Myocardial infarction

Left Atrial Remodeling is Associated with Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with Reperfused Acute Myocardial Infarction

Published on: 7th December, 2016

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286353354

Background: Left atrial volume (LAV) has been established as a sensitive marker of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). LA remodeling and its determinants in the setting of AMI have not been much studied. Methods: We studied 53 patients with anterior AMI and a relatively preserved LV systolic function, who underwent complete reperfusion and received guidelines guided antiremodeling drug management. LA and LV remodeling were assessed using 2D echocardiography at baseline and 6 months. LAV indexed for BSA (LAVi) was used as the index of LA size and further LA remodeling. Results: LAVi increased signifi cantly at 6 months compared to baseline [28.1 (23.0-34.5) vs 24.4 (19.5- 31.6) ml/m2, p=0.002] following LV end diastolic-volume index change [56.8 (47.6-63.9) vs 49.5 (42.0-58.4) ml/m2, p=0.0003]. Other standard LV diastolic function indices did not show any signifi cant change. Univariateanalysis showed a strong positive correlation of LAVi change with BNP levels at discharge, LV mass index and LV volumes indices change, throughout the follow up period. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that BNP plasma levels was the most important independent predictor of LA remodeling (b-coef.=0.630, p=0.001). Conclusions: Despite current antiremodeling strategies in patients with AMI, LA remodeling is frequently asssociated with LV remodeling. Additionally LAVi change in the mid-term reflects better than standard echocardiographic indices LV diastolic filling impairment.
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Procedure utilization, latency and mortality: Weekend versus Weekday admission for Myocardial Infarction

Published on: 19th May, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286355059

Background: Due to variations in hospital protocols and personnel availability, individuals with myocardial infarction admitted on the weekend may be less likely to receive invasive procedures, or may receive them with a greater latency than those admitted during the week. Whether or not this occurs, and translates into a difference in outcomes is not established. Method: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2008-2011) database, we identified all patients admitted with a principle diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. They were stratified by weekend or weekday admission. Baseline clinical characteristics, procedure utilization and latency to procedure were compared, and logistic regression models were constructed to assess the relationship between these variables and in-hospital mortality. Results: Patient demographics and provider-related characteristics (hospital type, geography) were similar between weekend and weekday admission for myocardial infarction. Adjusted for covariates, we found that the odds of mortality for a weekend admission are 5% greater than for a weekday admission (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09, p=0.009). For the utilization of an invasive procedure, we found that the odds of receiving a procedure for a weekend admission were 12% less than the odds for a weekday admission, adjusted for the other covariates (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91, p<0.001). In addition, we found that the time to procedure was an average of 0.18 days (4.32 hours) longer for weekend admissions compared to weekday admissions (95% CI: 0.16, 0.20, p<0.001). However, we did not observe a significant difference in the overall length of stay for weekend and weekday admissions (0.004 days; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.05, p=0.87). Conclusion: In a large and diverse subset of patients admitted with myocardial infarction, weekend admission was associated with fewer procedures, increased latency to those procedures, and a non-significant trend towards greater in adjusted in-hospital mortality.
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Spontaneous rupture of a giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm after acute Myocardial Infarction

Published on: 21st June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286358318

Coronary artery aneurysm is commonly defined as a localized dilatation exceeding the diameter of adjacent normal coronary segments by 50% [1]. Coronary artery aneurysms may be fusiform, involving the full circumference of the coronary artery, or saccular, involving only a portion of the circumference [2]. Causes of coronary artery aneurysms include atherosclerosis (accounting for 50% of cases), Kawasaki disease, polyarteritis nodosa, infection, trauma, coronary dissection, percutaneous coronary angioplasty, and congenital malformations [3]. The abnormal blood flow within the coronary artery aneurysm may lead to thrombus formation, embolization, rupture, myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction [4]. Here we present a case of a giant fusiform coronary artery aneurysm who passed away due to coronary rupture after acute myocardial infarction.
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A rare Congenital Coronary Artery Anomaly: Woven Right Coronary Artery associated with Myocardial Infarction

Published on: 7th July, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286355563

