Human Immunodeficiency virus

Oral Candida colonization in HIV-infected patients: Species and antifungal susceptibility in Tripoli/Libya

Published on: 3rd August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7844539006

Introduction: Candidiasis is more frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and knowledge about the distribution and antifungal susceptibility of oral Candida species is important for effective management of candidiasis. Material and Methods: An oral rinses sample collected from hundred HIV-infected patients with and without clinical evidence of oral candidiasis in this study at the Infectious Department/Tripoli Medical Center, Libya. Species identified by standard phenotypic and conventional methods and in vitro susceptibility testing of the yeast isolates to antifungals were performed using the Disc diffusion method protocol as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Scientific Institute. Results: Oral Candida colonization is detected in all patients with and without clinical syndromes, and Candida albicans were accounted for (74%), C. dubliniensis (11%) and C. glabrata (6%). A high proportion of Candida species (42%) showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. Among C., albicans more than 30% of isolate were resistant to most new azole antifungal including fluconazole, itraconazole, posoconazole and voriconazole. Conclusions: A significant number of oral Candida species particular Candida albicans exhibiting decreased susceptibility to fluconazole were isolated from colonized HIV-infected individual, given the high incidence and severity of fungal infections in HIV-infected individuals. The results of this study reinforce the importance of antifungal susceptibility testing, which contributes to the therapeutic strategies and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of Candida colonization in this population.
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New era of liver transplantation for HIV-HCV Co-infected patients: A case report

Published on: 14th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597134

Morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients have been improved over the last decades with the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy. As a result, other comorbidities such as chronic kidney and chronic liver diseases have emerged in the HIV population. A considerable percentage of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) in HIV population is attributed to hepatitis C co-infection and reactivation, and a growing need for solid organ transplantation has emerged among those patients. On the other hand, several studies on liver transplantations of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have shown discouraging results both in patient and graft survival rates. As a result, HIV-HCV co-infection has been considered a relative contraindication for liver transplantation. Thankfully, new drugs for HCV treatment have been discovered, acting direct on viral replication of HCV and they have changed the whole clinical course of HCV/HIV co-infected liver transplant recipients. Our case illustrates the long-term efficacy and safety of the new combination of Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir in HCV/HIV co-infected liver transplant recipients.
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Risk taking sexual behaviors among young adults – findings from a cross sectional population based survey in Barbados

Published on: 25th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8600330342

Background: The National Strategic Plan for HIV Prevention and Control 2014-2018 recognized the need for the utilization of research findings to guide the development of HIV policies, programs and interventions for the general population and key population groups and to inform the allocation of government resources to the areas of greatest impact and need. To this end, a Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Sexual Practices Survey (KABP) was conducted among adults’ ages 15 to 49 years. Objectives: To identify the sexual behaviors among adolescents and young adults that exposed them to the risks of HIV/STIs and to identify factors that may have to be addressed, in order to achieve further reduction in the spread of HIV in this population. Methods: This is a population based cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2016. Sample was taken from among persons’ ages 15 – 49 years using a multistage sampling methodology. The survey questionnaire was developed from Family Health International’s guidelines for repeated behavioral surveys in populations at risk of HIV. It was interviewer-administered and consisted of ninety-nine (99) closed-ended questions. The topics covered by the survey included sexual history; use of and access to condoms; and HIV testing. Participants were asked about their sexual behaviors over the last 12 months, and about their experience with their most recent partner. Results: Overall, 87.8% described themselves as heterosexual, 1.2% as bisexual and 0.5% as homosexual. By the age 16, 17 1nd 19 years 25%, 50% and 75% of respondents have had sex respectively. Among the 763 respondents reporting vaginal or anal sex over the past 12 months, 80.6 and 19.4% had a single and multiple sex partner respectively. Also, 94.4%, 13.3% and 1.6% reported to have regular, non-regular and commercial sex partners respectively. Overall, 54.6% used condom at the last sex, the corresponding figure for the regular and non-regular partners were 41.2% 80.8% respectively. Only 40.9% reported to have had a HIV test done over the past 12 months and of those who did not, 42.8% had never been tested for HIV. Conclusion: Inconsistent and infrequent condom use and low HIV testing especially among the adolescents and younger adults, in the setting of young ages at sexual debut and multiple sexual partners. Findings form this study strongly recommends for a much greater effort from the public health at promoting condom use and HIV testing especially targeting the younger persons who risk their own protection and that of their partners.
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Knowledge and attitude of workers towards HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and exposure of staffs to sharp injuries in Dessie Referral Hospital: 2020; A cross sectional study

