Immune system

Physical activity can change the physiological and psychological circumstances during COVID-19 pandemic: A narrative review

Published on: 26th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8906001902

Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity. Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise. Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine. Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
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Antibiotic induced changes to mitochondria result in potential contributions to carcinogenesis, heart pathologies, other medical conditions and ecosystem risks

Published on: 2nd October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689024240

With the discovery by Calghatgi (2013) that three common antibiotics (Abs) increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen (ROS) and lipid peroxide (LP) and depleted their natural absorbant glutathione led me to investigate further the potential impacts of these genotoxic substances on carcinogenesis. The range of impacts on mitochondria and cellular DNA varied by antibiotic to those consistent with known prior contributions to carcinogenesis. Specific cancers probably increased by these changes were HCC, RCC (KCC), CRC, cancer of the esophagus. Tumor suppressor gene mutations resulting from LP were noteworthy in this regard and mutations induced in CRC were consistent with those found in carcinogenesis of CRC. In addition depression of short chain fatty acids in microbiomes were found which depress the immune system increasing risk of all cancers. Many cancers were increased according to epidemiological studies linking Abs with elevated odds ratios, with one concern in particular, fatal breast cancer. The impact of loss of functionality of the mitochondria was also linked to depression of the citric acid cycle and therefore ATP which deflected metabolism to glycolysis, the Warburg mechanism also increasing risk of all cancers, favoured by cancer cells. In conclusion, some portion of many cancer types are probably increased in likelihood by number, type and frequency of Abs treatment and chronic residue exposure which varies from individual to individual. This led me to propose a three pronged carcinogenesis mechanism for Abs. 1. Cancer critical mutations 2. Immune depression 3. loss of mitochondrial functionality leading to Warburg effects. Damage to mitochondria were also noted by common pesticides tested in China and cancer associations were also found for many pesticides supporting a similar contributory etiology. Heart health concerns were raised by these findings because of the myriad mitochondria in the heart and because of long term reliability needs. Studies suggesting hearts were affected by Abs and pesticide exposure were presented. Because of their geographical ubiquitousness and the huge range of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, antibiotics and pesticides and bacteriocidal biocides are of concern for biodiversity and life in general. I propose research steps to evaluate Abs safety and suggest directions for further research and make suggestions on ways to ameliorate Abs toxicity.
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Role of T-Helper cells (CD4+ T Cells) in human immune system against some microbial infection: A mini review

Published on: 11th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8601982623

The human immune system consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which both provide protective immunity to microbial infection. The adaptive immune system consists of T and B cell which act as second line defense through production of neutralizing antibody by B cells and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. The CD4+ T-cell performs a central role in the immune responses. These cells also known as T4 or helper/inducer T lymphocytes recognize antigens presented by antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and monocytes. Once antigens such as bacteria and viruses are presented, CD4+ T lymphocytes orchestrate the body’s antigen-specific immune response by Coordinating B-lymphocyte production of antibodies to these antigens, producing cytokines and induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. The paper was aimed to review the role of T-helper cells (CD4+ T cells) in human immune system against some microbial infections.
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Equine Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATGAM) administration in patient with previous rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Thymoglobulin) induced serum sickness: A case report

Published on: 23rd March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666273824

Thymoglobulin is a rabbit-derived anti-thymocyte antibody directed at T-cells and commonly used for induction immunosuppression therapy in solid organ transplantation, especially in immunologically high risk kidney transplant recipients. Despite its frequent use and efficacy, the heterologous makeup of thymoglobulin can induce the immune system resulting in serum sickness which typically presents with rash, fever, fatigue, and poly-arthralgia in the weeks following drug exposure. ATGAM is another anti-thymocyte antibody, targeting the same epitopes, but differs from thymoglobulin by the animal in which the preparations are generated (equine vs. rabbit). Herein, we present a case of a patient with a known history of thymoglobulin-induced serum sickness, who presented with evidence of acute cellular and vascular rejection at their 12-month post-operative visit. Given their immunologically high risk status, they were successfully treated with ATGAM with improvement in their rejection and kidney function. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of successful administration of ATGAM in a patient with a documented history of thymoglobulin induced serum sickness, demonstrating a possible treatment option for acute rejection in patients with reactions to thymoglobulin. 
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The rising role of natural killer cells in patients with malignant hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Published on: 1st October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8333010200

