Thymoglobulin is a rabbit-derived anti-thymocyte antibody directed at T-cells and commonly used for induction immunosuppression therapy in solid organ transplantation, especially in immunologically high risk kidney transplant recipients. Despite its frequent use and efficacy, the heterologous makeup of thymoglobulin can induce the immune system resulting in serum sickness which typically presents with rash, fever, fatigue, and poly-arthralgia in the weeks following drug exposure. ATGAM is another anti-thymocyte antibody, targeting the same epitopes, but differs from thymoglobulin by the animal in which the preparations are generated (equine vs. rabbit). Herein, we present a case of a patient with a known history of thymoglobulin-induced serum sickness, who presented with evidence of acute cellular and vascular rejection at their 12-month post-operative visit. Given their immunologically high risk status, they were successfully treated with ATGAM with improvement in their rejection and kidney function. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of successful administration of ATGAM in a patient with a documented history of thymoglobulin induced serum sickness, demonstrating a possible treatment option for acute rejection in patients with reactions to thymoglobulin.
Care of kidney transplant recipient remains complex and long-term graft survival is not seen in every transplant recipient. Due to reduced supply and increased demand of human organs, more transplants are carried out using marginal grafts on emergency lists. Transplant recipients have altered physiology due to known end-stage renal disease, recent surgery and the use of potent analgesic and immunosuppressive medications. Amongst the known surgical complications, urine leak remains the most common. It can result from poor graft preparation due to excessive peri ureteric or lower pole dissection or damage to lower polar artery resulting in ischemic necrosis. In addition, poor surgical technique, bladder outflow obstruction, iatrogenic injury to bladder or renal pelvis may contribute to urine leak. Ongoing urine leak may manifest itself as swelling, pain, high drain output, sepsis, ileus and eventual graft loss. Early identification, localisation and quantification of leak remain essential in management of these patients. In addition, sepsis should be identified and treated promptly as these patients are highly susceptible to infections. Early recognition of this complication can significantly reduce hospital stay, improve quality of life and reduce graft loss and mortality. In this article, we aim to develop an evidence-based management approach to a patient with urine leak using a clinical scenario.
Introduction: Ultrasound examination is frequently used to evaluate the graft after renal transplantation and to detect possible lymphoceles. The first ultrasound scan in our hospital is normally performed on the day of discharge. We questioned whether perirenal fluid collections detected by ultrasound examination at discharge are predictive for future symptomatic lymphoceles.
Methods: All ultrasound reports of all renal transplant recipients treated in our hospital between January 2010 and December 2017 were collected and screened for abnormalities such as fluid collections. Patients that developed a symptomatic lymphocele were compared with a control group from the same cohort. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination to detect symptomatic lymphoceles were calculated for the primary and consecutive ultrasounds tests.
Results: There were no significant differences at baseline characteristics between the Symptomatic lymphocele group and control group, with the exception of mean age at kidney transplantation (47 ± 17 years in the control group vs. 56 ± 13 years in the symptomatic lymphocele group, p=0.02).
The ultrasound examination at discharge had a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 87% to detect future symptomatic lymphoceles. The positive predictive value was only 10%. The second ultrasound test had the best test variables to detect symptomatic lymphoceles with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87% and a predictive value of 28%.
Conclusion: Routinely use of ultrasound testing on the day of discharge does detect perirenal fluid collections, but is not predictive for development of symptomatic lymphoceles in the future.
We described a case of specific (tuberculous) encephalitis in a patient after kidney transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy, continuously required in post-tranplant period, may cause various complications, such as infections. Specific meningoencephalitis is an infection that is rarely diagnosed and more common in immunocompromised patients.
Case report: A 30-year-old man had kidney transplantation (kidney donor was his father). He previously was two years on chronic hemodialysis treatment because of end-stagerenal disease based on diabetic nephropathy. He has diabetes type 1. The early post-transplant period duly passed with satisfactory clinical and laboratory parameters of renal function. Two months after transplantation, he presented with febrile condition, signs of septicemia and dehydration with significant neurological deficit and expressed meningeal signs. In cerebrospinal fluid we found lymphocytosis, elevated proteins and positive micobacterium tuberculosis antibodies (Hexagon method) and we suspected to specific etiology of meningitis. Performed computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain with contrast confirmed the expected finding.
Due to the poor prognosis of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunocompromised patients, only prompt diagnosis can improve survival in this group of patients. The therapeutic protocol after kidney transplantation include the prophylactic use of antituberculous drug (Isoniazid 300 mg) during the 9 months.
In Portugal, around 2500 patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 5) start a renal replacement therapy (RRT) for the first time each year . They have four main treatment options: kidney transplantation (TX); haemodialysis (HD); peritoneal dialysis (PD) and conservative treatment (CT). RRT selection is quite complex due to the specificities of each option and to their profound effect on patient’s quality of life. Patients must play a decisive role in the choice of treatment modality and select the option that best suits to their values and needs.
Kulvinder Kochar Kaur*, Gautam Allahbadia and Mandeep Singh
Published on: 10th May, 2022
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) by definition is a disease characterized by irreversible elimination of renal function, which keeps propagating as corroborated by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, the constant existence of presentation which pointed to Kidney injury (proteinuria, active sediments of urine, histological injury, structural aberrations or prior history with regards to Kidney transplantation) or both that are persistent for greaterthan 3 mths . CKD has continued to be a worldwide Public Health problem, as well as comprises considerable healthcare along with cost burden, since a reduction in GFR has been understood to result in, escalation of Diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension cardiovascular processes, hospital admissions, cognitive impairment in addition to total mortality . The prevalence of CKD has a variability as per the geographic region that varies from 10-20%, however, escalates slowly in particular in developed countries . Partly this pattern might be secondary to the enhancement of the aging population all over the globe . Additionally, the escalation of the prevalence of risk factors like DM, hypertension along with obesity in patients with CKD is noticeable .
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