Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is gold standard and most widely performed surgery for gallstone disease all over the world. Surgeons entering into the field of laparoscopic surgery for the first time faces challenges that are different from those with experienced hands. We in this study tried to enumerate the various such challenges and also recommend few steps to counter them.
Aims & Objectives: To study the challenges faced by new surgeons in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and recommendations to reduce them.
Material & Methods: This study was carried out in a medical college in the department of General and Minimal Access surgery. In this retrospective study, ten general surgeons working as senior residents in in this medical college over a period of 3 years having never performed laparoscopic surgery in past were included.
Results: A total of 50 cases, five operated by each surgeon with minimal assistance by senior surgeon in few cases. Operative time varied from 90 to 120 minutes. The various technical challenges faced by the new surgeon were in the Creation of Pneumoperitoneum, Creation of second port (epigastric port 10mm), Gallbladder Retraction and Dissection at calot’s triangle, Dissection at gallbladder bed and Removal of the gallbladder from epigastric port.it has been observed that following various simple steps will abate these technical difficulties for these beginners while doing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most commonly performed minimal access surgical procedure nowadays and almost all the new surgeons enter the world of laparoscopic surgery via this surgery. Knowing and following the above recommendations will help them abate the technical challenges generally faced during the initial phase in the laparoscopic field.
Due to laparoscopic cholecystectomy there is increase in the bile duct injuries. It was 0.2% to 0.4% during open opposed to 0.6% to 0.8% during laparoscopic. Included in the study were 22 patients, 19 patients with two redo operated upon. Between Feb. 1999 to Nov2017 and 3 referral cases. The treatment options were end to end anastomosis and hepaticojejunostomy. Regarding the injuries, according to Stresberg there were 2A .4D injuries with injury in the lateral aspect of the ducts, 8 E1, with hepatic stump > 2cm., 5 E2 with hepatic stump < 2cm. The three referral cases were choledochodoudonostomy E1, and E2. They were treated with si ligation of cystic in two cases, anastomosis in seven cases. The remaining fifteen cases with hepaticojejunostomy .Conclusions: The risk is more proximally. After complex injuries diversion is the best while with simple end to end was acceptable. The insertion of stents has to be individualized according to the situations of each patients and the experience of each surgeon.
Acute cholecystitis is a common general surgery disease which may require hospital admission. Delayed or early cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment. Availability of theatre slots may postpone cholecystectomy for weeks. I am writing this letter to explain the importance of early cholecystectomy programme and the necessity of support such programme by hospital managers. I will rationalize the concept of such program and its clinical and economic benefits.
There are many strong evidences that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) is a better option than delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC) for management of acute cholecystitis. For example, a meta-analysis study showed ELC as safe and effective as DLC and it is associated with lower hospital costs, fewer work delay lost and greater patient satisfaction . Furthermore, US Medicare database that include 29818 elderly patients with acute cholecystitis found a higher risk for mortality over the following two years in patients who were discharged without surgery compared with patients who underwent cholecystectomy in the initial hospitalization .
The risk of hospital re-admission after first attack of acute cholecystitis has been studied in a population –based analysis of the clinical course of 10304 patients with acute cholecystitis who discharged without cholecystectomy. Such analysis showed that the probability of a gall stone –related A&E visit or admission within 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 1 year was 14%, 19% and 29% respectively . This will increase the gall stone disease burden and decrease patients’ satisfaction.
Per NICE guidelines we should offer ELC (to be carried out within 1 week of diagnosis) to patients with acute cholecystitis. Patients who had pancreatitis secondary to gallbladder stones should have laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the index admission . NICE full health economy report showed that ELC burden is 2728.27 in compare to 3686.21 for DLC . Furthermore, 2018/2019 NHS tariff for emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy is between 6885 to 3872 pounds, while it is 3731 to 2080 pounds only for an elective case.
To sum up, ELC is as safe as DLC with potential lower mortality risk in elderly patients. In addition to eliminate the risk of re–admission after first attack of cholecystitis and decrease health care burden of gall bladder stones disease.
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide, it is accepted as the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones for its minimal invasiveness, less pain and early recovery.
Purpose: To predict the difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients according to the recently published scoring system and select the difficult cases to be done by a senior surgeon.
Patients: This is a prospective cohort study. This study took place Oct 6th University Hospital and Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo university; the study involved 120 patients admitted with calcular cholecystitis, arranged for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Methods: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy after applying the scoring system.
Results: In our study we found that age, sex and ultrasonographic data were significant predictive factors for assessment preoperatively difficult cases that will be operated upon. We found 14 patients above 50 years who scored to be difficult and very difficult were at outcome difficult, only three patients converted to open surgery over fifty.
Conclusion: We can report that obese patient who were over fifty with history of previous upper abdominal surgery and ultrasonographic picture showed thick walled GB and pericholecystic collection had high risk of conversion. At this study scoring system was used for prediction of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy sensitivity was 93.75% and specificity was 52.94% of the scoring system at score 5 for prediction of easy or difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is a rare benign inflammatory disease of gallbladder that may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma of the gallbladder intraoperative or in pre-operative imaging. Intramural accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages and acute and chronic inflammatory cells is the hallmark of the disease. The xanthogranulomatous inflammation can be very severe and can spill over to the neighboring structures like liver, bowel and stomach resulting in dense adhesions, abscess formation, perforation, and fistulous communication with adjacent bowel [1-3]. Cholecysto-colic fistula is a rare and late complication of gallstones roughly found 1 in every 1,000 cholecystectomies.
Clinical featuresThe clinical features are variable and non-specific. Patients with cholecysto-colonic fistula often present with symptoms of acute cholecystitis and preoperative diagnostic tools often fail to show the fistula. Hence most cases it is an on table diagnosis.
ManagementTreatment involves closing the fistula and performing an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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