Natural killer (NK) cells, the third population of lymphoid cells, comprise 5%-25% of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes and represent the first line of defense against infections and tumors [1-7]. They can be derived from: bone marrow, PB, cryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and various cell lines such as NK-92 and KHYG-1 [1]. NK cells; which have been divided into cytotoxic, tolerant, and regulatory subsets; are classified into: (1) naïve CD56 bright CD 16 dim CD 3 dim cells, (2) mature CD56 dim CD16 bright CD3 dim cells, and (3) lymphoid tissue-resident CD69+/CXCR6+ NK cells [1,2,8-11]. Although NK cells have been traditionally considered as part of the innate immune system, they have recently been shown to exhibit many of the features associated with adaptive immunity [8,12]. The functions of NK cells which are influenced by several cytokines include: elimination of infected cells, destruction of cancer cells, reducing the incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and regulation of pregnancy outcome [10,11,13]. 
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The use of Allergoids and Adjuvants in Allergen Immunotherapy

Published on: 20th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597241

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the unique curative treatment to help allergic patients to get over their allergies. With a personalized approach, AIT is the best example of precision medicine. After a century of intensive studies and innovative discoveries, allergists have in their hands many tools to orchestrate the best strategy to re-educate the hypersensitive immune systems that decrease the quality of life of their patients. This review describes both the historical and the promising acquisitions in this field, focusing the biochemical and Bioengineering tools that render an allergen more suitable for a secure, convenient and effective immunotherapy.
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Chemo-cytokines network is main target for control of Allergic asthma

Published on: 25th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347023872

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which characterized by recurrent airflow obstruction, wheezing, chest tightness and coughing. Management of allergic asthma especially in children, is main problem for industrial world. Immunological factors have critical role in pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Cytokines as major controller of immune system, are important in this reaction. Allergic asthma is a disease with symptoms: eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hyper secretion, airway obstruction, airways hyperresponsivness, IgE high level production, smooth muscle spasm. Cytokines have main and complicated role in pathophysiology of allergic asthma.
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Immune system and quality of life following aerobic exercise versus resistance exercise training among Alzheimer’s

Published on: 30th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588736449

Background: Globally, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects millions of elderly individuals are affected with AD who suffer from decline in cognitive ability. However, immune system dysfunction has a role in AD pathogenesis. However, pharmacological therapeutic intervention for caring of ADis not available. Therefore there is a need to develop novel therapeutic modalities for AD individual care. Objective: The objective of the this trial was to detect immune system and quality of life (QOL) response following aerobic versus resisted exercise training among AD subjects. Methods: Fifty older with AD disease the range of age ranged was 61 to 73 years enrolled in the current study. However, smoking, liver, chest, renal, metabolic and cardiac dysfunction considered as exclusion criteria. Participants were randomly enrolled into group (A) who applied aerobic exercise intervention, while group (B) applied resisted exercise intervention for period of six months. Results: The SF-36 which measure QOL along with in the immunological parameters (CD3 count, CD4 count, CD8 count and CD4/CD8 ratio) showed significant improvement following aerobic and resisted exercise. However, comparing between both groups showed significant differences with greater significant improvement in all measured parameters following aerobic exercise training (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is the most appropriate exercise to improve immune system and quality of life among elderly Alzheimer’s.
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Packaging challenge for COVID-19 drug

Published on: 9th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872698600

At present Corona virus is the most burning topic across the world. At present there is no drug available to cure 100%. So many companies are trying to make it possible as soon as they can. The basic characteristics of the product is “Non-Toxic made of sugars Carbohydrates”. A Galectin is a protein that recognizes carbohydrates and modulates intracellular and extracellular interactions primarily related to the immune system. In some cases Galectins act as a glue bringing molecules together. The major focus of the research is on extracellular interactions.
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Sleeplessness and health

Published on: 30th April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8299525804