Woven coronary artery (WCA) is an extremely rare and still not a clearly defined coronary anomaly. It is characterized by the division of epicardial coronary artery into thin channels which then reanastomose with the distal part of the abnormal coronary artery [1]. Since the angiographic imaging of WCA looks like an intracoronary thrombus and dissection; the differential diagnosis between atherothrombotic coronary arteries with recanalization of organized thrombi in coronary arteries and WCA may be very difficult for invasive cardiologists, especially in patients with single or two coronary artery involvements [2].
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Assessment of risk factors and MACE rate among occluded and non-occluded NSTEMI patients undergoing coronary artery angiography: A retrospective cross-sectional study in Multan, Pakistan

Published on: 30th May, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7795966987

Objectives: The prime focus of the present study was to evaluate the most occluded coronary artery (OCA) among non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients, and risk factors associated with occluded and non-occluded NSTEMI. Also, major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) were evaluated among patients during index hospitalization. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in Multan Institute of Cardiology, Pakistan between 1st February, 2017, and 31st September, 2017. The data were collected from medical records of the outpatients and inpatients who were index hospitalized. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) And Microsoft Excel (MS Office 2010). Results: Among 624 patients, angiographic findings revealed that 63.9% were suffering from non-occlusive NSTEMI while 36.1% of the patients had occluded NSTEMI. In occluded NSTEMI patients, 30.3% were having single vessel occlusion while 5.8% were having multi-vessel occlusion. Also, 49.8% were having occlusion of right coronary artery (CA) while 44% were having occluded left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p=0.001) had a statistically significant association. The incidence of MACE was high among non-OCA patients as compared to OCA patients but no statistically significant association was found (p=0.44). Conclusions: Angiography confirmed that most of the NSTEMI patients had OCA. But the MACE rate was not significantly differ among OCA and non-OCA patients. The risk factors associated with OCA were low LVEF and age.
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An observational study of the occurrence of anxiety, depression and self-reported quality of life 2 years after myocardial infarction

Published on: 17th October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893782705

Background: Patients with myocardial infarction (MI) often experience anxiety, depression and poor quality of life (QoL) compared with a normative population. Mood disturbances and QoL have been extensively investigated, but only a few studies have examined the long-term effects of MI on these complex phenomena. Aims: To examine the levels and associated predictors of anxiety, depression, and QoL in patients 2 years after MI. Methods: This was a single center, observational study of patients with MI (n=377, 22% women, median age 66 years). Two years after MI (2012-2014), the patients were asked to answer the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaires. Results: Most patients experienced neither anxiety (87%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 83-90%) nor depression (94%, 95% CI: 92-97%) 2 years post-MI. Elderly patients experienced more depression than younger patients (p=0.003) and women had higher anxiety levels than men (p=0.009). Most patients had “no problems” with any of the EQ-5D-3L dimensions (72-98%), but 48% (95% CI: 43%-53%) self-reported at least “some problems” with pain/discomfort. In a multiple logistic regression model (EQ-5D-3L) higher age (p<0.001) and female sex (p<0.001) were associated with more pain/discomfort. Female sex (p=0.047) and prior MI (p=0.038) were associated with anxiety/depression. History of heart failure was associated with worse mobility (p=0.005) and problems with usual activities (p=0.006). The median total health status of the patients (EQ-VAS) was 78 (95% CI: 75-80)
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Diagnostic accuracy of TIMI versus GRACE score for prediction of death in patients presenting with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI)

Published on: 22nd February, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8022255638

Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome describes a spectrum of disease ranging from unstable angina through non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) to ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Early death in NSTEMI is usually due to an arrhythmia. Patients should be admitted immediately to hospital, preferably to a cardiac care unit because there is a significant risk of death. Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of TIMI versus GRACE for prediction of death in patients presenting with Acute Non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction. Material & Methods: This present cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, CPEIC, Multan. All patients assessed according to given scores in the two scoring system i.e. TIMI risk score and GRACE score. Then patients were labeled as high or low risk for death. Data was collected by using pre-designed proforma. 2x2 tables were generated to measure the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative Predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of TMI Risk score and GRACE Score for prediction of death in NSTEMI patients. Results: In our study the mean age of the patients was 55.73±9.78 years. The male to female ratio of the patients was 1.6:1. The diabetes as risk factor was found in 145(39%) patients, smoking as risk factor was found in 53(14.2%) patients and hypertension as risk factor was found in 174(46.8%) patients. the sensitivity of TIMI risk was 97.7% with specificity of 92.93% and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.16%, similarly the sensitivity of GRACE risk was 100% with specificity of 95.96% and the diagnostic accuracy was 97.85%. Conclusion: Our study results concluded that both the TIMI risk and GRACE risk are good predictor of death in patients presenting with Acute Non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction with higher sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy. However the GRACE risk showed more accurate results as compared to TIMI risk.
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Is secondary prevention information before discharge adequate after percutaneous coronary intervention?

