Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients have a predisposition for malignant VT/VF and consequently, sudden cardiac death (SCD). In single center studies, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) defined fibrosis has been linked to VT/VF. However, despite innumerable investigations, SCD has not been definitely attributable to LGE. Explanations for these are believed to be related to insufficient statistical power.
Methods: We performed an electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed: and CMR abstracts for original data published or presented between Jan 2001 to Mar 2011. Key search terms: HCM, LV fibrosis, SCD and LGE. Studies were screened for eligibility based on inclusion criteria: referral for CMR exam with LGE for HCM; and follow-up for incidence of VT/VF and SCD. Categorical variables were evaluated between patient groups via Chi-square test.
Results: A total of 64 studies were initially identified. Of these, 4 (6.3%) were identified and included (n = 1063 patients). Three prospective and one retrospective study were included. LGE was detected in 59.6% of patients. As expected, the presence of myocardial fibrosis was associated with VT/VF (x2 = 6.5, p < 0.05; OR 9.0, (95% CI 1.2 to 68.7). Moreover, myocardial fibrosis strongly predicted SCD (x2 = 6.6, p < 0.05; OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 9.7).
Conclusion: Despite single center CMR studies, LGE has consistently predicted VT/VF while prediction of SCD has remained paradoxically unlinked. Although the lack of studies meeting our criteria limited our ability to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis, we have been able to demonstrate for the first time that LGE-defined fibrosis is a predictor of SCD in patients with HCM0.
This is a review of features in ECG to diagnose the culprit artery responsible for the infarction. Localization of the occluded vessel in acute myocardial infarction is important for many reasons: to know which artery is to dilate and stent; to assess the severity of the lesion; to compare with the echocardiographic area with hypokinesia or akinesia and to differentiate the recent from the old occluded vessel. The ST-segment changes in 12-lead ECG form the basis of diagnosis, management, and prognosis.
Atherosclerosis is an important promoter of cardiovascular disease potentiating myocardial infarction or stroke. Current demand in biomedical imaging necessitates noninvasive characterization of arterial changes responsible for transition of stable plaque into rupture-prone vulnerable plaque. in vivo contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) allows quantitative and functional monitoring of pathomorphological changes through signal differences induced by the contrast agent uptake in the diseased vessel wall, therefore it is the ideal modality toward this goal. However, studies have so far focused on the cellular targets of persisting inflammation, leaving extracellular matrix (ECM) far behind. In this review, we portray ECM remodeling during atherosclerotic plaque progression by summarizing the state of the-art in MRI and current imaging targets. Finally, we aim to discuss glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and their functional interactions, which might offer potential toward development of novel imaging probes for in vivo contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerosis.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the tumor markers and diagnostic methods used in the preoperative period for dermoid cysts, the most common benign neoplasm of the ovary.
Material and Methods: 136 patients who were operated for any reason and reported as ovarian dermoid cyst in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital between January 2004 and September 2005 were included in the study. The medical records of the cases were obtained retrospectively from Ankara-Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, HIS, archive files and patient numbers where necessary.
Results: In the preoperative period, 119 patients underwent ultrasonographic examination, 33 underwent Computed Tomography, and 17 underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging.10 of the cases only underwent CT, while 3 of the cases underwent only MRI 22 of them underwent both USG and CT, USG and MRI were performed on 13 cases and only 1 case underwent all three of the imaging methods. Tumor markers were CEA, CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and AFP.
Conclusions: The reviews of ultrasonography and / or computed tomography and / or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 132) revealed that 103 of the cases were put into operation and the sensitivity of the preoperative screening methods were calculated to be 75.5%. The sensitivity of the tumor marker CA 19-9 was calculated to be 31%.
Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a very rare benign cartilaginous tumor representing less than 0.5% of all bone tumors while also being the rarest cartilaginous bone tumor. Common locations of occurrence include the metaphysial region of the proximal tibia and distal femur. We report a case of a 10-year-old female affected by a CMF of the left lower tibia. The radiological features demonstrated by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are discussed.