Sleep influences each intellectual and physical health. It’s essential for a person’s well-being. The reality is when we see at well-rested people, they’re working at an exclusive degree than people making an attempt to get by way of on 1 or 2 hours much less nightly sleep. Loss of sleep impairs your higher tiers of reasoning, problem-solving and interest to detail. Sleep deficit will additionally make people much less productive and put them at higher danger for creating depression. Sleep affects almost each tissue in our bodies. It influences growth and stress hormones, our immune system, appetite, breathing, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. Nurses play a foremost function in teaching and guiding the sleep deprived patients on the importance of sleep and its physiological and psychological effects.
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COPD and low plasma vitamin D levels: Correlation or causality?

Published on: 27th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7905962979

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death and its prevalence and incidence is also related to smoking behavior [1]. COPD is still a chronic inflammatory and progressive disease caused by multifactorial agents including environmental pollutants [2]. Besides that, it is emerging that endogenous epigenetic factors induced by lifestyle and environment [3] could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease [4]. In the last years, several authors suggested that low vitamin D levels seem to be related with the increase of COPD manifestations [5]. Moreover, a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial documented that vitamin D supplementation protects against moderate or severe exacerbation of the disease, but not by upper respiratory infections [6]. However, low levels of vitamin D can be extended to many other diseases, including multiple sclerosis, diabetes, colon rectal cancer, headache or drug use [7-11]. Moreover, it is also important to remember that Vitamin D deficiency is common in high latitude regions, such as northern Europe, New Zealand, northern USA, and Canada where weaker ultraviolet B rays is not able to produce enough vitamin D. Finally, methodological factors (using low sensitivity methods) could contribute to misleading evaluation of circulating vitamin D levels. In any case, here we shall remind that vitamin D has a fundamental role in immunity [12]. In particular, it has been reported that vitamin D is able to shift the pro-inflammatory T-helper cell 1 to anti-inflammatory T-helper cell 2 [13]. Therefore, benefits of vitamin D supplementation in chronic diseases which directly or indirectly affect immune system are obvious. Today, the burden of COPD in never smokers is higher than previously believed. Therefore, more research is needed to unravel the characteristics of non-smokers COPD [1]. Notably, vitamin D levels are reported to be significantly lower in smoker’ssubjects than in non-smokers ones [14]. Therefore, low plasma vitamin D levels in COPD seems to be more a causality than a correlation.
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SARS-CoV-2 Infection, COVID-19, and long covid: Saga of erratic immune response, waning immunity, and immune system failure

Published on: 9th August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9157821475

Introduction - evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants: With the unrestrained pandemic for over last one-and-half year, SARS-CoV-2 seems to have adapted to its habitat, the human host, through mutations that facilitate its replication and transmission. The G variant incorporating D614G mutation, potently more transmissible than the ancestral virus arose during January 2020 and spread widely. Since then, various SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) with higher infectivity or virulence or both, have evolved on the background of G variant, and spread widely. SARS-CoV-2 infection and the immunodynamics: As the virus becomes more transmissible, its lethality may drop. Apart from the humoral immunity, T-cell recognition from a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination may modify the disease transmission correlates and its clinical manifestations. On the other hand, the immunity generated may reduce probability of re-infection as well as limit evolution of adaptive mutations, and emergence of highly infectious and immune-escape variants. There are complex issues related to the SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary dynamics and host’s immunodynamics. Trending etiopathoimmunological correlates: The evolution potential of SARS-CoV-2 is limited because of proofreading function of nsp14. The S protein mutations affect transmissibility, virulence, and vaccine efficacy. The D614G mutation in G variant with higher infectivity has turned the Chinese epidemic into a pandemic. Other SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta seem to have evolved as result of adaptation to selective pressures during periods of prolonged infections and subsequent transmission. Further, there is issue of convergent association of mutations. Basics of immunity and immune system failure: The nature of the immune response after natural SARS-CoV-2 infection is variable and diverse. There are pre-existing neutralizing antibodies and sensitized T cells elicited during previous infection with seasonal CoVs influencing the disease susceptibility and course. The virus has evolved adaptive mechanisms to reduce its exposure to IFN-I and there are issues related to erratic and overactive immune response. The altered neutralizing epitopes in the S protein in SARS-CoV-2 variants modify the immune landscapes and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: current scenarios and prospects: Presently, the SARS-CoV-2 infection is widespread with multiple evolving infectious variants. There is probability of its transition from epidemic to endemic phase in due course manifesting as a mild disease especially in the younger population. Conversely, the pandemic may continue with enhanced disease severity due to evolving variants, expanded infection pool, and changing immunity landscape. There is need to plan for the transition and continued circulation of the virus during the endemic phase or continuing pandemic for indefinite period.
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Brain response in some systemic immune condition-Toxicological aspects

