Between 2003 and 2011, 17 patients with heart failure were treated with stem cells as part of our Foundation’s Regenerative Medicine program. In several centers and countries 4 with ischemic cardiomyopathy of which 3 were surgically implanted with autologous bone marrow stem cells (ABMSC) plus bypass surgery. One patient was treated with hyperbaric medicine plus bypass surgery. Patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy were implanted surgically with 2 different types of stem cells. Ten patients were implanted with stem cells derived from human fetuses (HFDSCs) and three patients with autologous bone marrow stem cells (ABMSC). The ejection fractions of the coronary artery bypass graft off pump OPCAB (control group) versus coronary artery bypass group off pump OPCAB plus stem cell transplantation were as followsin the entire serie: preoperative, 30.7% +/- 2.5% compared to 29.4% +/- 3.6%; 1 month, 36.4% +/- 2.6% versus 42.1% +/- 3.5%; 3 months, 36.5% +/- 3.0% vs. 45.5% +/- 2.2%; And 6 months, 37.2% +/- 3.4% versus 46.1% +/- 1.9% (p <0.001). The first patient performed at our center in Argentina in this series is alive and asymptomatic 15 years after implantation, and the rest of this series we do not have current data. A patient without visible vessels in the anterior wall of the left ventricle was treated with 18 hyperbaric chamber sections from one hour at 1.4 AT. After creating angiogenesis, the patient was operated on receiving 2 grafts (mammary and venous) without extracorporeal circulation in the anterior descending artery and diagonal artery. The preoperative ejection fraction was 33% at 90 months of follow up the ejection fraction was 58%. The patient at 90 months was asymptomatic. Of the idiopathic heart disease group, nine patients underwent median sternotomy, and received human fetal stem cells (HFDSCs from ectopic pregnancy or spontaneous abortion, three patients received autologous bone marrow stem cells ABMSC) and 1HFDSCs for Minimally Invasive Surgery.
Patients with HFDSC, compared to baseline, improved: The mean (±SD) NYHA class decreased from 3.4 ± 0.5 to 1.33 ± 0.5 (P = 0.001); Mean EF increased 31%, from 26.6% ± 4.0% to 34.8% ± 7.2% (p = 0.005); the yield in ETT increased 291.3%, from 4.25 minutes to 16.63 minutes (128.9% in metabolic equivalents, 2.45 to 5.63) (P <0.0001); the mean LVEDD decreased 15%, from 6.85 ± 0.6cm to 5.80 ± 0.58cm (P <0.001); the mean performance on the 6-minute walk test increased 43.2%, from 251 ± 113.1 seconds to 360 ± 0 seconds (P = 0.01); the mean distance increased 64.4%, from 284.4 ± 144.9m to 468.2 ± 89.8m (P = 0.004); and the mean score in the Minnesota congestive HF test decreased from 71 ± 27.3 to 6 ± 5.9 (p <0.001). Kaplan-Maier’s probability of survival at 40 months was 66%. No rejection or cancer was observed at follow-up, in this series follow-up was discontinued at 4 years. In idiopathic patients receiving autologous cells by Mininvasive technique preoperative NYHA was 3.6 (+/- 0.70) 6 months after receiving stem cell therapy. The mean value of the functional class was 1.9 (+/- 0.90) (p <0.005). ) showing marked clinical improvement. The preimplantation ejection fraction was 28% (+/- 3.6%) and at 6 months 44% (+/- 4.7%) (p <0.005). There was a similar change in ventricular diameters: After 6 months LVESV went from 50mm (+/- 3.3) to 42mm (+/- 4.5) (p <0.05). Two of the three patients in this group received re-synchronization therapy; one died at 10 years and 4 months, another at age 11 and another one alive at 12 years of the implant. More experience should be performed with different techniques and cells to find the appropriate treatment in this type of patients.