This report presents an adult patient suffering from sacroiliitis like low back pain, lumbosacral radiculopathy and elbow swelling. Multimodality imaging revealed multiple lytic bone lesions located in supra acetabular iliac bone, sacrum, and distal end of radius. Painful numerous lesions due to the extension to the articular surfaces are not expected for Brown tumors. Less than ten cases with multiple Brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism has been reported. Although Brown tumors are mostly diagnosed incidentally, this case would awake the physicians about rheumatological symptoms in the presentation of Brown tumors. Since Brown tumors are non-touch bone lesions that are expected to regress after parathyroid adenoma removal, it is important to distinguish Brown tumors from the giant cell tumors.
Purpose: To determine the normal value of basal angle measured using the modified MR imaging technique in Thai population compared with the standard value obtained from the Western population.
Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated midline sagittal SE T1 weighted MR images in 200 adults and 50 children. The basal angle of the skull base was measured using the modified MR imaging technique described by Koenigsberg et al. The angle was formed by a line extending across the anterior cranial fossa to the tip of the dorsum sellae and another line drawn along the posterior margin of the clivus. The mean values of the basal angles among different age groups and sex were calculated and analyzed.
Results: The mean skull base angle of our adult population was 115° (range 100.5°-130°, SD=5.7) with an inter-observer agreement of 0.85, slightly smaller than the previous study from the USA which was 117°. There was no significant difference between the male and female groups. The mean skull base angle in our children population was 114.7° (range 102- 130.5°, SD=6.3) with an inter-observer agreement of 0.89, quite similar to the previous USA study which was 114°. There was no significant difference between adult and children.
Conclusion: The mean adult skull base angle measured using the modified MR imaging technique in Thai population was slightly smaller than the Western population, while the mean skull base angle of children was quite similar. The basal angle range of 103.6°-126.4° may be used as a guide for the potential range of normal skull base angles in Thai population and possibly also the Southeast Asian population.
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to measure pressure generated on a Tuohy needle during the epidural procedure in labouring women of varying body mass indices (BMI) with a view of utilising the data for the future development of a high fidelity epidural simulator. High-fidelity epidural simulators have a role in improving training and safety but current simulators lack a realistic experience and can be improved.
Methods: This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South Central, Portsmouth (REC reference 11/SC/0196). After informed consent epidural needle insertion pressure was measured using a Portex 16-gauge Tuohy needle, loss-of-resistance syringe, a three-way tap, pressure transducer and a custom-designed wireless transmitter. This was performed in four groups of labouring women, stratified according to BMI kg/m2: 18-24.9; 25-34.9; 35-44.9 and >=45. One-way ANOVA was used to compare difference in needle insertion pressure between the BMI groups. A paired t-test was performed between BMI group 18-24.9 and the three other BMI groups. Ultrasound images of the lumbar spine were undertaken prior to the epidural procedure and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed within 72h post-delivery. These images will be used in the development of a high fidelity epidural simulator.
Results: The mean epidural needle insertion pressure of labouring women with BMI 18-24.9 was 461mmHg; BMI 25-34.9 was 430mmHg; BMI 35-44.9 was 415mmHg and BMI >=45 was 376mmHg, (p=0.52).
Conclusion: Although statistically insignificant, the study did show a decreasing trend of epidural insertion pressure with increasing body mass indices.
Background and Purpose: Injuries for the pre-adolescent female Irish Dancer (FID) are not well recognized. The purpose of this case study is to report imaging assisted diagnosis and management of atypical medial and plantar foot pain (MPFP) in an 8-year-old FID.
Description: The patient presented with chief complaint of diffuse left MPFP. The patient was initially evaluated by a Physical Therapist for persistent foot pain. The patient experienced minimal pain in non-weightbearing (NWB). Pain intensified in weightbearing (WB) escalating with a heel raise. The patient experienced pain with resistance testing, ankle passive range of motion (PROM) and first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) PROM. Diffuse tenderness with palpation over the medial column of the left foot was noted. The patient was unable to complete single leg dynamic activity on the left foot. There was suspicion for a metatarsal stress fracture (MSF). Radiographs were ordered and read as negative. The patient was treated with immobilization in a walking boot, WB as tolerated and relative rest including cessation of dance. The patient returned for re-evaluation 2 weeks after reporting no change in symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was then ordered.
