase was normal in 90% of HBeAg-positive and in 91.2% of HBeAg-negative patients. Hepatitis B DNA viral load was >2,000 IU/mL in 67 (22.86%) and >200,000 IU/mL level was more frequently detected in HBeAg positive (20.0%) compared to HBeAg negative (1.8%) subjects (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: This study shows predominance of HBeAg-negative and low replication phase of HBV infection among patients in Eritrea. It also documented that most patients had chronic infection with normal liver transaminase levels in the absence of biochemical signs of hepatitis. This study will provide a basis for therapeutic evaluation of patients and planning national treatment guidelines in the Eritrean setting.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the world’s major infectious diseases with 350 million people who are chronic carriers of HBV . Significant minorities go on to develop liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and over 1 million die annually from HBV-diseased liver. Janahi E. at faculty of science, Bahrain University, Bahrain has submitted the following information , on HBV-genome organization as part of his Ph.D. degree (2007) in Imperial College, England. HBV genomic organization has 4 Open Reading Frames (ORFs) i.e. Pre-S/S Gene, Pre-C/C ORF, P ORF and X ORF. Regulatory Elements has 4 promoters (pre S2, pre S1, C promoters and X promoters), Pregenomic RNA, Enhancers (Enh 1 and Enh 2) where they are involved in cccDNA formation, Glococorticoid-Responsive Element which is located in X ORF and P ORF overlapping, Polyadenylation Signal (Direct Repeat 1 (DR1) and Direct Repeat 2 (DR2)), Epsilon-Stem Loop and Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Element. HBV genotype D is prevalent in our Middle East area. The HBV genome is a partially relaxed-circular dsDNA molecule consisting of a full length strand (minus strand) with a single unique nick and a complementary (positive strand) of variable length. HBV is considered as a para-retrovirus because its replication involves the reverse transcription of an intermediate-RNA function, of pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). Replication of HBV genome starts with the encapsidation of the pgRNA and encodes HBV polymerase into an immature nucleocapsid formed by the viral core antigen.
A 61-year-old Brazilian black woman consulted with a nephrologist due to proteinuria identified on a routine urine test. She has a personal history of thymoma resection five years ago, followed by multiple episodes of pulmonary infections including mycobacteriosis, recurrent mucocutaneous candidiasis, and paraneoplastic pemphigus. Physical examination showed no edema or hypertension and laboratory tests identified proteinuria of 2.43 g/day without hematuria, serum creatinine of 0.69 mg/dl, urea 34 mg/dl, serum albumin of 2.4 g/dl, hemoglobin 10.9 g/dl, platelets 292,000/mm3, leukocytes 4950/mm3, lymphocytes 594/mm3 and neutrophils 3910/mm3. The hemolysis tests were negative and serum iron was low. Analysis of glicemia and serum lipids levels were normal as well as serum complement and imunoglobulins, except for an IgM level of 283 mg/dl (normal values 40 to 230 mg/dl) and undetectable IgE. Serologies for Syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, C and antibodies for autoimmune diseases were negative.
MMK Mbula*, B Longo-Mbenza, HNT Situakibanza, GL Mananga, JRR Makulo, MM Longokolo, MN Mandina, NN Mayasi, MM Mbula, B Bepouka, GL Mvumbi, EN Amaela, DN Tshilumba, O Odio, BM Ekila, A Nkodila, T Pindi and BBT Buasa
Background: The survival of people living with HIV (PLWHIVs) is increased and Health systems will have to deal with the early-aging-associated medical conditions.Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and biological profiles of PLWHIVs aged 50 and over and those aged less than 50 years.Material and methods: This study conducted at Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital (KUTH) covers 6 years. The clinical and biological characteristics of PLWHIVs aged 50 and over were compared with those under 50. Statistical analysis used the means ± SD, the calculation of frequencies, Student’s t-test and Chi-square.Results: PLWHIVs aged 50 or over represented 35.1%. Their average age was 58.0 ± 4.8 years. Women predominate among those under 50 and men among those 50 and over. Married people were more numerous (54% among those under 50). There were more unemployed (50% of PLHIV under 50). Patients 50 years and older were significantly classified as WHO stage 4 with a high frequency of history of tuberculosis, genital herpes, high blood pressure, smoking, vomiting, hepatomegaly, moderate elevation of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and sytolic blood pressure (SBP), tuberculosis and anemia.Those under 50 had a significantly increased frequency of shingles, hepatitis B-hepatitis C, headaches and more survivals. The mean of Hb, HDL-C, and CD4s+ were significantly lower in patients 50 years and older, and urea, LDL-c, and ALAT levels were significantly higher. Conclusion: The average age was higher from 50 years old. These PLWHIVs were more frequently in WHO stage 4 with more common TB and anemia. Their Hb, HDL-C, and CD4s+ levels were lower while their urea, LDL-C and ALAT levels were significantly elevated.
Background: Hepatitis B is a major public health issue worldwide. Immunization of infants against this disease has been effective in Morocco since 1999. However, evaluation of post-vaccination response is rarely performed in our setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate immunity against HBV in fully vaccinated children in the city of Marrakech in Morocco and to investigate the factors influencing the level of post-vaccination immunity. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on fully vaccinated children who have medical and vaccination records, from three primary healthcare centers in Marrakech. Children with anti-HBs antibody levels between 10 and 100 IU/L were considered moderately immune, and those with antibody levels above 100 IU/L as highly immune, while those with antibody levels below 10 IU/L were considered non-immune. Results: Of the 123 children recruited, 114 (92.7%) had protective anti-HBs antibody titers, of which 37 (30%) were moderately immunized and 77 (62.7%) were highly immunized, and nine (7.3%) were non-immune. Age, birth weight, vaccine type, and time since the previous dose have all been significantly associated with the degree of post-vaccination immunity. Anti-HBs antibody levels were not significantly related to factors potentially linked to post-vaccination non-response, such as chronic disease, immunosuppressive medication and others.Conclusion: Our findings denote that the HBV vaccine used in The Moroccan Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is effective against HBV. Nevertheless, in non-responders, corrective actions such as re-vaccination and monitoring of post-vaccination anti-HBs antibody levels should be implemented.
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