In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that small, pet turtles had caused multistate Salmonella outbreaks in the United States, from where small turtles were subsequently exported into the Republic of Korea. We investigated cases of salmonellosis in South Korea associated with domestic small turtles and analysed genetic characteristics of Salmonella isolates in commercially-available small turtles. We traced six Salmonella serovars, known to have caused human infection in the United States (S. Sandiego, S. Pomona, S. Poona, S. Newport, I 4,(5),12:i:-, and S. Typhimurium), in isolates from suspected Salmonella infection cases in Korea from 2006 to 2015. Additionally, we conducted a pilot study of isolates from small turtles being sold in Korean markets, and performed molecular genetic analysis on the identified strains. S. Pomona was identified in one Salmonella infection case, while all strains isolated from small turtles belonged to either subspecies I (enterica, n = 10, 71.4%) or subspecies IIIb (diarizonae, n = 4, 28.6%). Two serovars (S. Pomona and S. Sandiego) that were highly associated with turtle-to-human transmission were identified with 100% homology to human isolates. Previous to this study, turtle-associated human S. Pomona infections were not well reported in Korea. We report Salmonella infection in small turtles in Korea, and confirm that small turtles should be considered the first infectious agent in S. Pomona infection. We therefore suggest quarantine measures for importing small turtles be enhanced in Korea.
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Badri Kumar Gupta
Publishing with the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology was a rewarding experience as review process was thorough and brisk.
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Publishing with the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology was a rewarding experience as review process was thorough and brisk. Their visibility online is second to none as their published articles appear in all search engines. I will encourage researchers to publish with them.
University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
Dr. Elizabeth A Awoyesuku
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Chukwuka Ireju Onyinye
Publishing an article is a long process, but working with your publication department made things go smoothly, even though the process took exactly 5 months from the time of submitting the article till the time I have favourable response, the missing part is the peer review details, which is essential in self auditing and future improvement, overall experience was excellent giving your understanding of the situation of lack of financial institution support.
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Great, We are too comfortable with the process including the peer review process and quality. But, the journal should be indexed in different databases such scopus.
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Department of Neurosurgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong