Background: A misguided auto-reactive injury is responsible for several types of central nervous system (CNS) conditions in pediatrics. We propose that, in some of these conditions, the adaptive immune system has a common cellular immune pathogenesis, driven predominantly by T cells, despite variability on the phenotypical clinical presentation.
Methods: We have characterized the CD4+/CD8+ adaptive immune response (AIR) on pediatric patients presenting with clinical symptoms compatible with Neuroimmune Disorders (NID). Flow cytometry with deep immunophenotyping of T cells was performed on peripheral blood obtained during the acute clinical phase and compared to an age-matched cohort group (Co).
Results: We found that pediatric patients with confirmed NID, exhibit a pattern of dysregulation of CD4+ lineages associated with autoimmune processes.
Discussion: The autoimmune associated CD4+ dysregulation was associated with patients with NID, as compared to healthy controls and patients with non-autoimmune diagnoses. If we can improve our capacity for early accurate diagnosis and meaningful disease monitoring of pathogenic T cell subsets, we can both expedite disease detection and may serve as a guide to the administration of effective immunotherapeutic agents.
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