Published on: 26th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317652596

From biomedical literature “autism disorder are involved in young patient, that we have abnormalities (Imaging, histology) in some brain areas, and a comples symptomatology. Genetic and environment can produce some unbalances in brain grow and immunitary situation is involved. Apoptotic signal contribute in brain growth and immunologic shock can unbalance the environment producing abnormalities.” We can see that some pharmacological molecules are been introduced in therapy in some brain pathologies with a specific mechanism: modulating the immune systems. We can see that some systemic immune modifications can unbalance this systems producing pharmacological effect in local place (as Brain). We can observe this phenomena like a kind of toxicity that can be deeply investigate to discover new Pharmacological strategies. Aim of this work is to observe this kind of pathologies under a specific immune-toxicological aspect. We think that in this field are needed deeply new approach in order to adequately focus this kind of disorder. A different way to set this kind of pathologies can help in searching new pharmacological strategies.
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The Immunitary role in chronic prostatitis and growth factors as promoter of BPH

Published on: 25th April, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666286870

In the actual medical therapy of BPH, we can see: antibiotics, alpha blockers, 5-ARI, fitotherapeutics/natural products (Serenoa repens) with different which display clinical activities and other molecules such as FANS (local or systemic dosage forms) cortisones and others. Relationship between immune systems and chronic prostatitis are strictly involved in BPH progression. A vicious cycle that involve chronic flogosis, tissue remodeling, grow factors, inhibition of apoptosis, and other phenomena. Observing BPH pathogenesis under an immunologic point of view make possible to search new pharmacological strategies, to improve actual therapy. The aim of this work is to observe some relevant literature in our opinion related the management of BHP and its progression under a pharmaceutical and immunological point of view. A deep knowledge in the pharmaceutical properties of some molecules (antimicrobials, anti-phlogosis agents, Anti-androgenic agents, alpha blockers, 5-ARI and other treatments, techniques, interventions or instruments) can help the physicians to pick the right choice.
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Similarity between Some Biological Systems, Organotropism and Metastatic Process: Active Role Played By Secondary Organ?

Published on: 19th June, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7757049040

According to literature, about 90% of death from cancer is related to metastasis. Metastatic process present many similarity to some other biological processes. Once we have examined some relevant biomedical literature, by understanding the real causes of metastasis, it would become much more possible to introduce new therapeutic strategies to delay or in some cases even to stop this kind of killer process. Breast cancer, as an example, produces metastasis to different organs, which seems to be related to the subtype. We believe that a deep understanding of the roles of breast cancer cells and their interactions with the liver microenvironment in early breast cancer metastasis could be a crucial factor for the design and development of effective BCLM breast cancer liver metastases therapeutic strategies and to better understand the general process. Let’s suppose the secondary organ or organs can be considered as incubator/s for the primary metastatic cells. What kind of consequences we can have in therapy field if there is an active regulating role in determining the location of secondary cancers? Let’s observe the role played by liver, bone marrow, CNS central nervous system, lungs, lymphocytes and other secondary locations/organs a little bit closer or maybe from a different angle let’s suppose we try to come up with just a hypothesis. Just let’s take this as a possibility, and we take the thread to see where it takes us.
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Vitamin D produce antibodies in pandemic response to gripal viruses? A critical analysis

