Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death and its prevalence and incidence is also related to smoking behavior . COPD is still a chronic inflammatory and progressive disease caused by multifactorial agents including environmental pollutants . Besides that, it is emerging that endogenous epigenetic factors induced by lifestyle and environment  could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease .
In the last years, several authors suggested that low vitamin D levels seem to be related with the increase of COPD manifestations . Moreover, a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial documented that vitamin D supplementation protects against moderate or severe exacerbation of the disease, but not by upper respiratory infections . However, low levels of vitamin D can be extended to many other diseases, including multiple sclerosis, diabetes, colon rectal cancer, headache or drug use [7-11]. Moreover, it is also important to remember that Vitamin D deficiency is common in high latitude regions, such as northern Europe, New Zealand, northern USA, and Canada where weaker ultraviolet B rays is not able to produce enough vitamin D. Finally, methodological factors (using low sensitivity methods) could contribute to misleading evaluation of circulating vitamin D levels. In any case, here we shall remind that vitamin D has a fundamental role in immunity . In particular, it has been reported that vitamin D is able to shift the pro-inflammatory T-helper cell 1 to anti-inflammatory T-helper cell 2 . Therefore, benefits of vitamin D supplementation in chronic diseases which directly or indirectly affect immune system are obvious. Today, the burden of COPD in never smokers is higher than previously believed. Therefore, more research is needed to unravel the characteristics of non-smokers COPD . Notably, vitamin D levels are reported to be significantly lower in smoker’ssubjects than in non-smokers ones . Therefore, low plasma vitamin D levels in COPD seems to be more a causality than a correlation.
Age estimations process is not standardized worldwide. However, there is a wide agreement about the most suitable methods currently available. Up until now, the procedure of creating expert reports and to implement quality assurance in age estimation are variable.
Aim: The aim of this paper was to examine expert age estimation reports from around the world and identify the similarities and shortcomings present, which will help in providing recommendations to improve the reporting to reach standardization in expert age estimation reports.
Methods and Material: A questionnaire was developed to explore whether there is a universal consensus in writing age estimation reports. Countries participated in the survey were: Afghanistan, Australia, France, Indonesia, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Areas investigated by the survey included: Information about the individual in question and the entity requesting the assessment, if age interval is given along with if statistics were described in the report, if population reference data are used and reported and finally if the format of the report is standardized within each country.
Results: The results of this survey suggest that there is a high degree of individual variation in age estimation reports, sometimes even within the same country. While the majority of participants report the main findings, some important information is still missing. The statistical information remains extremely varied.
Conclusion: Although a resolution is not obvious, it is hoped that this study will promote further research and discussion on reporting age estimation. International guidelines on quality assurance in age estimation reports are urgently needed. Information to be reported should be specified on an international level and the exact report format to be used could be left to the national societies.
Nature gives us a diverse plethora of floral wealth. Weeds have been recognized as invasive plant by most of scholars in today’s world with extraordinary travel history. They are considered to be noxious for adjoining plant species and also as economic hazard. Weeds inhabited in almost entire biomes and have capability to survive in harsh conditions of environment thereby become source of inspiration for finding novel phytoconstituents. Weeds play a significant role in absorbing harmful micro pollutants that are affecting ecosystem adversely. There are so many examples like canna lily, bladder wort, coltsfoot, giant buttercup etc. playing crucial part in sustaining environment. Different isolation and characterization approaches like high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy etc. have also been fetched for obtaining novel constituents from weeds. The main aim of this review is to analyze the therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and effort to unfold the wide scope of its applications in biological sciences. Upon exploration of various authorized databases available it has been found that weeds not only are the reservoir of complex phytoconstituents exhibiting diverse array of pharmacological activities but also provide potential role in environment phytoremediation. Phytoconstituents reported in weeds have immense potential as a drug targets for different pathological conditions. This review focuses on the literature of therapeutic potential of weeds established in New Zealand and tried to unveil the hidden side of these unwanted plants called weeds.
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