Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity.
Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise.
Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine.
Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
Background: SCI Action Canada partnered with researchers to adapt an evidence-based leisure-time physical activity (LPTA) counselling service (Get-in-Motion (GIM). A satellite GIM service called Passez à l’action was established within a French-speaking context for persons with physical disabilities. An understanding of the determinants that infl uenced the implementation and functioning of the GIM service within the Adaptavie context are required to maximize the potential of other community-based LTPA services being successfully introduced in similar organizations.
Purpose: The case study objectives are to: 1) describe the characteristics and implementation contexts of two leisure-time physical activity counselling services for Canadians with a physical disability and the adoption process that took place when the protocol was translated to a new context, and 2) elucidate, from the point of view of the service providers, the organizational determinants that could have facilitated and/or hindered the implementation and functioning of these services.
Methods: Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, focus groups were held with the directors and staff of each service. Mixed-content and thematic analyses were then used to determine overarching themes.
Results: Findings suggest that the presence of service innovators fosters ownership of the service and facilitates ongoing staff training and support. A thoughtful implementation plan should be included as a component of translation between contexts.
Conclusions: Lessons learned and recommendations for future translation of similar evidence-based services to additional contexts are discussed.
Purpose: This study aimed to identify physical activity, enjoyment, and factors for future activity between an active video game (AVG) condition and self-paced exercise (SPE) among college-aged students.
Methods: Thirty college-aged volunteers (age=22±1.68 years) completed 4-45 minute physical activity sessions (2 AVG; 2 self-paced). A survey and a brief structured interview followed.
Results: Overall, participants expended more calories, accumulated more steps, and more physical activity during SPE; however, participants in the AVG condition met daily exercise recommendations. The majority of participants (81%) enjoyed playing the AVG. Autonomy and competence were found as common themes among those who preferred the SPE condition; whereas, lack of knowledge and exercise variety were emergent themes among those who preferred AVG.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence that college students could meet daily exercise recommendations by participating in AVG interventions; although AVGs that provided autonomy and allowed users to demonstrate competence would be preferable.
The effect of weekly physical activity on biological age (BA) parameters, we have conducted a study 215 females from 17 to 18 years old who were divided into the experimental (EG, n=105) and control (CG, n=110) groups. It was established that if at the end of the experiment the BA parameters of the females CG weren’t a significantly different from the average data (p>0.05), then there was a statistically significant decrease in the BA parameters of the females EG. This was confirmed by statistical probability (p<0.01), which suggests the dependence of biological age parameters on the extent of weekly physical activity.
Badminton is a sport that requires a player to perform while being still, as well as in motion. Stability is the ability to maintain or control joint movement or joint position, in the static as well as dynamic state. Improvement in stability could help maintain body control and proper posture positions during play. Accordingly, the study was proposed to analyze stability in junior badminton players and understand its importance. A total of 106 players from South Asia between the ages of 8 and 15 years were analyzed. Prokin 252N and Balance trunk MF systems of Tecnobody Italy were used in the assessment and static, dynamic, and pelvic stability was recorded. The variables used were gender, age, body mass index, and experience in years, level at which they play, current pain, and clicks & catches in the past 1 year. Our study showed that there was significant difference in pelvic stability in terms of age and level at which players compete. There were a variety of other factors which do not affect stability. There needs to be a greater focus on stability training as part of the development of junior badminton players.
Purpose: The benefits of Physical Activity (PA) considered as a major supportive care in cancer patients, on survival, and recurrence risk is largely disseminated in public communication. However, these data must be taken with caution. The main objectives were to review the evidence and limits of studies reported regarding the post-diagnosis PA role on cancer survival and recurrence risk to secondly discuss of research perspectives on PA programs.
Method: The narrative review included all published or ongoing studies in English during the last 20 years related to PA, survival and recurrence risk with a systematic search on main databases.