Published on: 8th May, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8163873247

Introduction: Implementation of prevention strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential, but many fall short of reaching their goals. Patients often perceive themselves as healthy and are less motivated to change lifestyle. To obtain better results patients need repeated information, preferably with motivational and person-centered approaches. Aims: To investigate whether health care providers inform CAD patients about risk factors and lifestyle changes at a percutaneous coronary intervention unit. Also to investigate whether the information given at discharge included secondary prevention management and if motivational and person-centered approaches were used. Methods: This is a descriptive, observational study that includes both a qualitative and quantitative design. Physicians and nurses working at a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) unit and physicians at a coronary care unit (CCU) participated. A staff nurse observed and noted what information the patients received at the PCI unit. At the CCU, observations regarding secondary prevention strategies during the discharge counselling were performed. Results: There were 50 observations made at the PCI unit. The information mainly consisted of tobacco consumption, physical activity and diet. During the 31 discharge counselling sessions the diagnosis, interventional procedure and medical treatment were frequently included. Most patients received little or no person-centered or motivational counselling. Conclusion: Nearly all patients at the PCI unit received information about the consequence of tobacco consumption, and more than half about the beneficial effects of physical activity. In contrast, the counselling at discharge need to focus more on behavioral changes and a motivational and person-centered approach.
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Impact of the Israeli attacks at 2014 on incidence of STEMI in Gaza

Published on: 7th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165496914

For 51 days, Gaza was pummeled down by the Israeli military in a war known as Operation Protective Edge. During the 50 days (7-7-204 to 28-8-2014) of the Israeli campaign, 2104 Palestinians were killed, including 253 women (12%) and 495 children (24%). According to the UN, at least 69% of Palestinians killed were civilians. It is estimated that 10,224 Palestinians, including 3,106 children (30%) and 1,970 women (19%) were injured. Preliminary estimates indicate that up to 1,000 of the children injured will have a permanent disability and up to 1,500 orphaned children will need sustained support from the child protection and welfare sectors, 17,200 homes destroyed or severely damaged, 58 hospitals and clinics damaged [1]. Major stressful events are well documented to increase the incidence of acute cardiac events [2]. Cardiovascular complications more than doubled during the FIFA World Cup games of 2006 [3]. After the September 11 terrorist attacks, significantly more patients presented with acute myocardial infarction to the hospitals in Brooklyn [4] and New Jersey [5]. We were able to examine the effects of the Isreli attacks on acute STEMI presentations in Gaza city.
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Evaluation of the predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc Score for no-reflow phenomenon in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Published on: 28th October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8303626780

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the predictive clinical value of CHA2DS2-VASc score for no-reflow phenomena in patients having ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who applied to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Subjects and Methods: Three-hundred STEMI patients underwent primary PCI. They were classified into: group (1) included 27 patients with no-reflow and group (2) included 273 patients without no-reflow (control). CHA2DS2-VASc risk score was computed for each patient. Results: This study found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in multivariate analysis of the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and no-reflow phenomenon. The predictive power of individual components in CHA2DS2-VASc score for no-reflow was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). So, significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc score is connected with higher risk of no-reflow and in-hospital mortality rate. Conclusion: Significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc score is associated with higher risk of no- reflow phenomenon and in-hospital mortality rates in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI.
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Aortic dissection causing 2 myocardial infarctions

Published on: 16th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8488779776

