Risk assessment

3-Dimensional Versus 2-Dimensional Comparison of Knee Valgus Collapse during Vertical Jump: Clinical Implications for ACL Risk of Injury Assessment

Published on: 21st March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286358320

Time-efficient screening of lower extremity biomechanics to identify potential injurious movement patterns is crucial within athletic medicine settings. When considering biomechanical risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injuries, several screening tests have been used to assess dynamic knee valgus. Current methods involving 3-dimensional motion capture systems are considered gold standard for such assessment; however, these methods are time consuming and require expensive materials. This study investigated the use of 2-dimentional kinematic evaluation during a standardized vertical jump athletic assessment to screen for potential lower extremity risk of injury. 50 collegiate athletes, 25 male and 25 female, from various sports participated in the study. The vertical jump was chosen because it is a common performance evaluation test that is regularly performed several times a year, providing consistent opportunities for screening while not creating additional obligations for the student athletes. Results showed that the 2-dimentional evaluation method had strong correlations (P<0.0001) with the gold standard 3-dimensional evaluation, suggesting that an accelerated 2-dimentional screening process can be used as a first step to screen for potential injurious lower extremity movement patterns.
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Mechanism-related Teratogenic, Hormone Modulant and other Toxicological effects of Veterinary and agricultural surfactants

Published on: 18th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325078577

Veterinary and agricultural surfactants are supposed to be inert additives, yet these substances commonly exert biological side-effects, in given cases synergistic with those of the active ingredients of these preparations. This is explicitly seen in altered toxicity of veterinary or pesticide formulations compared to their active ingredients alone. Neither the individual effects of these excipients, nor such combination effects are well-studied in toxicology, and therefore, possible toxicity consequences are occasionally not being considered at sufficient significance in the authorization, use and control of these substances. Risk assessment of these substances should cover all hazards they may represent, and corresponding levels of exposure. Surfactants used in veterinary and pesticide formulation enter the environment either by direct dispersion or by indirect release through excrement, leaching, sewage waters or sludge, and in turn, create potential exposure to a number of non-target organisms. Biochemical and (eco)toxicological hazards recently identified regarding certain agricultural surfactants include cytotoxicity (on cell lines of epithelial, neural and other tissues, as well as stem cells and tumor cells), endocrine disrupting effects, as well as aquatic ecotoxicity. This Mini Review summarizes toxicological effects identified in our studies in aquatic toxicity tests, in cell viability and cytotoxicity tests, in estrogenic activity assays, correlated with biochemical analysis of the surfactants and their decomposition. The conclusions are hoped to facilitate environmentally precautious revision of surfactants widely used in agriculture.
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Atherogenic risk assessment of naive HIV-infected patients attending Infectious Diseases Service of Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Published on: 13th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8689021635

Background and aim: Metabolic abnormalities are common in HIV/AIDS. Increasingly, lipid ratios are used as screening tools for dyslipidaemia in these medical conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of 4 lipid ratios to predict cardiovascular risks. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study included 105 HIV+ patients followed in Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). Four indices [Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), Castelli Risk Index (CRI) I and II, Atherogenic coefficient (AC)] were compared. Statistical analyzis consisted of measuring frequencies and means, Student’s t-tests, ANOVA and Ficher’s exact test, and the calculation of the Kappa value. Results: Lipid ratios predicted respectively the risk in 62% (AIP), 28.6% (CRI-I) and 23.8% (CRI-II). CRI-I and II were elevated, especially in women. The AIP appeared to be a better predictor than CRI-I and II to assess dyslipidaemia in general and the high-risk frequency. The cholesterol detected risk in 66.7% (Low HDL-C), 50% (High LDL-C), 38.9% (High TC and/or TG). The atherogenic risk was higher with age, advanced WHO stage, HIV-TB, HBV-HCV co-infections, smoking and alcohol intake. Haemoglobin (Hb) and CD4 counts were low when the risk was high. Age ≥ 50 years, stage 4 (WHO), CD4s+ ≤ 200 cells/µL were independent factors associated with atherogenic risk. Conclusion: Lipid ratios can be used as reliable tools for assessing cardiovascular risk of naïve HIV-infected patients who received HAART.
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Damu-Safen pesticide exposure risk assessment, EC (fomesafen, 250 g/l)

Published on: 11th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7991657387

Annually the list of pesticides is replenished by new ones. One of the main criteria for their registration is toxicological and hygienic assessment and its impact on the environment. In order to register the new soy herbicide Damu - Safen, EC (fomesafen, 250 g/l) it was necessary to assess its toxicological and hygienic impact on the environment and humans. Therefore, for the first time we conducted studies of the environmental objects under the influence of Damu-Safen, EC (fomesafen, 250 g/l) and the risk assessment of the active substance fomesafen and pesticide Damu - Safen, EC on the workers. According to the results of the assessment of working conditions for the workers of the tanker and the tractor operator, an acceptable risk was obtained that meets regulatory and hygienic requirements. Residual amounts of fomesafen not exceeding the normative levels were found during conducted studies on environmental objects. Consequently, the results of the risk assessment in the application of pesticide Damu-Safen, EC (fomesafen, 250 g/l) and its impact on the working people and environmental objects indicate the possibility of its application in compliance with optimal environmental conditions and compliance with regulations for appliances and personal protective equipment.
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Risk evaluation and modeling of soils contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in parts of Bonny Island, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Published on: 27th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8609740211

Environmental impact of a recent oil spill incident in Bonny terminal using soil media was studied using a risk-based modeling approach. The establishment of the presence of contaminants of concern (CoC), evaluation/assessment, modeling spilled volume and ascertaining potential health risk associated with the spill incident was carried out. The Contaminant of Concern (CoC) included Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Soils and groundwater were sampled in the vicinity of the spill incident and further away into the surrounding communities. Soils were sampled into the depths (0.1 m, 0.5 m,1.0 m, 1.5 m), and the results of sieve analysis revealed that the area is predominantly silty sand in composition. This study also revealed that TPH concentration at all locations and depths exceeded DPR target value of 50 mg/kg. The TPH model revealed that a total volume of 222,500m3 of the spill area exceeded DPR intervention value of 5000 mg/kg. The results of PAH showed that only BS-1, BS-6, BS-8, BS-9 and BS-10 exceeded DPR target value of 1.0 mg/kg at some depths. All other sample depths and locations were within the target limit. The 3-D grid generated for PAH showed that 563,000m3 of the study area exceeded the DPR target value. The 3-D block models generated for TPH and PAH, along with the cross-sections and extracted time slices all showed that the concentration of the Contaminant of Concern (CoC) generally decreased with depth, and the centre of the spill located at the south-eastern part of the survey area. Based on these models, three spill zones were identified; Zone 1-highly contaminated areas (BS-8, BS-9, BS-10); Zone 2 - moderately contaminated areas (BS-1, BS-2, BS-6, BS-7); and low contaminated areas (BS-3, BS-4, BS-5). The entire soil in the area were contaminated with TPH and 47% of the area contaminated with PAH. This study has shown the effectiveness of the use of a model-based approach in quantifying hydrocarbon contamination volumes in the area. There is therefore the need for continuous monitoring of hydrocarbon spills in the area.
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