Results and discussion: The current evidences regarding the PA role on survival and recurrence risk were only based on cohort studies, mainly in breast cancer. The major methodological limits identified as the lack of PA change assessment, PA level assessed largely by self-reported methods and the significant inter- but also intra- variability make the interpretation of data very. Beyond the use of rigorous RCT, the major issue is to develop adapted and personalized interventions to progressively increase PA level overtime in cancer survivors.
Conclusion: Despite the lack of causal relationship between post-diagnosis PA, survival and recurrence risk, the review underlines several interesting research perspectives. The future PA interventions, using innovative tools and integrated to the “real-life” will argued for the potential antitumoral PA role growing in literature.
Introduction: Implementation of prevention strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential, but many fall short of reaching their goals. Patients often perceive themselves as healthy and are less motivated to change lifestyle. To obtain better results patients need repeated information, preferably with motivational and person-centered approaches.
Aims: To investigate whether health care providers inform CAD patients about risk factors and lifestyle changes at a percutaneous coronary intervention unit. Also to investigate whether the information given at discharge included secondary prevention management and if motivational and person-centered approaches were used.
Methods: This is a descriptive, observational study that includes both a qualitative and quantitative design. Physicians and nurses working at a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) unit and physicians at a coronary care unit (CCU) participated. A staff nurse observed and noted what information the patients received at the PCI unit. At the CCU, observations regarding secondary prevention strategies during the discharge counselling were performed.
Results: There were 50 observations made at the PCI unit. The information mainly consisted of tobacco consumption, physical activity and diet.
During the 31 discharge counselling sessions the diagnosis, interventional procedure and medical treatment were frequently included. Most patients received little or no person-centered or motivational counselling.
Conclusion: Nearly all patients at the PCI unit received information about the consequence of tobacco consumption, and more than half about the beneficial effects of physical activity. In contrast, the counselling at discharge need to focus more on behavioral changes and a motivational and person-centered approach.
Introduction: A reduction in physical activity due to spinal cord injury leads to deconditioning and increased dependency. Manual wheelchair propulsion is a straining form of ambulation and propulsion is based on the use of upper extremities, which are usually capable of producing less force with less efficiency. Theraband can be an exercise mode, which resembles wheelchair activity. Mat exercises are also given for strengthening of upper limb muscles in persons with paraplegia. The aim of this study is to compare effects of both elastic resistance strength training and strengthening by mat activity of upper limb muscles on wheelchair propulsion efficiency in persons with paraplegia.
Materials and Method: The selected subjects were randomly assigned into Theraband and Mat exercise groups with 15 subjects each. Theraband group received theraband strengthening of wheelchair propulsion muscles, whereas mat activity group received mat strengthening of wheelchair propulsion muscles. Total duration of treatment was 5 days per week for 5 weeks.
Results: Results of the study showed both mat exercise and theraband groups showed significant improvement in wheelchair 15 meter sprint test and wheelchair propulsion for 50 meters in paraplegics due to spinal cord injury. However, theraband group showed significantly more improvement.
Conclusion: The study revealed that theraband exercises for improving upper limb strength for wheelchair propulsion is superior to strengthening through mat exercise.
Background: The foot is an important and complex structure that provides support, balance and propulsion to locomotion, thus, its proper care can help to have a better life quality avoiding pain. The medial longitudinal arch is an important structure that is related to injury risks when it shows some impairment. The purpose of this study was to characterize the foot arch index in people in relation to age and gender.
Methods: The sample was composed of a total of 122 subjects, 79 healthy young subjects (40 women and 39 men) and 43 healthy elderly subjects (32 women and 11 men). Ten seconds of standing barefoot plantar pressure was measure through Tekscan F-Scan device, and the data processing, filtering, and arch index (AI) calculation were performed using MATLAB™ 7.0.
Findings: The elderly group presented a lower arch (AI-0.23) than the young group (AI-0.13) (p=0.000); young female and male groups show similar AI, while the elderly female group showed lower arch (AI-0.23) than the elderly male group (AI-0.18) (p=0.033).