A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of right-sided thoracic pain. The ECG showed inferior ST segment elevations. He has been treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin and tenecteplase, and his symptoms resolved after 30 minutes. About half an hour later, the patient developed again left-sided thoracic pain and the signs of an anterior myocardial ST-segment elevation infarction. 90 minutes after receiving the initial medications, the performed coronary angiography revealed a long dissection of a large ramus circumflexus. Furthermore, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded at about the mid-level. The left ventriculography showed a reduced ventricular function and a Stanford type A aortic dissection. Immediate patient transfer for emergency surgical intervention was arranged. However, ventricular fibrillation occurred during transport and he required endotracheal intubation and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Unfortunately, he died during further transport. In a patient with massive thoracic pain of initially uncommon localization in combination with fluctuation of ST-segment elevations, aortic dissection should be seriously taken into the differential diagnosis as well as into therapeutic management decisions (in particular antiplatelet and thrombolytic therapy).
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Localization of the occluded vessel in acute myocardial infarction

Published on: 18th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550958571

This is a review of features in ECG to diagnose the culprit artery responsible for the infarction. Localization of the occluded vessel in acute myocardial infarction is important for many reasons: to know which artery is to dilate and stent; to assess the severity of the lesion; to compare with the echocardiographic area with hypokinesia or akinesia and to differentiate the recent from the old occluded vessel. The ST-segment changes in 12-lead ECG form the basis of diagnosis, management, and prognosis.
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Dapt Review

Published on: 25th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576364795

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) combining aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor has been consistently shown to reduce recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with aspirin monotherapy but at the expense of an increased risk of significant bleeding. Among patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES), shorter duration of DAPT (3–6 months) were shown non-inferior to 12 or 24 months duration concerning MACE but reduced the rates of major bleeding? Contrariwise, prolonged DAPT durations (18–48 months) reduced the incidence of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis, but at the cost of an increased risk of majör bleeding and all-cause mortality. Until more evidence becomes available, the choice of optimal DAPT regimen and duration for patients with CAD requires a tailored approach based on the patient clinical presentation, baseline risk profile and management strategy. Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) have indications for both dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anticoagulation (OAC). Triple therapy (TT), the combination of DAPT and OAC, is recommended in guidelines. This article provides a contemporary state-of-the-art review of the current evidence on DAPT for secondary prevention of patients with CAD and its future perspectives.
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Glycosaminoglycans as Novel Targets for in vivo Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerosis

Published on: 20th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588716816

Atherosclerosis is an important promoter of cardiovascular disease potentiating myocardial infarction or stroke. Current demand in biomedical imaging necessitates noninvasive characterization of arterial changes responsible for transition of stable plaque into rupture-prone vulnerable plaque. in vivo contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) allows quantitative and functional monitoring of pathomorphological changes through signal differences induced by the contrast agent uptake in the diseased vessel wall, therefore it is the ideal modality toward this goal. However, studies have so far focused on the cellular targets of persisting inflammation, leaving extracellular matrix (ECM) far behind. In this review, we portray ECM remodeling during atherosclerotic plaque progression by summarizing the state of the-art in MRI and current imaging targets. Finally, we aim to discuss glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and their functional interactions, which might offer potential toward development of novel imaging probes for in vivo contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerosis.
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Conservative treatment versus invasive approach in elderly patients with myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation

Published on: 30th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588723372

Myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation is one of the most common causes of hospitalization of the elderly patient [1]. Coronarography followed by revascularization, is performed in the vast majority of cases of myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation, in the regions with a well-developed health system. The decision to perform the procedure, the type of approach (early/late) and the selection of the type of myocardial revascularization depend on numerous factors such as: associated comorbidities, clinical presentation, the risk group in which the patient is framed, fragility, cognitive status, life expectancy etc. [2,3]. Older patients often present with various comorbidities, having a higher risk of complications and an unfavorable evolution. Thus, it was observed that invasively treatment is less commonly used in elderly patients with comorbidities, even if, the current guideline recommends that the invasive strategy should be considered in all patients with NSTEMI, regardless of age. At the same time, this subgroup of patients is not so well represented in the studies performed so far, the type of treatment chosen, being most often at the discretion of the attending physician [1,2]. Objective The present study aims to analyze the evolution of a subgroup of patients ≥ 70 years of age, with different comorbidities, with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation, according to the type of treatment applied: conservative versus invasive strategy (diagnostic coronarography ± revascularization, if appropriate).
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Fibrinolytic therapy with tPA failed because it was based on a flawed concept