Published on: 7th April, 2020

In the evolutionary journey of humanity, it is possible to verify an analysis of pandemics with high occurrences. This study aims to conduct a critical analysis of the role of Vitamin D as an endogenous vaccine in the main viruses present in humanity over the decades. To construct this text, we used the short review methodology through a critical analysis. This study demonstrated the importance of using Vitamin D as an endogenous vaccine when used frequently in both healthcare professionals and patients. Therefore, it is concluded that Vitamin acts protectively in the innate immune system.
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Exploring pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection: Faux espoir and dormant therapeutic options

Published on: 5th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8620512199

COVID-19 virus structural components: The 2019-nCoV, also called SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease was named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the virus responsible for it as the COVID-19 virus, respectively, by WHO. The 2019-nCoV has a round, elliptic or pleomorphic form with a diameter of 60–140 nm. It has single-stranded RNA genome containing 29891 nucleotides, a lipid shell, and spike, envelope, membrane and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) proteins. Steps in progression of COVID-19 illness: Once inside the airways, the S protein on the viral surface recognizes and mediates the attachment to host ACE-2 receptors and gains access to endoplasmic reticulum. The HE protein facilitates the S protein-mediated cell entry and virus spread through the mucosa, helping the virus to attack the ACE2-bearing cells lining the airways and infecting upper as well as lower respiratory tracts. With the dying cells sloughing down and filling the airways, the virus is carried deeper into the lungs. In addition, the virus is able to infect ACE2-bearing cells in other organs, including the blood vessels, gut and kidneys. With the viral infestation, the activated immune system leads to inflammation, pyrexia and pulmonary edema. The hyperactivated immune response, called cytokine storm in extreme cases, can damage various organs apart from lungs and increases susceptibility to infectious bacteria especially in those suffering from chronic diseases. The current therapeutics for COVID-19: At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment available for the disease. The milder cases may need no treatment. In moderate to severe cases, the clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures, and symptomatic and supportive care, including supplementary oxygen therapy. In the critically ill patients, mechanical ventilation is required for respiratory failure and hemodynamic support is imperative for managing circulatory failure and septic shock. Conclusion: Confusion, despair and hopes: There is no vaccine for preexposure prophylaxis or postexposure management. There are no specific approved drugs for the treatment for the disease. A number of drugs approved for other conditions as well as several investigational drugs are being canned and studied in several clinical trials for their likely role in COVID-19 prophylaxis or treatment. The future seems afflicted with dormant therapeutic options as well as faux Espoir or false hopes. As obvious, not all clinical trials will be successful, but having so many efforts in progress, some may succeed and provide a positive solution. Right now, though, confusion and despair prevail.
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COVID-19: Targeting the cytokine storm via cholinergic anti-inflammatory (Pyridostigmine)

Published on: 21st May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8620528033

Background: The development of COVID-19 having been set apart as the third presentation of an exceptionally pathogenic coronavirus into the human populace after the extreme intense SARS-COV and MERS-COV in the twenty-first century. The infection itself doesn’t make a crucial commitment to mortality, anyway “cytokine storm” created by the unreasonable invulnerable reaction activated by the virus can result in a hyperinflammatory response of lung tissues and deadly lung injury, and in this way increment death rate. In this manner, immunomodulatory medications ought to likewise be remembered for treatment of COVID-19. Presentation of the hypothesis: the virus particles invade the respiratory mucosa firstly and infect other cells, triggering a series of immune responses and the production of cytokine storm in the body, which may be associated with the critical condition of COVID-19 patients. Once a cytokine storm is formed, the immune system may not be able to kill the virus, but it will certainly kill many normal cells in the lung, which will seriously damage the of lung function. Patients will have respiratory failure until they die of hypoxia. It is not yet clear what the death rate of Covid-19 will be, though the best estimate right now is that it is around 1 percent, 10 times more lethal than seasonal flu due to cytokines storm which trigger a violent attack by the immune system to the body, cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure, and finally lead to death in severe cases of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, inhibiting cytokine storm can significantly reduce inflammatory injury in lung tissues. Pyridostigmine (PDG), cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is a neural mechanism that modulates inflammation through the release of acetylcholine (ACh), resulting in decreased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1. This finding emphasis, the nervous and immune systems work collaboratively during infection and inflammation. Implications of the hypothesis: Administrations of Pyridostigmine (PDG) as cholinergic agonist inhibits the inflammatory response and lower the mortality of COVID-19 patients. Likewise, activation of the CAP during systemic inflammation down-regulates the production and release of inflammatory cytokines. 
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COVID-19 immunologic and toxicological implication: Innate immune sensor and immune escape