Interpretation: The foot arch has a trend to be lower with aging, and even lower within elderly female subjects, probably due to some decrease within plantar muscle’s stiffness, that in turn may be related to lower physical activity and footwear choices.
Following the COVID-19 proliferation beyond China’s borders at the beginning of 2020, containment measures have been taken by different countries around the globe. Citizens were forced to stay at home. Specifically, on March 19th, the Argentine Government decided to implement the “Social, preventive and mandatory isolation”, strategy that unfortunately impacts on the lifestyle, the practise of physical activity and on the nutritional aspect of the population. The aim of this study was analize eating habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 lockdown on the 9 de Julio city, Bs. As., Argentina. The survey was conducted using Google Form. The questionnaire was divided into different sections: sociodemographic data, eating habits, physical activity and concepts and emotions associated with isolation. The research reached 287 responses with a medium socioeconomic level. During isolation, the frequency of purchases decreased. It was observed an increase in the consumption of pasta, bread and cakes. Concerning the physical activity, approximately 70% declared to train before the COVID-19 lockdown, decreased by 13% during the lockdown. Other activities conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown; the most mentioned were cleaning the house, cooking, watching television, series and movies. A percentage greater than 50% of the surveyed population associated the situation of lockdown with positive emotions (share with my family, stay at home); while only 24% associate it with negative emotions (anxiety, anguish, fear). It is expected that most habits will return to normal, however, it would be interesting to know which of those developed, adopted and implemented during lockdown will remain in the new normality.
Background: Alcoholism is a widespread problem in Kenya and is associated with severe impacts on health and quality of life of the individual. Physical activity is an affordable and sustainable adjunct treatment option for recuperating alcoholics; however its’ rarely used in rehabilitation of alcoholics in Kenya.
Objective: This qualitative study sought to elicit facilitators and barriers that influence the practice of physical activity amongst recuperating alcoholics under rehabilitation.
Methods: A focus group guide was utilized to gather views and perceptions of 15 alcoholics and 5 health professionals through focus group discussions. Constant comparative approach was used to analyze verbatim transcripts obtained from in-depth interviews. This analysis entailed three stages including open, axial and selective coding.
Results: Recuperating alcoholics’ recognized various forms of physical activity to promote mental and physical health during their rehabilitation. Health professionals and significant others considerably supported the recuperating alcoholics to practice physical activity however physical activity facilities and facilitation was lacking in Asumbi rehabilitation center.
Conclusions: The rehabilitation centres should have physical activity experts and facilities that can offer individualized physical activity services and support needed by the recuperating alcoholics.
Obesity is a major contributor to ill health and numerous comorbidities globally. Recent studies suggest that addictive-like tendencies toward foods, especially highly processed foods, contribute to this epidemic. Therefore, interventions used to treat substance-use disorders may be effective for treating overweight/obese patients with food addiction (based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale, version 2.0). This pilot study evaluated four interventions, selected because of their effectiveness in the treatment of substance-use disorders [motivational interviewing, pharmacotherapy (naltrexone-bupropion), pharmacotherapy with motivational interviewing, information control (diet and physical activity instruction)], in overweight/obese individuals with and without food addiction. The food addiction construct identified a distinctive subset of overweight/obese individuals. Through one month, response to interventions differed between food addiction phenotypes with those who were positive for food addiction showing similar or less response to the interventions than those who were negative for the trait. This suggests that individuals with addictive-like tendencies toward food may require longer and more intensive intervention to achieve their goals. The greatest changes in biometric measures occurred between baseline and 1 month during which time participants were attending weekly intervention sessions. Across all groups, those who attended more sessions (dose) was correlated with a reduction in body mass index.
