We report a case involving infection with Strongyloides stercoralis found in the sputum of a 66-year-old male patient who had a medical history of nephrotic syndrome and was treated with methylprednisolone and monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy 3 months previously. This patient presented with stubborn pulmonary symptoms and signs, which was the mechanical destruction caused by larval migration. We found strongyloides in his sputum that provided diagnostic proof.
Introduction and aim: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is the most common type of this disease during childhood. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common histopathological lesion (80 – 90%) of INS in children and about 90% of patients are steroid responsive, while congenital nephrotic syndrome is disorder that may be caused by several diseases. Intrauterine infections, especially CMV infection, have frequently been incriminated as etiological factors of secondary CNS. The aim of this research was to evaluate the frequency of CMV infection children with active nephrotic syndrome in our pediatric nephrology unit
Patients and methods: This descriptive (cross sectional) study was conducted in pediatric nephrology unit, Zagazig University Hospitals and included 60 patients WITH NS in activity; Participants were subjected to, Full history taking, Clinical examination; general & local, Routine laboratory investigations and Serum samples were tested for HCMV specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) using ELISA Kit.
Results: We found 100% of cases were IgG positive and 7/60 cases were IgM positive, There were no statistically significant differences between IgM positive-patients vs IgM-negative patients according to age, sex and first attack or relapsed NS, There were statistically significant differences between IgM positive-patients vs IgM-negative patients in blood laboratory data in decreases in HB (P=0.024) and serum urea nitrogen (P=0.04)
Conclusion: We concluded that serofrequency of cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric nephrology unit, Zagazig university hospitals during follow-up was 12% for cmv IgM and 100% for cmv IgG at ns children patients
Acute renal injury is a rare complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with mesPGN. Here we present a 2-year-old male patient with 4 days history of anuria, generalized edema and hypervolemia. Any evidence other than proteinuria and renal failure could not be identified with laboratory tests and doppler ultrasonography. Anuric presentation was thought to be related with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, diffuse mesangial sclerosis or acute tubular necrosis. However, renal biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (mesPGN). Prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day was prescribed. Diuresis was started gradually and on the 10th day of disease, anuria was resolved and acute renal injury recovered without any sequel. This case is presented because of the incompatibility between clinical findings and histopathologic diagnosis. It is concluded that although rare, anuria and acute renal injury could be the presenting symptom of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood.
We investigated the existence of microalbuminuria in children with corticosteroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in complete remission. In the study of a series of 18 cases, we noted a clearly different evolution depending on the existence or absence of pathological micro albuminuria.
Microalbuminuria appears to be a prognostic discrimination parameter in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
Anas Diab*, Parravani Anthony, Hollie Berryman and Kareem Diab
Published on: 14th July, 2021
Atheroembolic disease (AED), or Cholesterol Crystals Embolism, is a systemic disease presented as a complication of severe atherosclerosis , where older age, male sex, diabetes hypercholesterolemia, smoking and hypertension , are the main risk factors for the development of Atherosclerosis, it is known that spontaneous atherosclerotic renal disease is rare in the absence of any vascular intervention , and in the absence of anticoagulant , or the absence of calcified aorta, with the most common presentation of the disease is subacute kidney injury progress into renal dysfunction occurs in like a staircase pattern and the renal dysfunction is usually observed several weeks after a possible intervention, caused by dislodging the micro cholesterol plaques from a major artery, and start showering multiple organs causing micro and macro embolic phenomena.
In our case, we report acute kidney injury on a previously stable kidney disease in a female with diabetes mellitus type 2 presented with severe anemia, dyspnea, massive fluid overload with bilateral pleural effusion, patient had a history of multiple IV contrast exposures, with peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD), required amputation of right below the knee amputation, presented during the COVID-19 pandemic, found with nephrotic syndrome, a kidney biopsy has shown cholesterol crystal embolization compatible with Athero-embolic Disease with severe Diabetic Nephropathy.
Objective: We set up a U.S. registry to examine prescription patterns and patient outcomes of repository corticotropin injection (Acthar® Gel) for childhood nephrotic syndrome.
Methods: 18 participating U.S. pediatric centers performed retrospective review and prospective observation of patients < 21 years old with nephrotic syndrome treated with Acthar Gel. We captured baseline characteristics, drug regimen and duration, and disease response following treatment.
Results: 46 patients, enrolled from 2015 to 2020 were included. 27 (58.7%) were male. 18 patients (39.1%) had a diagnosis of minimal change followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 16 patients (34.7%). Median age at start of treatment was 12.5 years (IQR 8.5-17.4) compared to 5.3 years at diagnosis (IQR 2.7-10.5 years). 52% were resistant to corticosteroids. The most common Acthar Gel regimen was 80IU twice a week with a median duration of 199 days (IQR 88-365). Among 37 patients with active disease, 18 (49%) were able to achieve partial or complete remission, though all patients that had a positive response were on other immunosuppressants concomitantly.
Conclusion: We report the findings of the largest registry cohort of pediatric patients in the U.S. treated with Acthar Gel for clinically challenging cases of nephrotic syndrome. Acthar Gel was successful in inducing remission in approximately half of the patients with active disease at time of treatment. No predictors of response with respect to demographic data, age at start of Acthar Gel therapy, etiology of nephrotic syndrome, presence or absence of comorbidities, or steroid responsiveness was noted.
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in public health measures and fewer viral infections, which trigger the nephrotic syndrome. Our objectives were to characterize the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with nephrotic syndrome. This single-center retrospective chart review compared children with nephrotic syndrome one year before the pandemic with the first wave of the pandemic. Epidemiologic events, clinical characteristics, and health care utilization were compared using paired t-tests, Fisher’s exact tests and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. Among 96 children the mean age was 10.7 ± 5.28 years. The distribution was minimal change disease (16.7%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (12.5%), membranous nephropathy (1%) and not biopsied (69.8%). Medication responsiveness was steroid-sensitive (25%), frequently relapsed (54%) and steroid-resistant (20.8%). There were 14 new diagnoses of nephrotic syndrome pre-pandemic and 18 during the pandemic. Fewer relapses during the pandemic were likely due to fewer viral illnesses from public health measures during the pandemic.
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Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Israel
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