Outcome: Results of the MRI identified 2 stress fractures in the first metatarsal. The treatment plan changed to NWB status with immobilization for an additional 6 weeks. The patient returned to full WB status and participated in all dance activity 15 weeks after the initial presentation to the Physician and 27 weeks after the initial onset of MPFP.
Discussion/Conclusion: In this pre-adolescent FID, the presentation of MPFP can be misinterpreted as a soft tissue injury. It is important to consider the diagnosis of first MSF in a pre-adolescent FID to allow appropriate management.
Anal melanoma is a rare and highly aggressive mucosal melanocytic malignancy. It is the third most common after melanomas of the skin and retina. The peak incidence in seen in the sixth and seventh decades. The clinical symptoms are pain, anal mass, bleeding per rectum, tenesmus or change in the bowel habits. It affects anal canal, rectum or both with a tendency to spread along submucosal planes. It is mostly beyond complete resection at the time of diagnosis and majority of patients die of metastasis. MR imaging significantly increases the diagnosis of anal melanoma in its early stages.
Background: Low back pain has recently been reported as the leading cause for disability worldwide. The diagnostic value of imaging has been estimated low. Led by own positive experience, however, we hypothesized that MRI can detect signs of facet joint pain.
Methods: 15 patients and 15 controls were retrospectively assessed by two readers. They compared de-identified T2 weighted lumbar spine MRI scans. Facet joint size, shape, angle, joint space signal and degeneration were rated. Pain aetiology was proven with the diagnostic gold standard of medial branch blocks.
Results: Facet joint angles and joint diameters were significantly larger in symptomatic patients, who also showed significantly higher grades of degeneration but no difference in joint space distances or shape or signal intensity.
The readers were able to correctly identify symptomatic patients with good interrater reliability (kappa 0.5, sensitivity and specificity 0.87-0.93), positive (LR+= 6.7-7.2) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-=0.15).
Conclusion: Contrary to recent publications, we could demonstrate differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects showing the latter to have larger joints and more signs of degeneration.
One can conclude from the strong LR+ and LR- values that MRI is a useful investigation to rule in or rule out facet pain.
Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to differentiate Benign and Malignant Parotid Gland Tumors taking histopathology as gold standard.
Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and duration of study: Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore from January till July 2014.
Methodology: 200 patients of age between 5 to 80 years of either gender with parotid gland swelling, having radiological evidence and clinical suspicion of parotid tumour like fixation to underlying skin, pain, facial palsy and cervical lymphadenopathy were taken. T1 and T2 plain and contrast enhanced 1.5 Tesla MRI unit using standard imaging coil was then carried out. Imaging was further evaluated for the presence or absence of benign or malignant parotid gland tumours using histopathology as a Gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of MRI were taken against the gold standard.
Results: There were 170 males and 30 females having mean age of 40.27±15.04 and 40.12±12.15 years respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRI were 90.4%, 89.33%, 93.39% and 84.41% respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI to differentiate benign and malignant parotid gland tumours was 90%. These results were taken against surgery histopathology as a gold standard.
Conclusion: MRI is highly accurate in differentiating malignant & benign tumours of parotid glands and can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for pre-operative evaluation of the parotid gland tumours.
Background: Biopsy findings of percentage of positive biopsy cores, percentage of cancer volume, and maximum involvement of biopsy cores have been shown to have prognostic value and correlate with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. The relationship of these prognostic biopsy factors to MRI findings of the presence of a dominant lesion, has not yet been investigated.
Methods: Sixty-five patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer were included in a retrospective cohort. MRI was acquired using either 1.5 Tesla (T) with endorectal coil or a 3 T MRI unit. Findings of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and presence and number of dominant lesions were noted. T-test and Cox regression statistical analyses were performed.
Results: Patients with one or more dominant lesions on MRI had a significantly higher mean percentage of positive biopsy cores (56.7% vs 39.8%, p=0.004), percentage of cancer volume (23.5% vs 14.5%, p=0.011) and maximum involvement of biopsy cores (62.9% vs 47.3%, p=0.027) than those without a dominant lesion on MRI. On multivariate analysis, only percentage of positive biopsy cores remained a statistically significant predictor for a dominant lesion on MRI (Hazard Ratio 1.06 [95% CI 1.01-1.12; p=0.02]), whereas prostate-specific antigen, clinical T-stage, Gleason score, percentage of cancer volume, and maximum involvement of biopsy cores were not significant predictors of a dominant lesion on MRI. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis was done and a cutoff value of >=50% was chosen for percentage of positive biopsy cores, >=15% for percentage of cancer volume, >=50% for maximum involvement of biopsy cores.