Introduction: Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg m-2) is epidemic globally and is associated with increased risk for a wide range of physical and mental health comorbidities. This is a particular concern for rural residents who have a greater rate of obesity than urban residents, but are disadvantaged in obtaining care because of a shortage of health care professionals. Community health fairs provide an opportunity for rural residents to receive health care services and education at reduced or no cost. Therefore, this study explored the role of community health fairs for providing health services and improving the health of residents in a rural community where obesity is a serious health concern.
Methods: This study involved a retrospective longitudinal analysis of data collected during community health fairs conducted in a rural western Nebraska, USA community during 2014, 2015, and 2016 (n = 83). The Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH) framework was used to target health education in this rural community. This approach involved 1. Mobilizing the community (via health fairs), 2. Collecting and organizing data (from consented attendees), 3. Selecting health priorities (obesity), 4. Developing a comprehensive intervention (nutrition and physical activity education), and 5. Evaluating the effectiveness of the framework (declines in measures of obesity over time). Analyses characterized BMI, percent body fat, visceral fat, and BP and explored differences between genders. The sample was recruited by advertising with flyers for health fairs at the College of Nursing. Most booths provided printouts of results for participants in order for them to keep and track their health information. Once potential participants arrived at the health fair site, there were asked if they would like to participate in the study via an invitation letter. They could then decline or sign the consent.
Results: Percent body fat and visceral fat level differed between genders (p = < .001 and .001, respectively). Mean body fat levels (women 39.4%, men 28.8%) were unhealthy. Mean visceral fat level was unhealthy in men (16), but healthy in women (10). BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between genders. Mean BMI was 31 kg m-2; 33% of participants were overweight, 44% were obese. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 134 and 78 mg Hg, respectively. Most participants were hypertensive (systolic: men 57%, women 32%; diastolic: men 24%, women 7%) or prehypertensive (systolic: men 21%, women 39%; diastolic: men and women 36%).
Conclusion: Obesity and high BP were common in this rural population, supporting the need for effective education and intervention efforts to address these health issues. Health fairs provide a manner in which to reach community persons needing referrals to local clinics, mental health providers and physicians. Education provided at such events is valuable as well and may in fact be the only health care contact they receive. Though community health fairs provide an economical way for individuals to receive screenings and health information, few men participated and few individuals attended in multiple years. The lack of repeat attendees prevented assessment of the efficacy of the education intervention. Means of enhancing participation, particularly by men and previous attendees, need to be explored. Repeatedly attending health fairs enables participants to monitor their progress, seek physical and mental health screenings and discuss any health concerns and helps researchers assess the efficacy of interventions.
The Physical benefits of Islamic prayer on the human body are discussed in this article. The act of prayer requires the worshiper to move through several distinct bodily postures while reciting a specific supplication. Salah involves a certain level of physical activity which includes standing, bowing prostration and sitting consecutively. Each position involves the movement of different parts of the human body in ways that Some muscles contract isometrically (same length) and some contract in approximation or isotonically (same tension). The prayer movements would enhance flexibility and general muscular fitness. This results in moderate physical exercise particularly to the large muscle group and encourage health and wellbeing. Besides being an excellent form of exercise, physical activity breaks the monotony of chores.