Published on: 25th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8980360578

Related COVID-19 and new Variant and treatment like vaccine it is relevant to deeply verify the immunologic implication and in a special way regarding the innate immune sensor system and the evasion of the immune system. This can be crucial to search for new strategies to fight this severe disease under a Toxicology-antidotes point of view. The rapid emergence of a new variant is under study by researchers because some of these show different responses to antibodies as reported in literature (vaccine efficacy?). In this article after a review part it is submitted a collection of hypothesis of solution to contrast COVID-19. Spread and mortality and project hypothesis. A new toxicological approach also in a viral respiratory disease can be a novelty to adequately fight this severe condition and this focusing not only towards specific immunity but also a specific measures. A toxicological approach in drug- vaccine like products designing makes it possible to get the clinical outcomes needed.
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The Trans-zoonotic Virome interface: Measures to balance, control and treat epidemics

Published on: 9th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8870064677

The global virome: The viruses have a global distribution, phylogenetic diversity and host specificity. They are obligate intracellular parasites with single- or double-stranded DNA or RNA genomes, and afflict bacteria, plants, animals and human population. The viral infection begins when surface proteins bind to receptor proteins on the host cell surface, followed by internalisation, replication and lysis. Further, trans-species interactions of viruses with bacteria, small eukaryotes and host are associated with various zoonotic viral diseases and disease progression. Virome interface and transmission: The cross-species transmission from their natural reservoir, usually mammalian or avian, hosts to infect human-being is a rare probability, but occurs leading to the zoonotic human viral infection. The factors like increased human settlements and encroachments, expanded travel and trade networks, altered wildlife and livestock practices, modernised and mass-farming practices, compromised ecosystems and habitat destruction, and global climate change have impact on the interactions between virome and its hosts and other species and act as drivers of trans-species viral spill-over and human transmission. Zoonotic viral diseases and epidemics: The zoonotic viruses have caused various deadly pandemics in human history. They can be further characterized as either newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases, caused by pathogens that historically have infected the same host species, but continue to appear in new locations or in drug-resistant forms, or reappear after apparent control or elimination. The prevalence of zoonoses underlines importance of the animal–human–ecosystem interface in disease transmission. The present COVID-19 infection has certain distinct features which suppress the host immune response and promote the disease potential. Treatment for epidemics like covid-19: It appears that certain nutraceuticals may provide relief in clinical symptoms to patients infected with encapsulated RNA viruses such as influenza and coronavirus. These nutraceuticals appear to reduce the inflammation in the lungs and help to boost type 1 interferon response to these viral infections. The human intestinal microbiota acting in tandem with the host’s defence and immune system, is vital for homeostasis and preservation of health. The integrity and balanced activity of the gut microbes is responsible for the protection from disease states including viral infections. Certain probiotics may help in improving the sensitivity and effectivity of immune system against viral infections. Currently, antiviral therapy is available only for a limited number of zoonotic viral infections. Because viruses are intracellular parasites, antiviral drugs are not able to deactivate or destroy the virus but can reduce the viral load by inhibiting replication and facilitating the host’s innate immune mechanisms to neutralize the virus. Conclusion: Lessons from recent viral epidemics - Considering that certain nutraceuticals have demonstrated antiviral effects in both clinical and animal studies, further studies are required to establish their therapeutic efficacy. The components of nutraceuticals such as luteolin, apigenin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid may be useful for developing a combo-therapy. The use of probiotics to enhance immunity and immune response against viral infections is a novel possibility. The available antiviral therapy is inefficient in deactivating or destroying the infecting viruses, may help in reducing the viral load by inhibiting replication. The novel efficient antiviral agents are being explored.
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