Spinal cord

Translating an Evidence-Based Physical Activity Service From Context To Context: A Single Organizational Case Study

Published on: 28th March, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286356939

Background: SCI Action Canada partnered with researchers to adapt an evidence-based leisure-time physical activity (LPTA) counselling service (Get-in-Motion (GIM). A satellite GIM service called Passez à l’action was established within a French-speaking context for persons with physical disabilities. An understanding of the determinants that infl uenced the implementation and functioning of the GIM service within the Adaptavie context are required to maximize the potential of other community-based LTPA services being successfully introduced in similar organizations. Purpose: The case study objectives are to: 1) describe the characteristics and implementation contexts of two leisure-time physical activity counselling services for Canadians with a physical disability and the adoption process that took place when the protocol was translated to a new context, and 2) elucidate, from the point of view of the service providers, the organizational determinants that could have facilitated and/or hindered the implementation and functioning of these services. Methods: Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, focus groups were held with the directors and staff of each service. Mixed-content and thematic analyses were then used to determine overarching themes. Results: Findings suggest that the presence of service innovators fosters ownership of the service and facilitates ongoing staff training and support. A thoughtful implementation plan should be included as a component of translation between contexts. Conclusions: Lessons learned and recommendations for future translation of similar evidence-based services to additional contexts are discussed.
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Comparison of two types of strengthening exercises in upper limbs for improvement of wheelchair propulsion in paraplegics

Published on: 10th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286422996

Introduction: A reduction in physical activity due to spinal cord injury leads to deconditioning and increased dependency. Manual wheelchair propulsion is a straining form of ambulation and propulsion is based on the use of upper extremities, which are usually capable of producing less force with less efficiency. Theraband can be an exercise mode, which resembles wheelchair activity. Mat exercises are also given for strengthening of upper limb muscles in persons with paraplegia. The aim of this study is to compare effects of both elastic resistance strength training and strengthening by mat activity of upper limb muscles on wheelchair propulsion efficiency in persons with paraplegia. Materials and Method: The selected subjects were randomly assigned into Theraband and Mat exercise groups with 15 subjects each. Theraband group received theraband strengthening of wheelchair propulsion muscles, whereas mat activity group received mat strengthening of wheelchair propulsion muscles. Total duration of treatment was 5 days per week for 5 weeks. Results: Results of the study showed both mat exercise and theraband groups showed significant improvement in wheelchair 15 meter sprint test and wheelchair propulsion for 50 meters in paraplegics due to spinal cord injury. However, theraband group showed significantly more improvement. Conclusion: The study revealed that theraband exercises for improving upper limb strength for wheelchair propulsion is superior to strengthening through mat exercise.
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Cytokine Modulatory Effects of Sesamum Indicum Seeds Oil Ameliorate Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Published on: 30th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347013998

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nerve system (CNS), which affects the brain and spinal cord. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly applied experimental model for studying the MS. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sesamum indicum seeds oil on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Methods: Sesame oil was administrated intraperitoneally three days before immunization. IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β levels and mRNA expression in supernatant of and within cultured mononuclear cells were assessed. Results: According to our results, sesame oil treated mice demonstrated significant disease severity reduction (P=0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Treated EAE mice also represented statistically significant delay in the onset of symptoms in comparison with control group. The average IFN-γ levels and mRNA of sesame oil treated EAE mice were less than untreated EAE group. IL-10 and TGF-β levels and mRNA did not differ significantly in sesame oil treated EAE mice in comparison to untreated EAE group. IL-17 levels and mRNA were also found to be decreased significantly in treated mice in comparison to untreated mice. Conclusions: Even thoughTH1 and TH17 cells through secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17, respectively, are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and EAE, but IL-10 has been shown to exhibit suppressive effects on these disorders. It can be concluded that sesame oil is able to induce TH2 and TH17-related immune responses and suppress TH1 type in EAE
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The continued relevance of Deep Brain Stimulation for chronic pain

Published on: 27th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9198815506

For the millions of patients experiencing chronic pain despite pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides a beacon of hope. Over the past decade the field has shifted away from DBS towards other forms of neuromodulation, particularly spinal cord stimulation (SCS). DBS for pain is still performed, albeit off-label in US and UK, and experiences variable success rates. SCS is an extremely useful tool for the modulation of pain but is limited in its application to specific pain aetiologies. We advocate use of DBS for pain, for patients for whom pharmacology has failed and for whom spinal cord stimulation is inadequate. DBS for chronic pain is at risk of premature neglect. Here we outline how this has come to pass, and in the process argue for the untapped potential for this procedure.
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Ependymomas with extraneural metastasis to lung in children: A case report and literature review

