Renal replacement therapy

Challenges of haemodialysis: A single centre experience in South West Nigeria

Published on: 28th March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8049457944

Background: Haemodialysis is the commonest method of Renal Replacement Therapy in Nigeria. Despite an advancement in the technicality and better understanding of haemodialysis, a number of complications are known to be associated with this procedure.. Objective: We aimed to highlight our experiences and share some of the uncommon complications encountered during haemodialysis and present the outcome of our patients. Subjects and methods: A retrospective review of 101 patients during the last two years was done. Data extracted include: sociodemographic characteristic, aetiology of kidney disease, type of vascular access, intradialytic complication and outcome of treatment. Results: The total number of dialysis session during the period was 823. Males constituted a higher proportion (64.4%) and were found to be older than female patients 49.8 vs 42.8 years (P=0.001). Majority (89.1%) had chronic kidney disease while chronic glomerulonephritis was the main cause of CKD as seen in about 45% of the patient. Due to the cost implication, only 2(1.98%) were able to undergo 3 sessions of dialysis per week for up to 1 month. Vascular access was femoral (66.3%), internal jugular vein (25.7%), while only 2% used Artero-venous-fistula and one patient had femoral vessel pseudoaneurysm from frequent cannulation. The commonest complication was hypotension which was present in 15.8%. Twenty-eight deaths were recorded, 44(43%) were either lost to follow up or absconded while 5% were transplanted at a referral centre. Conclusion: Challenges of renal replacement therapy is overwhelming in our country due to poor human and financial resources. Early diagnosis and adequate government support are advocated.
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Acute kidney injury in Colombian patients with COVID-19 who received kidney support therapy with genius® 90 technology

Published on: 11th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8665847570

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications associated with severe COVID-19 infection, and it can present in up to 20% to 40% of the cases; of these, approximately 20% will require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Objective: To establish clinical and laboratory characteristics in a group of patients from Colombia with COVID-19 infection and AKI that received intermittent and prolonged RRT with the GENIUS® 90 technology in between March and July 2020. Design: Cross-sectional study. Results: 78.9% of participants were men and 21.1% were women. The main comorbidities were the following: Hypertension (65.3%), diabetes mellitus (38.9%), obesity (26.3%), cancer (5.3%), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.6%), cardiovascular disease (23.2%), active smoking (11.6%). 33.7% had chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the average serum creatinine on admission was 4.4 mg/dl. The following inflammatory markers were elevated: C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer and ferritin (20.3 mg/dl, 931mcg/l and 1174 ng/ml, respectively). 63.5% of patients underwent sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) (6 to 12 hours) and the rest of the patients (36.35%) underwent conventional hemodialysis (less than 4 hours). The mortality of the total patient sample was 36.9%, lower in patients with CKD than in patients with no previous renal disease history (18.7% and 40.1%, respectively). Conclusion: Renal complications are frequent in patients with severe COVID-19. The development of AKI could be an isolated prognostic marker associated with an increase in mortality in patients with COVID-19, and one of the options is intermittent and prolonged RRT with the GENIUS® 90 system.
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Modification of the Renal Angina Index for identifying the need for renal replacement therapy in critically ill pediatric patients

Published on: 2nd November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8769657642

Severe Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common, serious problem affecting critically ill children that lacks effective treatment options. Currently, there are no treatment options for AKI other than supportive care. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is employed to reduce Fluid Overload (FO) burden and treat metabolic disturbances in AKI. Identifying patients upon admission who may require CRRT has potential clinical care implications. The aim of this study was to determine if the RAI had diagnostic capabilities to identify patients who would require CRRT. The analytic cohort consisted of patients who required CRRT and illness severity score matched controls who did not require CRRT at a single center. Patients who required CRRT had higher mortality rates, length of stay, and use of ventilatory and inotropic support. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) assessed and compared the discriminatory accuracy of three scores: 1) the renal angina index (RAI), 2) serum-creatinine (sCr) based AKI on day 0 and 3) modified RAI created with an additional RAI injury tranche that corresponded to severe stage 3 AKI sCr elevation. Compared to Day0AKI (AUC 0.78, 0.70-0.87; sensitivity 0.63, 0.45-0.79; specificity 0.93, 0.870.97) and RAI (AUC 0.76, 0.69-0.82; sensitivity 0.94, 0.81-0.99; specificity 0.57, 0.47-0.66), the modified RAI had the highest AUC (0.79; 0.72-0.85) with a high sensitivity (0.91; 0.77-0.98) and moderate specificity (0.65; 0.56-0.75) for prediction of CRRT requirements. As a more accurate tool for discriminating patients in need of CRRT, a modified RAI has numerous potential implications. Identifying patients who ultimately require CRRT at an earlier timepoint may influence timing of CRRT initiation in an attempt to avoid further FO, or may influence nephrotoxin administration. The diagnostic capabilities of the modified RAI may be refined by the addition of urinary biomarkers. These findings should be validated in a larger cohort.
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Impact of a multidisciplinary pre-dialysis program on renal treatment modalities choice

Published on: 5th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124546591

In Portugal, around 2500 patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 5) start a renal replacement therapy (RRT) for the first time each year [1]. They have four main treatment options: kidney transplantation (TX); haemodialysis (HD); peritoneal dialysis (PD) and conservative treatment (CT). RRT selection is quite complex due to the specificities of each option and to their profound effect on patient’s quality of life. Patients must play a decisive role in the choice of treatment modality and select the option that best suits to their values and needs.
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