The etiology of abdominal obesity is multifactorial and has environmental factors as its most expressive risk factors. This study cross-sectional analyzed the association of abdominal fatness with physical inactivity and food inadequacy of 1,557 subjects, both genders, over 35yrs. old, enrolled in an ongoing epidemiological study. Waist circumference (WC) was the primary variable and demographic, social-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data, were the co-variables. NCEP-ATP III, WHO, IPAQ-long (version 8) and Healthy Eating Index were used for functional definition of variables. Furthermore, longitudinal data from 50 subjects in an exercise protocol for 10 week receiving either regular diet (G1, n=22) or 30g fiber adequacy (G2; =28), were analyzed. The performed statistical analyses used software SAS for Windows, version 9.1 with p=0.05. In a predominantly female sample (74%), 76% aging 35-60yrs, 64% completed elementary school, 73% were living in a low income household, 77.5% overweight. The 62.5% presenting altered WC values were predominantly older, presented higher body fatness, and were consuming low variety-poor quality diet rich in fat (mainly saturated) and lower in fruit. WC correlated negatively with fruit intake and aerobic capacity (VO2max) but only carbohydrate (positive) and fruit intake (negative) were considered independent risk factors for abdominal obesity. In the longitudinal study, both G1 and G2 groups were similar at baseline and G1 maintained the anthropometry values throughout the experiment. Conversely, G2 decreased total body (4%) and WC (7%) fatness, reducing severe obesity by 16%, minimally affecting overweight and eutrophic rates. G2 presented 211% increase in fiber intake and 150% increase in plasma beta-carotene (colorful-fiber marker). Thus, in conclusion, recommended dietary fiber intake (increased fruit and low CHO intake) and physical activity would be the recommended changes against abdominal obesity and, by associating both physical exercises and dietary fiber there was indeed a decrease in abdominal fatness and obesity, predominantly at its higher grade.
Hypertension is a complex disorder involving multiple organ systems and the primarily modifiable risk factor for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death among both men and women in the World. Although both men and women develop hypertension, distinct gender differences in the incidence and severity of hypertension are well established where men have a higher incidence of hypertension compared with women of the same age until the sixth decade of life [1,2]. Despite gender differences in human hypertension, the treatment guidelines do not differ by gender . Even if the causes of hypertension are complex and are related to genetic factors, lifestyle, diet structure, and environmental factors including air pollution , coupled with the potential determinants of hypertension, sex differences in hypertension-which exist in human populations-are attributed to both biological and behavioural factors. The biological factors include sex hormones, chromosomal differences, and other biological sex differences that are protective against hypertension in women. These factors become prominent in adolescence and persist through adulthood until women reach menopause. Behavioural risk factors for hypertension include high body mass index, smoking, and low physical activity.
High blood pressure (HBP) is a strong, independent and etiologically relevant risk factor for cardiovascular and therefore, the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Hypertension has high medical and social costs. Due to its many associated complications, the use of medical services create high costs with medications which represent almost half of the estimated direct expenses. Free distribution of more than 15 medications for HyPERtension and DIAbetes (HIPERDIA program) clearly shows the important role of drugs in the Brazilian Government’s effort to tackle these two diseases. Notwithstanding, the prevalence of HBP is rising in parallel with other NCDs. It is known that HBP results from environmental and genetic factors, and interactions among them. Our ancestors were often faced with survival stresses, including famine, water and sodium deprivation. As results of natural selection, the survival pressures drove our evolution to shape a thrifty genotype, which favored/promoted energy-saving and sodium/water preservation. However, with the switch to a sodium- and energy-rich diets and sedentary lifestyle, the thrifty genotype and ancient frugal alleles, are no longer advantageous, and may be maladaptive to disease phenotype, resulting in hypertension, obesity and insulin resistance syndrome. Low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress would be the underlying mechanisms for these diseases. HBP is often associated with unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of high fat and/or high-salt diets and physical inactivity. Therefore, alternatively to medicine drugs, lifestyle and behavioral modifications are stressed for the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. A lifestyle modification program (LSM) involving dietary counseling and regularly supervised physical activity (“Move for Health”) has been used for decades, in our group, for NCDs primary care. Retrospective (2006-2016) data from 1317 subjects have shown the top quartile of blood pressure(142.2/88.5mmHg) differing from the lower quartile (120.6/69.2mmHg) by being older, with lower schooling, lower income and, lower physical activity and aerobic capacity. Additionally, the P75 showed higher intake of CHO, saturated fat and sodium along with lower-diet quality score with a more processed foods. They showed higher body fatness and prevalence of metabolic syndrome along with higher pro-inflammatory and peroxidative activities and insulin resistance. In this free-demand sample, the HBP rate was 51.2% for SBP and 42.7% for DBP. The rate of undiagnosed HBP was 9.8% and only 1/3 of medicated patients were controlled for HBP. After 10 weeks of LSM the HBP normalization achieved 17.8% for SBP and 9.3% for DBP with a net effectiveness of 8.5% and 2.4%, respectively. The reduction of HBP by LSM was followed by increased aerobic conditioning and reduced intake of processed foods along with decreased values of BMI, abdominal fatness, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory and peroxydative activities. Importantly, once applied nationwide this LSM would save HBP medication for 3.1 million of hypertensives at an economic saving costs of US$ 1.47 billion a year!
