Purpose: The purpose of the study is to access the prevalence of accessory right inferior hepatic veins and their relevant significance in liver transplantation.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in which the CT of 82 potential liver transplant candidates between January 2012 and March 2013 were reviewed. The presence of the accessory right inferior hepatic vein was examined; the diameters of the accessory inferior hepatic veins and the distance between the point where they open into the inferior vena cava on the coronal plane and to the right hepatic vein-inferior vena cava junction was measured.
Results: Out of 82 patients, 42 (51%) had accessory right inferior hepatic veins. Right accessory inferior hepatic veins larger than 3 mm were detected in 23 (28%) patients. The distance of these veins to the right hepatic vein-inferior vena cava junction was more than 4 cm in 13 (15%) patients.
Conclusion: The precise preoperative knowledge of accessory right inferior hepatic veins is essential in living donor liver transplantation.
43-year-old lady presented with incidentally discovered liver lesions while she was being managed for her complaints of menorrhagia. CT and MRI showed hepatomegaly with multiple lesions in both lobes of the liver with vascular element in the background of diffuse fatty infiltration. Patient underwent laparoscopic core biopsy. Histopathology showed extensive steatosis, intracytoplasmic giant mitochondria and absence of portal tracts, features highly suggestive of hepatic adenomatosis. IHC staining showed membranous and cytoplasmic positivity in hepatocytes for B-catenin consistent with multiple hepatic adenomatosis. Hepatic adenomatosis is a new clinical entity in the hepatological practice characterized by the presence of 10 or more nodules in the liver known for its major complication of bleeding. Hepatic adenomatosis is managed by regular imaging and resection of large (> 5cm) superficial and painful adenomas along with liver function tests and tumor markers to rule out malignant transformation. However, the potential cure being the liver transplantation.
Acute liver failure (ALF) in children is a severe disease with a high mortality rate. The current treatment strategies are still defective, with many cases die when liver transplantation is unavailable. The current protocol of steroids therapy improved the survival rate of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-related ALF. However, there is still a high mortality for non-HAV cases. Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been tried in experimental animals with ALF and in few adult studies with acute-on-chronic liver failure. No previous trials of SCT have been tested in children with ALF. The absence of SCT application in ALF in children could be due to some issues. These could be related to safety, sources, administration route, optimum dosage, efficacy, and survival. It is proposed that could be the future therapy if these obstacles have been well studied and solved.
Morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients have been improved over the last decades with the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy. As a result, other comorbidities such as chronic kidney and chronic liver diseases have emerged in the HIV population. A considerable percentage of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) in HIV population is attributed to hepatitis C co-infection and reactivation, and a growing need for solid organ transplantation has emerged among those patients. On the other hand, several studies on liver transplantations of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have shown discouraging results both in patient and graft survival rates. As a result, HIV-HCV co-infection has been considered a relative contraindication for liver transplantation. Thankfully, new drugs for HCV treatment have been discovered, acting direct on viral replication of HCV and they have changed the whole clinical course of HCV/HIV co-infected liver transplant recipients. Our case illustrates the long-term efficacy and safety of the new combination of Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir in HCV/HIV co-infected liver transplant recipients.
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Ayman M Abu Mustafa
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