Published on: 5th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8681469728

Background: Post exposure chemoprophylaxis can prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in risk healthcare workers; however routine adoptions of these practices by the workers have been limited. Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of health workers on HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and exposure to sharp injuries in Dessie referral hospital. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 422 health care workers of Dessie referral Hospital. The study subjects were selected by proportional allocation of each sample in its respective department/ward. Simple random sampling method was used to select study participants. The data was cleaned coded and analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23. Finally the result was presented by graphs, pie chart and statements. Results: A total of 422 study subjects were participated in the study. Among 422 participants 72.5% had good knowledge of post exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the rest 27.5% had poor knowledge of post exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Among 422 study participants 75.2% had positive attitude towards PEP. 283(67.1%) of them had exposure to sharp injuries. Conclusion: Generally most of health care workers had good knowledge about post exposure prophylaxis against HIV/AIDS. This study had shown that a significant number of individuals had a negative attitude with regard to post exposure prophylaxis. Therefore, formal training that aims to improve attitudes and support to improve PEP implementation and completion are needed. 
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Drug Eruptions at Patients in Consultation at the Dermatology Department of the Dermatology Teaching Hospital in Bamako, Mali: Epidemiological, Clinical and Etiological Study

Published on: 28th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9028058489

The administration of a drug substance is an essential step in the management of a patient. It aims either to cure the patient, to prevent a given disease or sometimes to help with the diagnosis. Unfortunately, the action of the drug can go beyond the desired effect, and cause skin-mucous accidents. These accidents, also known as drug-induced attacks, can be isolated or associated with systemic manifestations [1]. Drug eruption is a real public health issue because of the high frequency. In Europe, drug eruption is responsible for about 20% of spontaneous reports of drug accidents. They complicate 2% to 3% of hospital treatments and motivate 1% of consultations, 5% of hospitalizations in dermatology [2]. Some African authors were interested in the subject. Reported prevalence in hospital settings ranges from 0.4% to 1.53% [3,4]. In Mali, there are no national figures. Old statistics from the Department of Dermatology show that about thirty cases occur each year, most of which are represented by severe forms. However, the risk of drug eruption is thought to be very high due to increased local use of drugs without medical advice, the illegal proliferation of drug outlets (‘Street Medicine’). And the lack of enforcement of existing regulations. In addition, some authors believe that the advent of antiretrovirals and the use of antiInfectious infections used to treat opportunistic infections have increased the risk of Drug eruption by 4 to 30 times, particularly in subjects infected with the acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [2]. This same risk can be observed in leprosy patients on combination chimotherapy. Clinically, the diagnosis of drug eruption is not as easy as one might think because of clinical polymorphism. The responsibility of a drug for the onset of a reaction is also not easy to establish, as in most cases several drugs are administered simultaneously before the onset of the rash. Because of illiteracy, patients find it difficult to make a complete list of the molecules consumed. To this must be added the high frequency of counterfeit medicines circulating both on the street and in private pharmacies. Given the scarcity of African studies and due to local specificities, it seemed interesting to us to undertake a study on Drug eruption in the dermatology department of the Dermatology teaching hospital of Bamako whose purpose is to study epidemiological aspects, clinical, etiological and to identify the molecules responsible in these patients.
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Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis: a case report and brief review of literature

Published on: 15th March, 2022

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a significant public health problem worldwide. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of extrapulmonary TB however other forms of central nervous system (CNS) disease include tuberculoma and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM carries high mortality even for a patient who is already receiving treatment. The difficulty in diagnosis often leads to a delay in treatment and subsequent mortality. The emergence of Xpert ultra has improved the rapid detection of MTB and rifampicin resistance in CSF and is the preferred diagnostic tool in TBM.Case: In this case report we present a 33 years patient of concern who presented with progressive lower limb weakness associated with pain and paresthesia for 4 months, admitted via the Orthopedic unit with a diagnosis of spinal mass (meningioma, neurofibroma, or nerve sheath tumor) for which biopsy was done and revealed a chronic inflammatory process, necrotic bone lesions with no granulomas and no malignancy, he was later diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and promptly started anti-tuberculous therapy with a dramatic recovery and improvement in neurological function.Conclusion: Tuberculous meningitis conditions have high morbidity and mortality yet diagnosis and start of treatment continue to experience an important delay. Clinicians should keep in mind the limitations of clinical presentation due to pleiotropy and current diagnostics and should employ a combination of diagnostic modalities in addition to a high index of suspicion to prevent morbidity in patients with TBM.
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