Published on: 16th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628662175

Ependymomas, which account for 10% of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors, arise from the ependymal cells that line the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. Extraneural metastasis to lung is rare for ependymomas primary tumors. Repeated surgeries that disrupt the blood-brain barrier may contribute to haematogenous spread, but the mechanism remains unclear. We present a case of ependymoma with extraneural metastasis to lung in a child and discuss reported cases of extracranial metastatic ependymoma with this presentation.
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Experimental ‘hindbrain related’ syringomyelia: some mechanisms of spinal cord damage

Published on: 6th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317596430

Syringomyelia in combination with inherent or acquired hindbrain abnormalities is the non seldom and at the same time controversial issue. Purpose: The etiology and pathogenesis creates a lot of discussion. Methods: Experimental syringomyelia was induced in 20 anesthetized rabbits by injecting 0.5 ml of 25% kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six rabbits with puncture and injection sterile saline NaCl were used as a control. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after the kaolin injection. Four hydrocephalus rabbits were sacrificed in 17 hours after the puncture of lateral ventricle with injection of solution of colloidal gold labeled human albuminum. The sections of the brain and spinal cord were stained with hematoxylin and eosin by Nissle and Marchi methods and with immunogold technique. Retropharyngeal lymph nodes of the animals were examined by electron microscopy. Conclusion: Our observation showed that water hammer effect and internal destruction of the spinal cord may lead to continuous antigen stimulation of regional lymph nodes and play an important role in pathogenesis of experimental syringomyelia.
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Clinical significance of Vibration Anesthesia on reducing pain of Ring-Block (Subcutaneous Injections) in the patients undergoing Hair Restoration Surgery

Published on: 18th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317634401

Pain is a complex phenomenon which is unpleasant. Different cosmetic procedures are associated with varying degrees of pain. Various modalities are adopted to decrease the severity of pain. The commonly used is the administration of analgesics (opioid or non-steroidal). The pain is carried to the brain by pain fibres. There are various theories about the pain [1,2]. Many attempts have been undertaken to find the modalities which decrease the perception of pain by the brain. The famous ‘gate theory’ was proposed in 1965 by Melzack et al. [3]. It was proposed that the pain experience can be reduced by the activation of nerve fibres that conduct non-toxic stimuli. The theory suggested that the stimulation of larger diameter fibres (A-beta) can close a neural ‘gate’ to nocioceptive signals and can reduce the perception of the pain. The ‘gate’ is proposed to lie within the spinal cord/brainstem and inhibits the transmission of nocioceptive action potentials to higher centres in the central nervous system [4]. The “post-synaptic inhibitory and fascilitatory mechanism” provide a basis for explaining the pain reducing strategies such as rubbing the painful area or applying cold or vibration to decrease the perception of the pain. Various topical irritants used in a few ‘magic’ creams also work on the same principle. Every effort is made to decrease the perception of pain in cosmetic surgery procedures especially hair restoration. A surgeon who can perform a hair restoration without pain has an edge over his competitors. The potential patients undergoing hair restoration are very anxious about the pain level to be perceived during the procedure. Vibration anaesthesia is becoming increasing used in hair restoration to decrease pain perception. Various recent studies have demonstrated the effective use if vibrations to decrease the pain of local anaesthesia injections [5,7]. The pain of the injection has basically two components; the first is the actual needle prick and second is the discomfort felt due to the tissue stretch by the local anaesthetic drugs [8]. The following study was conducted to compare the pain level of ring block in the patients undergoing hair restoration with and without the use of vibration
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A Three approach at one stage to surgical management of Cervical Spondyloptosis after Failed Primary anterior fusion

Published on: 31st December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7970377562

A 35-year-old female, known case of complete spinal cord injury, presented with cervical pain and neck deformity that interfere with her physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Two years before admission, she had a car accident which result in a complete quadriplegia. That time at another center, she underwent surgery to anterior cervical fixation of C6-C7 through insertion of cage and plate without corpectomy. Based on current radiologic images, spondyloptosis was detected at the C6-C7 with bilateral locked facet, due to hardware failure. A three approaches in one stage was performed to maintain cervical alignment that includes posterior, anterior and again posterior approach. With this manner, anterior fusion through corpectomy and insertion of expandable cage and plate as same as instrumental posterolateral fusion were done. After surgery, she was pain free and the alignment of cervical spine was maintained so she could come back to ordinary rehabilitation programs.
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The turing machine theory for some spinal cord and brain condition, A toxicological - antidotic depurative approach