The global obesity epidemic that was previously reported [1,2] is now to worsen with obesity to double in 73 countries around the world [3,4]. Improving the health of obese individuals by dietary restriction, anti-obese foods and increased physical activity  has not reduced the global obesity epidemic. Obesity is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [5,6] with complications relevant to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease . Appetite control has become critical to endocrinology and metabolism with the apelinergic pathway and nuclear receptor Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) now connected to the endocrine system  and critical to metabolism. The apelin-Sirt 1 interaction involves nitric oxide (NO)  that is now considered as the defect  in the interaction between the peptide apelin and calorie sensitive gene Sirt 1 involved in NO imbalances in the adipose tissue, liver and the brain.
The responsiveness of hypertensive subjects to different types of physical exercises and length of intervention, has been investigated in samples of our dynamic cohort study (“Move for Health” program) based on spontaneous demand for healthy lifestyle with supervised exercises and dietary counseling. After clinical selection and baseline assessments they were spontaneously assigned to exercise protocols of strength (PAc) isolated or combined with endurance (walking) exercises (PMi) daily or in alternated days(PMiA), hydrogymnastics(PHy) and tread mill high- intensity exercises(PHit), applied during 10(experiment 1) and 20(experiment 2) weeks of intervention. Baseline demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric and physical activity and fitness characteristics were similar among protocols. Ten-week training improved VO2max. Similarly in all protocols while hand grip increased only in PAc. In average, there was a 16% reduction rate of hypertension rate from baseline with both, SBP and DBP, reduced by PHy and only SBP by the PMi. After adjustments hypertension was more reduced by PAc, PMi and PHy. In the 20-week experiment, higher SBP was similarly reduced by PAc or PMiA and DBP by PMiA, after adjustments. Hence, so far, our generated data suggest physical exercises as an effective tool for hypertension reduction, from 10 weeks to 3 year-long supervised protocols composed by surface or aquatic activities with strength or endurance exercises. PAc takes longer and short-period responsiveness can be achieved by either combined (strength-endurance) or hydrogymnastic exercises. Thus, exercise training is a time-and type-dependent tool, feasible, costless and scientific-based rheostatic-allostatic alternative for the current “sick-care” drug-dependent homeostatic approach to hypertension med care.
Introduction: Hypertension is a silent pathology in a way that affects all four spheres to be considered as such; magnitude, transcendence vulnerability, and feasibility. The World Health Organization estimates that 45% of deaths from heart disease and 51% of deaths from stroke globally are caused by hypertension.
Material and method: A longitudinal, descriptive and quantitative observational study was carried out on the personnel of high-risk public service providers.
Results: The total population sampled was 550 people where it was possible to determine the sex where the disease predominates, since 92% of the hypertensive population belong to the male sex, while 8% of the female population. 57% of the total population were classified as normotensive, while 21% were classified as High Normal, Grade I Hypertension, and Grade II Hypertension.
Discussion: AHT is the result of a series of interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors in an organism that tries to adapt to the increase of the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance of the blood vessels, which is manifested by the increase in blood pressure figures. Physical activity has been shown to have a lower risk of hypertension compared to sedentary individuals. The daily stress these workers face predisposes them to suffer their manifestations as headache, muscle pain, fatigue, digestive disorders and constant elevations of blood pressure.
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