Published on: 16th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628672035

Fibrinolytic therapy has become synonymous with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) based on the belief that tPA alone was responsible for natural fibrinolysis. Although this assumption was belied from the outset by disappointing clinical results, it persisted, eventually causing fibrinolysis to be discredited and replaced by an endovascular procedure. Since time to reperfusion is the critical determinant of outcome, which in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) means within two hours, a time-consuming hospital procedure is ill-suited as first line treatment. For this purpose, fibrinolysis is more fitting. The assumption that tPA is responsible for fibrinolysis is contradicted by published findings. Instead, tPA ‘s function is limited to the initiation of fibrinolysis, which is continued by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and that has the dominant effect. tPA and uPA gene deletion and clot lysis studies showed the activators have complementary functions, requiring both for a full effect at fibrin-specific doses. They are also synergistic in combination thereby requiring lower doses for efficacy. A clinical proof of concept study in 101 AMI patients who were treated with a 5 mg bolus of tPA followed by a 90 minute infusion of prouPA, the native form of uPA. A near doubling of the 24 h TIMI-3 infarct artery patency rate was obtained compared to that in the best of the tPA trials (GUSTO). In further contrast to tPA, there were no reocclusions and the mortality was only 1% [1]. A sequential combination of both activators, mimicking natural fibrinolysis, holds promise to significantly improve the efficacy and safety of therapeutic fibrinolysis.
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Incidence and outcome of no flow after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction

Published on: 31st August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667871110

Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the infarct-related artery (IRA) is the most effective treatment modality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Incidence of no flow is 8.8% - 10% in primary PCI of STEMI patients. Our aim was to study actual incidence and outcome of no flow patients. Methods: Five hundred and eighty primary PCI patients were enrolled and evaluated from 2016 January to 2017 December. We used drug eluting stents in all cases. Majority of our patients (> 90%) presented to emergency six hours after onset of symptoms. There were many patients where there was no flow even after mechanical thrombus aspiration and pharmacological vasodilator therapy. We have studied primary outcome (mortality) of no flow in those patients. Results: There were 44 cases of no flow in our series (7.75%). Involvement of Left anterior descending artery (LAD) was in eighteen patients. Right coronary artery (RCA) was culprit in twenty four cases. Only two cases were seen in LCX territory. One month mortality rate in no flow group was 50% and 6.25% in successful recanalization group. One year mortality was 12.5% in successful recanalization group and 66% in no flow group. Conclusion: Refractory no flow during STEMI intervention is associated with increased incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). There is no established strategy to solve this phenomenon.
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Abdominal obesity in predicting myocardial infarction risk. Waist-to-Hip Ratio: The metric that confused cardiology worldwide for a long time

Published on: 24th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8980361078

Important differences has been found in assessing the effects of obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk [1]. Interestingly, accurate estimation of the body composition (BC) is highly relevant from a public health perspective [2], and it has the importance of being essential in establishing the impact of adiposity on increased myocardial infarction (MI) risk. However, in non-randomized studies, baseline differences of BC between groups to be compared may introduce bias in results.
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Sildenafil citrate in healthy and diseased hearts

Published on: 23rd April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026743533

Sildenafil citrate is one of the frontline drugs used to manage erectile dysfunction (ED). Chemically, it is described as 1-[[3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H –pyrazolo [4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)-4 ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl]-4-methylpiperazine citrate (C22H30N6O4 S). It is a highly selective inhibitor of cyclic guanine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type-5. There had been heightened concerns following reports that sildenafil citrate may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly fatal arrhythmias, in patients with cardiovascular disease. So the cardiac electrophysiological effects of sildenafil citrate have been investigated extensively in both animal and clinical studies. This article ties up the various outcomes of the investigations with a view to guiding physicians and patients that use sildenafil citrate to manage erectile dysfunction, especially as it concerns its effect on their cardiovascular function in health and in disease. Sildenafil citrate could impact negatively on ailing hearts, but on a healthy heart, there may not be any such impact, rather, it improves on heart performance as it lowers the blood pressure.
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Cardiac Manifestations on Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome

Published on: 23rd March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653903

Antiphospholipid syndrome may present in various ways from cutaneous manifestation, obstetric complications, neurological manifestation, and cardiac manifestation to renal involvement. There are many cardiac complication of anti-phospholipid syndrome, among them are valvular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, myocardial infarction, intracardiac thrombi, and ventricular dysfunction [1]. The most common cardiac manifestation is valvular abnormalities ranging from 11.6-32% [2-5].
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