Published on: 31st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8195573317

Aim of this work is to produce a general theory related an new depurative strategy to be devalued for reduce or delay some spinal cord and brain degenerative and inflammatory chronic disease or acute traumatic condition. It is used and informatics approach in order to set correct the problem and the process. Scope of this project is to submit to the researcher a new therapeutic strategy (under a depurative- toxicological-pharmacological) in this complex kind of disease. A Turing machine theory say us a method to TRASLATE the need of a strategy in a practical hypotesys of work. A global conceptual map can help in this field.
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Perceived causes and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections among spinal cord injured patients

Published on: 27th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272371774

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is among the most common nosocomial infections especially in acute care settings. Its economic and unanticipated health implications make it burdensome for the healthcare providers and patients. The paper examined the perceived causes and mode of preventing urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injury. Qualitative research approach was utilized; the study site was a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Eight (8) in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with healthcare providers managing patients with spinal cord injured in the hospital. The major risk factors causing urinary tract infection identified include financial problems, organization of care, human error, hospital environment and patient-related factors. To prevent urinary tract infections among patients in the hospital, a number of suggestions were made by the participants such as training of caregivers and educating patients and relations. The authors concluded that the incidence of CAUTI could be reduced in the hospital if the opinions of stakeholders are fairly considered.
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Cerebral arterial air embolism with anterior spinal cord syndrome after CT-guided hook-wire localization of Lung mass and pulmonary nodule

Published on: 19th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8973613870

Systemic arterial air embolism (SAAE) is a rare but serious complication of CT-guided hook wire localization of pulmonary nodule usually with catastrophic and poor outcome. Hook wire needle localization is done pre-operatively by placing wire around or into the pulmonary nodule to provide the thoracic surgeon accurate location guidance of the target nodule for Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) wedge resection with safety margins. Physicians should be aware of this possible complication during the procedure in order to rescue the patient promptly as it requires rapid diagnosis and management. We describe a 55-year-old male who underwent a CT-guided hook wire needle localization of left upper lobe lung cancer and left lower lobe pulmonary nodule prior to planned VATS wedge resection who developed altered mental status and bilateral lower extremities paralysis after wire placement was completed. His CT head demonstrated small air embolism in the left occipital area, confirming the diagnosis of cerebral air embolism and follow up CT and MRI of the head revealed multiple areas of brain infarction. In addition, he was diagnosed with anterior spinal cord syndrome (ACS), most likely due to anterior spinal artery ischemia from micro air embolism on the basis of clinical findings but with negative ischemic changes on MRI of the spinal cord. His mental status recovered but he remained paraplegic and transferred to inpatient rehabilitation service.
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A Genetic study in assisted reproduction and the risk of congenital anomalies

Published on: 12th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9305465911

In vitro fertilization is one of the most common and effective procedure for thousands of couples worldwide who want to have a child and are unable to do so for various reasons. Diverse studies show that couples who conceive naturally after one year of trying had newborns with an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with couples who conceived before completing one year of trying. Children from assisted reproduction (AR), have a 30% increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with children from infertile fathers. Regarding the conflicting results the present study aimed to record the frequency of genetic, congenital anomalies in children and adolescents who had examined in the last decade to the Clinical Genetics Clinic of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens whose mothers had undergone assisted reproduction. The research process was conducted at the "Aghia Sofia" Children's Hospital based in Athens. However, the cases that were studied came from all over Greece. Initially, the researcher recorded the cases that came to the clinic of Clinical Genetics and whose conception occurred after technical assisted reproduction. After telephone communication and the consent of the parents, a live appointment was scheduled. In this meeting-interview all the provisions of the investigation and the protocol were asked and some elements of the medical history of the cases were confirmed. The total sample included 230 children and adolescents. The resulting data were recorded on a printed form/questionnaire. Then, they were registered electronically in the program SPSS 25.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) with a specific unit code for each case/patient, followed by the processing and statistical analysis of the data as well as the recording of the results. The gender of the participants was male for 118 participants (51.3%) and 112 females (48.7%). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of maternal, paternal (at the time of delivery) age was equal to 36.38 (5.94) and 39.94 (6.58) respectively. The observed abdormalities were 35.53% psychomotor retardation, 23.68% facial abnormalities, 23.68% spinal cord abnormalities, 21.05% morphological abnormalities, 20.61% short stature, 19.74% developmental disorders, 19.30% heart disease, 16.67% neurological diseases, 14.47% genetic syndromes, 11.40% genital abnormalities, 8.33% limb abnormalities, 7.46% dermatological abnormalities, 6.14% eye abnormalities, 6.14% hypothyroidism, 5.70% endocrine disorders, 5.26%otolaryngology abnormalities, 2.63% disease of kidney, intestine, 2.19% vascular malformations. Regarding the karyotype chromosome analysis by G-banding technique, from the 230 children in: 24 (10.43%) a pathological result was found, in 158 children (68.70%) it was found normal (46, XX or 46, XY by case) without other findings, while in 48 children (20.87%) the test was not performed for various reasons. Regarding the results of molecular analysis (DNA) from the 230 children, in 50 (21.74%) a pathological finding was found, in 56 children (24.35%) no abnormalities were found and in 124 children (53.91%) no molecular analysis was performed for various reasons. In conclusion, the sample of this descriptive study is characterized as uniform in terms of the method of assisted reproduction since 96.24% had followed the classic IVF. Full-term pregnancy was associated with the appearance of malignancy and head morphological abnormalities (64.6%), normal pregnancy was associated with genetic syndromes (18.2%) and facial abnormalities (11.1%). It is recommended the screening oocyte and sperm donors in order to help protect the safety and health of donors, recipients, and future offspring. The present study confirms the association of the presence of congenital anomalies after in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, the absolute risk of developing severe dysplasias after an IVF procedure is limited.
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Imaging aspect of neuromyelitis optica: a case report and review of the literature