Conclusion: Percentage of positive biopsy cores was found to be a significant predictor for the presence of a dominant lesion on MRI. This finding is hypothesis-generating and should be confirmed with a prospective trial.
Background: The use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of neurological disorders has increased in the past two decades. This has led to an increased detection of incidental findings on brain MRI. The most common of these asymptomatic abnormalities are white matter lesions that are interpreted as demyelinating based on radiological criteria. However, in the absence of associated clinical symptoms suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), a definite diagnosis of MS can’t be made in patients with these incidental white matter lesions. These patients are diagnosed as CIS (clinically isolated syndrome) and RIS (radiologically isolated syndrome).Using the revised McDonald criteria now allows some patients who would have been diagnosed with CIS to be diagnosed as having MS before a second episode.
Method: Sixty one patients, 40 females and 21 males, age ranged between 15 years and 58 years, were included in our study. In addition to a detailed medical and neurological history and examination, CSF and blood analysis for oligoclonal bands and IgG index were performed for all patients.
Result: 41 patients had positive oligoclonal bands and IgG index. After clinical, MRI results and laboratory results 44 (72.1%) were diagnosed CIS and 17 (27.9%) were RIS.
Conclusion: Diagnosis of MS not depend only on MRI finding but need clinical and laboratory work up including CSF and blood analysis for oligoclonal bands and IgG index to confirm diagnosis.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement by intraluminal extension of tumor is infrequent, occuring in 4% to 10% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [1-5]. Based on the cephalic extension of the thrombus, Mayo  described a classification of inferior vena cava thrombi in 4 categories, which has implications on surgical complexity, estimated blood loss (EBL) and peri-operative complications, but not cancer-specific survival [2,7]. Level III IVC thrombus is classified as being located in the retro-hepatic IVC below the diaphragm. Total resection of this tumor is the best chance of cure when no distant metastases are present [4,8]. Actually, open radical nephrectomy with concomitant thrombectomy is still the standard treatment. This procedure is technically challenging and involves a large incision and prolonged convalescence . Recently, the feasibility of robotic IVC thrombectomy has been demonstrated, with potential lower EBL and shorter hospitalization and convalescence [7,10-14]. This surgery requires thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy, detailed pre-operative preparation and meticulous robotic technique . The key point in the surgical management is the correct assessment of the extension of the endocaval thrombus, what is mainly based on radiological examinations . Although Ultrasonography (US) and computerized tomography (CT) are useful in demonstrating the extent of the thrombus, CT is not always accurate in delineating the superior margin of the tumor in the IVC. More precisely, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate a tumor thrombus and its extension, besides signs of wall invasion, being extremely useful to surgical procedure planning [8,15]. Vena cavography is not additive to US, CT, and MRI, and it increases the risk of contrast-associated renal injury [4,8]. However, new modern image technologies has emerged to help surgical planning, as three-dimensional visualization technique (3DVT) based on routine CT or MRI processed image data [16-20]. Recently, a comparative study showed advantage of 3DVT in management of complex renal tumor during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy . This modality is able to demonstrate anatomy relations, allowing the surgeon to observe the relationship between targeted tumor and peripheral structure before surgery and perform virtual manipulation. This kind of preoperative accurate assessment can enhance surgeons confidence of surgical procedure and decrease surgical risk and incidence of complications . There is no report in the literature of the use of this type of technology in cases of IVC tumor thrombus.
We present the use of 3D holographic interactive reconstruction in a single case of robotic radical nephrectomy with level III IVC thrombectomy.
Since the advent of antibiotics, lateral sinus thrombosis is an infrequent complication of otitis media. Lateral sinus thrombosis may occur by thrombophlebitis or penetration by offending pathogens through the dura of middle and posterior cranial fossae. We present a case of right-sided sigmoid and transverse venous sinus thrombosis as a rare complication of chronic suppurative otitis media in an adult. We discuss the patient’s imaging, management and relevant literature to offer clinical recommendations.
