Introduction: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most frequent supraventricular tachycardia, commonly manifesting as autolimited paroxysmal episodes of rapid regular palpitations that exceed 150 beats per minute (bpm), dizziness and pounding neck sensation.
Case presentation: We present a case of a male patient, 70 years old, with ischemic heart disease and slow-fast AVNRT treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in March 2019, with regular 6-months follow-ups. He was readmitted in our department in November 2020 for rest dyspnea and incessant fluttering sensation in the neck, without palpitations. The event electrocardiogram (ECG) was initially interpreted by general cardiologist as accelerated junctional rhythm, 75 bpm. Due to the persistence of symptoms and ECG findings, a differential diagnosis between reentry and focal automaticity was imposed. The response to vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring characteristics provided valuable information. We suspected recurrent slow ventricular rate typical AVNRT, which was confirmed by electrophysiological study and we successfully performed the RFCA of the slow intranodal pathway.
Conclusion: AV nodal reentry tachycardia may have an unusual presentation, occurring in elder male patients with structural heart disease. Antiarrhythmic drugs can promote reentry in this kind of patients. In cases of slow ventricular rate, vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring can help with the differential diagnosis. The arrhythmia can be successfully treated with RFCA with special caution regarding the risk of AV block.
Ischemic heart disease may occur in isolation, or in combination with the pathological process of vascular ageing, arteriosclerosis. These two conditions have differing impacts on the haemodynamic changes in response to anaesthesia and surgery. Hypertension is not a feature of ischemic heart disease, and vice versa, but where the two conditions co-exist, hypertension aggravates and accelerates the pathological processes of ischemic heart disease. Patients older than 40 yrs. presenting for anaesthesia and surgery must therefore be considered at risk of any combination of these three conditions. Anaesthetic techniques must also be chosen to minimize haemodynamic changes which in the normal healthy patient cause no serious morbidity, but which, in the patient with ischemic heart disease, can lead to serious morbidity or death. Here we report a 70 years old (BMI of 23.3) elderly, hypertensive Male patient with ischemic heart disease with previous MI (EF of 40% - 5%) undergoing elective Inguinal hernia repair. We Opted Spinal anesthesia over General anaesthesia as it should be an asset in cardiac patients undergoing non-cardiac lower abdominal surgeries to reduce preload and after load, stress response, coagulation responses, improves coronary perfusion, provides better postoperative analgesia, reduces incidence of perioperative MI, maintains myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio and avoids harmful effects of GA such as hypotention due to intravenous induction drugs, tachycardia and hypertension due to pressor response during direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
Haifa Alshwikh, Ferial Alshwikh and Halla Elshwekh*
Published on: 16th May, 2022
Background: Hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 is considered an independent risk factor for a prolonged hospital stay, intensive care admission, and death, but its causes and treatment are not yet well known. Many workers attribute hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 to acute kidney injury and nephropathy associated with the disease. Others suggest that it is related to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, sepsis, or hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. We report a case of persistent acute hyponatremia in a COVID-19 patient with multifactorial etiology. Case presentation: A managed 77 years with known hypertension, type II DM, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease (stage 3B and on treatment) presented with post-COVID-19 pneumonia, confusion, fever, generalized fatigability, dizziness, and lower limb edema. COVID-19 ad has been diagnosed two weeks earlier with a positive nasopharyngeal swab and was managed with dexamethasone, 10 mg oral for 10 days, azithromycin, 500 mg once orally, and levofloxacin, 500 mg once orally. At presentation, laboratory investigation showed hyponatremia (127.7 mg/dl). Conclusion: The etiology of hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 is different from that in other cases of hyponatremia and its management should be individualized according to patient history and clinical assessment, and effort is needed to determine the exact cause.
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