Filariasis is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) known to be of serious public health importance and pose devastating socio-economic burden especially among the poor people in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The parasite is responsible for lymphatic filariasis affecting about 1.3 billion people in 72 countries worldwide. The major parasitic agents of the infection are three closely related nematodes of clade Onchocercidaei namely Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori that are transmitted to human through bites by mosquitoes of genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. The disease is targeted by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination by 2020 through the use of chemically synthesized drugs used as therapeutic agents to cure the disease but there are some setbacks. Phytochemical extracts are viewed as alternative therapy in the management of the disease. Additionally, the species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. This diversification in terms of genomic sequences as well as rapid infection rate warrant the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Thus understanding the genomic diversity of the parasite will help in efficient therapeutic management of the disease, thereby eliminating it to prevent unnecessary suffering and contribute to the reduction of poverty. In this review, we have highlighted on the used for phytochemical extracts in the therapeutic management of the lymphatic and the molecular genetic diversity of the parasite was delineated.
The bio-energy released by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate, which relate to plenty of life activities and is transported in a solution, and its theory of transport are first stated and built in helix protein molecule. In order to confirm and verify the correctness of the transported theory we here systematically summarized and reviewed a great number of experimental investigation and evidences obtained by us and other researchers in past 30 years, involving the real existences of the solution and its features and lifetimes. In this survey we outlined and presented concretely the features of infrared spectra of absorption, Raman spectra and specific heat of the molecular crystal-acetanilide collagen, bivine serum albumin, myoglobin proteins and E.Coli. cell as well as the lifetimes of the solution in acetanilide and myoglobin measured by using pump-probe techniques and free-electron laser experiment, in which we give not only experimental data but also their comparisons with theoretical results. These experimental data and evidences provided here are enough to verify and affirm the true existences of the new solution, which can complete itself functions of bio-energy transport in the lifetime, and the correctness of the new theory of bio-energy transport in the acetanilide and protein molecule. Thus we can affirm the correctness of theory of the bio-energy transport in helix protein molecule, which can greatly promote the development of molecular biology.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering. The subject combines various disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechnology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, systems biology, biophysics, computer engineering, and genetic engineering. Synthetic biology aims to understand whole biological systems working as a unit, rather than investigating their individual components and design new genome. Significant advances have been made using systems biology and synthetic biology approaches, especially in the field of bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Similarly, progress is being made with ‘synthetic approaches’ in genetics and animal sciences, providing exciting opportunities to modulate, genome design and finally synthesis animal for favorite traits.
Related the extremely transmittable abilities of SARS-CoV-2,a harmonious virus to the bat CoV, gets transmitted by three principal processes-- the inhalation of droplets from the SARS-CoV-2 infected person, contacting to the person, and by the surfaces and materials defiled with the virus. Whereupon bat Coronavirus is mostly like the pandemic causing virus SARS-CoV-2, bats are often deliberated and figured out as a possible primary host although no intermediate has not been defined yet in the wherewithal of transmission. The Spike Glycoprotein plays an important role in the case of penetration with the assistance of the ACE2 receptor and the Receptor Binding Domain. In the human body, infiltrating the nucleic acid into host cells, SARS-CoV-2 attacks one cell and one by one into the whole human body; therefore, infected cases are found symptomatic and asymptomatic considering the immune power. Patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes proceed with their treatment with ACE2 often; therefore, there might be a high chance of getting infected. Whereas the SARS-CoV-2 infects the blood and then lungs, Antigens improvement can be better in order to avoid high-complicated effects. Currently, no vaccination or no accurate cure and treatment has not been defined. An explanation with analysis on SARS-CoV-2 has been performed from the aspect of virology, immunology and molecular biology. Several relevant figures have been included hereby in order to a better understanding of the very concept.
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