Ovarian cancer

Insilico investigation of TNFSF10 signaling cascade in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8259199051

The ovarian serous Cystadenocarcinoma shared large number of deaths in gynecologic carcinoma. It has various numbers of molecular events from initiation to progression and at advance stage, surgery is the end product of such molecular signaling. We assess in this study the whole mechanistic view of TNFSF10 network which has the ideal apoptotic causing identity. We used fresh insilico strategy to uncover the secrets and inter-links from its protein-protein interaction complex. We retrieved the TNFSF10 signaling network from STRING database (www.string-db.org). The network contains 25 nodes and 152 edges with clustering presentation. After retrieval, we performed gene enrichment and characterization analysis of network from WebGestalt toolkit (www.webgestalt.com). Finally, we examined the participation of whole network in ovarian cancer progression from cBioPortal, a cancer genomic data portal (www.cbioportal.org). Our results showed that majority of cases have loss of function of death receptors (DR4 and DR5) that are the main unit of initiation of apoptotic signaling. Most of downstream signaling members showed amplification that regulates cell proliferative pathways including NFkB pathway. TNFSF10 cluster has loss of function and in future it gain attention for further research studies to discover its interactome level view for valuable therapy. FAS cluster has large number of members and majority showed amplification rendering them as co-targets for combinational drug designing.
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Immunohistochemical expression of Forkhead Box (Fox) A1 and P53 in epithelial ovarian cancer

Published on: 20th May, 2022

Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth cause of cancer mortality in females. There were an estimated 300,000 new cases of OC diagnosed worldwide in 2018, corresponding to 3.4% of all cancer cases among women. The high mortality rate of OC attributed to asymptomatic growth of the tumor leads to its diagnosis at advanced stages. About 85% - 90% of OC are epithelial including serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. Aim: To study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of FOXA1 and p53 in epithelial OC and its association with prognostic indicators such as age, tumor size, stage, grade, and histological type.Materials and methods: The study included 52 cases with EOC from the pathology department, faculty of medicine, Aswan, and Sohag Universities, in the period from January 2017 to December 2019. This study involved 52 patients with OC and a median age of 53 years. Different histological types were included as 37 serous, 12 mucinous, 1 case endometroid 2 cases clear cell OC. The study cases were classified into 22 Grade I, 16 Grade II, and 20 Grade III. About 22 cases were at stage I, 9 at stage II, 11 at stage III, and 10 at stage IV. Tissue sections were stained using the IHC technique with FOX A1 at a dilution of 1:100 and p53 at 1:100. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between FOX A1 expression and advanced patient's age, high grade, advanced stage, ruptured capsule, and ascites, regardless of tumor laterality. No significant association was found between p53 immunoexpression and the same clinic-pathological parameters although p53 was associated with serious type. Conclusion: FOXA1 immunoexpression in EOC is considered a poor prognostic factor in EOC. FOXA1 could be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker in EOC.
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Cost-analysis comparison of clinical risk assessment with and without ROMA for the management of women with pelvic masses

Published on: 17th August, 2022

Objective: Pelvic masses can be classified as low risk (likely benign) and high risk (likely malignant) based on an initial clinical risk assessment, which involves a detailed history, physical exam, basic laboratory tests, and imaging. In recent years, the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), which combines CA125, HE4 and menopausal status, has emerged as a powerful tool in the classification of pelvic masses and triage of patients to either a generalist gynecologist or a gynecologic oncologist for management. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of ROMA, alone or in combination with Initial Clinical Risk Assessment (ICRA), provides cost savings compared to triage based on ICRA alone.Methods: A health-economic decision model was developed to assess clinical and cost differences associated with three different clinical pathways of risk assessment for a pelvic mass: ICRA alone, ROMA alone, or ICRA + ROMA in combination. Using previously reported accuracy rates and patient characteristics from a prospective, multicenter, blinded clinical trial, total healthcare costs were modeled for each clinical pathway using the Medicare 2020 reimbursement rates.Results: A total of 461 patients with pelvic masses were included with 10.4% ultimately diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Total healthcare costs for patients with benign disease, EOC, or low malignant potential tumors (LMP) (n = 441) triaged using ROMA alone were 3.3% lower than when triaged using ICRA alone. While lab costs increased 55% using ROMA, the use of ROMA alone resulted in a 4% decrease in laparoscopy costs and a 3.1% decrease in laparotomy costs compared with ICRA alone. Similarly, total costs associated with a combination of ICRA + ROMA were 3.9% lower than total costs associated with ICRA alone. The model also predicted a 63% reduction in repeat surgeries resulting from false negative ICRA when using ROMA to triage patients.Conclusion: Triage of women with pelvic masses using the more sensitive ROMA score lowers overall healthcare costs compared to ICRA alone. With fewer false negative results than ICRA alone, the ROMA score improves initial detection of malignancy and reduces second surgical treatments in women with pelvic masses.
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New insights of liquid biopsy in ovarian cancer

Published on: 29th September, 2022

Through the development of new analysis technologies, many issues regarding the approach to tumoral diseases have been elucidated. With analytical assays developed in the last years, various omics technologies have evolved in such a manner that the characteristics of tumor cells and products can be evaluated (assessed) in the bloodstream of cancer patients at different times. Ovarian Cancer (OC) is one of the most difficult to diagnose umors, with low survival rates due to the high heterogeneity of these diseases that are distinct in terms of etiology and molecular characteristics, but which simply share an anatomical appearance. Recent findings have indicated that several types of ovarian cancer classified into different histotypes are in fact derived from non-ovarian issues and share few molecular similarities. Within this context, ovarian cancer screening and diagnosis can be made through the evaluation of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood using liquid biopsy technologies. Advances in the study of various molecules analyzed by liquid biopsy have shown that elucidation of intratumoural and intertumoural heterogeneity and spatial and temporal tumor evolution could be traced by serial blood tests rather than by histopathological analyses of tissue samples from a primary tumor. Therefore, evaluation of some molecules such as circulating tumor cells (CTC), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating cell-free RNA (non-coding and mRNA, extracellular vesicles), tumor-educated platelets or different miRNAs using liquid biopsy could lead to improvement of patient management.
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Meigs syndrome: About an uncommon case report

Published on: 6th January, 2023

Background: Ovarian fibroma is a very unusual epithelial tumor representing less than 1% of all ovarian tumors. It can be asymptomatic and discovered during surgery or be associated with a pleural effusion preferentially located on the right side and a more or less abundant free ascites in the framework of the so-called Meigs syndrome. The challenge of management then lies in distinguishing benign from malignant since clinically, radiologically, and biologically everything points towards malignant which requires radical surgical treatment. We report here the case of a 69-year-old postmenopausal patient with a clinical form of Meigs' syndrome that strongly suggested ovarian cancer.Case presentation: We hereby report here the case of a 69-year-old patient, menopausal, gravida 4 para 3 with 3 live children delivered vaginally and one miscarriage. She presented with ascites, hydrothorax, and a solid tumor of the ovary. Serum CA 125 and HE 4 levels were very high. ROMA score was highly suggestive of malignancy. A hysterectomy with adnexectomy was performed. It was only the histological evidence of ovarian fibroma and the rapid resolution of its effusions that confirmed Meigs syndrome.Conclusion: Meigs syndrome is an anatomical-clinical entity that associates a benign tumor of the ovary, ascites, and hydrothorax. Highly elevated CA 125 and HE-4 tumor markers often point clinicians toward a malignant tumor and compel radical surgical treatment. This case report reminds us once again that only histology confirms the diagnosis of cancer.
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