A 39-year-old woman presented with headache, neck pain, vomiting, fever and photophobia with a tender right mastoid on examination. Computerised Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Venogram of the head revealed complete opacification of the right mastoid air cells and middle ear, with absent flow void in the right transverse and sigmoid sinus, consistent with thrombosis. After discussion with neurosurgery, she was commenced on anticoagulants. The patient was readmitted with right otalgia and otorrhea refractory to medical treatment, and ultimately underwent right mastoid exploration.
Conclusion: Lateral sinus thrombosis may occur with other intracranial or extracranial complications of otitis media. Clinicians should approach any complication of otitis media with vigilance as antibiotics may mask some signs and symptoms of mastoiditis, which can progress to otogenic brain abscess.
Vestibular disorders and anxiety are closely related, probably because they share some neuronal pathways. Ageing and patient comorbidities are important facilitating factors, and multiple vascular risk factors could contribute to the onset of a vestibular syndrome called vascular vertigo. White matter lesions (WML) are often seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly people and are related to various geriatric disorders, including dizziness. The cause of this correlation could be the disruption of neuronal networks that mediate higher vestibular cortical function. Numerous neuronal pathways link the vestibular network with limbic structures and the prefrontal cortex modulates anxiety through its connections to amygdala. The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between WML, amygdala and cognitive functions.
Introduction: Laparoscopic approach is emerging as a standard of care approach for management of masses amenable to partial nephrectomy. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is a challenging surgery and its successful performance depends on various factors. We aim to evaluate the influence of tumor characterestics on the operative performance for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
Methods: Patients undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in our institution were recruited for this study. The tumor profile was evaluated by a senior radiologist from cross sectional imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging). Tumor characerestics was defined by assessing tumor size, tumor location and RENAL score. The operative performance was evaluated in terms of warm ischemia time, blood loss, operation duration and any significant operative complications. Statistical inference was drawn.
Results: 37 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy between January 2010 and June 2012 were included in this study. The mean tumor dimension was 3.81 cms. 21 tumors involved left kidney and 16 involved right kidney. 12 were located in upper pole, 8 were located in midpole and 17 were located in lower pole. The average RENAL score was 6.56. The mean warm ischemia time, blood loss and operation duration was 26.29 minutes (min), 256.76 millilitres (ml) and 208.11 min respectively. Statistically significant correlation was appreciated between tumor location (polar location, side, anterior/ posterior location) and RENAL score and operative parameters (warm ischemia time and operation duration). Tumor size did not have any correlation with the operative parameters.
Conclusion: The operative performance of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is significantly influenced by the tumor location and RENAL score.
The increasing use of highly conformal radiation deliberates a higher accurate targeting. Contouring and clinical judgment are presumably the crucial point, thus positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging PET/MRI with somatostatin analogs appears to be useful in radiotherapy target definition. A case report of a 43-year-old woman presented with a recurrence of a meningioma (World Health Organization group I classification) in skull base, 2 years after resection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left sided skull base mass on sphenoid wing, anterior clinoid and with a soft tissue component in the lateral portion of the orbit.
Contrast-enhanced MRI and a computed tomography (CT) dedicated were used to the radiotherapy planning. Aiming an improvement on target volume delineation, 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/MRI was also performed due the difficult localization of the tumor in skull base. Was treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to a total dose of 54 Gy in 28 fractions. It was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV), defined based of both imaging modalities. In our case PET/MRI helped to define the target, which volume becomes bigger than that based exclusively on MRI and CT.
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare form of non-Langherans cell histiocytosis (non-LCH) observed almost exclusively in infants and young children. It is rarely systemic, involving extracutaneous sites, such as the liver, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, bone or central nervous system. Systemic JXG may be associated with significant complications requiring aggressive medical or surgery care; especially, central nervous system lesions are difficult to treat and reported to be possibly fatal. Clinical presentation of JXG of central nervous system is not specific and is related to the involved site while magnetic resonance imaging examination remains the first choice for localizing the lesions. If no other system is involved, surgical excision could be sufficient.
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