Published on: 7th December, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9359560505

The case report presents a neuromyelitis optica in a 19 years old male. Brain and spinal cord MRI showed bilateral optic neuropathy, multiphasic demyelinating process involving the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid showed negative NMO Ig G. We will describe the radiological aspect of neuromyelitis optica with a review of the literature.
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Predictors of positive treatment response to PTNS in women with overactive bladder

Published on: 18th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9396180874

Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a non-invasive treatment for overactive bladder (OAB). PTNS involves peripheral neuromodulation that uses electrical stimulation to target the spinal cord roots, mainly S3, which controls bladder function. Neuromodulation is postulated to be the effect of cross-signaling between sympathetic and parasympathetic post ganglionic nerve terminals and synapses, causing alteration of nerve signals involved in the voiding reflex. de Groat, et al. described this neurophysiological process and the neural circuits involved in controlling the lower urinary tract [1]. Stimulation of peripheral nerves and subsequent “cross-talk” at the level of the postganglionic neuroeffector junctions can modulate transmission and facilitate detrusor inhibition [2].
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Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis: a case report and brief review of literature

Published on: 15th March, 2022

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a significant public health problem worldwide. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of extrapulmonary TB however other forms of central nervous system (CNS) disease include tuberculoma and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM carries high mortality even for a patient who is already receiving treatment. The difficulty in diagnosis often leads to a delay in treatment and subsequent mortality. The emergence of Xpert ultra has improved the rapid detection of MTB and rifampicin resistance in CSF and is the preferred diagnostic tool in TBM.Case: In this case report we present a 33 years patient of concern who presented with progressive lower limb weakness associated with pain and paresthesia for 4 months, admitted via the Orthopedic unit with a diagnosis of spinal mass (meningioma, neurofibroma, or nerve sheath tumor) for which biopsy was done and revealed a chronic inflammatory process, necrotic bone lesions with no granulomas and no malignancy, he was later diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and promptly started anti-tuberculous therapy with a dramatic recovery and improvement in neurological function.Conclusion: Tuberculous meningitis conditions have high morbidity and mortality yet diagnosis and start of treatment continue to experience an important delay. Clinicians should keep in mind the limitations of clinical presentation due to pleiotropy and current diagnostics and should employ a combination of diagnostic modalities in addition to a high index of suspicion to prevent morbidity in patients with TBM.
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Chlorambucil induced papilledema: a serious yet reversible side effect of chemotherapy

Published on: 25th April, 2022

Papilledema is optic disc swelling due to high intracranial pressure. Possible conditions causing high intracranial pressure and papilledema include intracerebral mass lesions, cerebral hemorrhage, head trauma, meningitis, hydroce-phalus, spinal cord lesions, impairment of cerebral sinus drainage, anomalies of the cranium, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) [1].
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Cervical disc arthroplasty, challenges and indications: case report

Published on: 29th August, 2022

Degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs can cause a significant impact on the biomechanics of the spine this can result in compression of the nerve roots or the spinal cord [1]. 
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