Natural killer (NK) cells, the third population of lymphoid cells, comprise 5%-25% of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes and represent the first line of defense against infections and tumors [1-7]. They can be derived from: bone marrow, PB, cryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and various cell lines such as NK-92 and KHYG-1 . NK cells; which have been divided into cytotoxic, tolerant, and regulatory subsets; are classified into: (1) naïve CD56 bright CD 16 dim CD 3 dim cells, (2) mature CD56 dim CD16 bright CD3 dim cells, and (3) lymphoid tissue-resident CD69+/CXCR6+ NK cells [1,2,8-11]. Although NK cells have been traditionally considered as part of the innate immune system, they have recently been shown to exhibit many of the features associated with adaptive immunity [8,12]. The functions of NK cells which are influenced by several cytokines include: elimination of infected cells, destruction of cancer cells, reducing the incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and regulation of pregnancy outcome [10,11,13].
Natural killer cells represent the first line of defense against infections and tumors and can be derived from various sources including: bone marrow, peripheral blood, specific types of human stem cells, and certain cell lines. The functions of natural killer cells are influenced by: several cytokines, activating and inhibitory receptors, as well as other immune cells such as dendritic cells and mesenchymal stem cells.
Natural killer cells are attractive candidates for adoptive cellular therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in addition to recipients of various forms of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as they enhance antitumor effects without causing graft versus host disease. Several clinical trials have shown safety and efficacy of natural killer cell products obtained from autologous as well as allogeneic sources and used in conjunction with cytotoxic chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies and novel agents.
The following review, which includes extensive literature review on several aspects of natural killer cells, will give particular attention to: the rising role of natural killer cell therapies in patients with malignant hematological disorders, solid tumors and in recipients of stem cell therapies; preparation and manufacture of natural killer cell products; challenges facing the utilization of this form of cellular therapy including evolution of resistance; and maneuvers that can be employed to enhance the efficacy of natural killer cell therapies as well as suggested solutions to resolve the remaining challenges.
ystemic sclerosis (SScl) is an autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by fibrosis and microvascular injury of the affected organs. The hallmark of the disease is thickening and tightness of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. SScl can affect virtually any organ systems, most importantly the skin, blood vessels, lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and the heart .
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell donation among Saudi population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted at different malls in Riyadh. Selection of malls was done randomly according to the geographical distribution of Riyadh, in which sample size was calculated and distributed equally. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that addressed their knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell transplantation and donation.
Results: Results of this study showed that population knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation is considered to be low. Only (37.8%) has enough information about stem cell transplantation and donation. There is a positive correlation between level of education and participant’s knowledge regarding stem cell transplantation and donation. The study revealed that 39.3% of participants have willingness for stem cell donation.
Conclusion: It has been found that two third of population expressed lack of knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation. Also, only 40% of participants showed willingness for donation, and the most common reason for not donating stem cell was the lack of information about stem cell and the value of donation While, increasing level of education was associated with better understanding of stem cell donation and its role in therapy and saving lives. Therefore, suitable campaign, advertising and counseling program for population is recommended to increase level of knowledge and motivation toward stem cell donation.
Background: Knowledge of pulmonary complications (PCs) in children after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited; most data are from adult studies.
Case: We describe a 8 year old girl with high risk acute myeloid leukemia who developed graft versus host disease (GVHD) on Day 20, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia on Day 50 and Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) on Day 170 after allo-HSCT.
Discussion: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a rare noninfectious PCs that can be idiopathic or have several risk factors as a secondary causes, such as viral respiratory infections, drugs, GVHD and allo-HSCT. Viral respiratory infections and alloimmune lung syndromes have been reported in a few patients who have undergone transplantation.
Conclusion: Transplant physicians should be kept in mind for the development of alloimmune lung syndrome in the form of COP following CMV pneumonia in patients after allo- HSCT
Background: Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Case: We report a patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia who developed disseminated Fusarium infection during the neutropenic period following the salvage cycle of chemotherapy given at King Fahad specialist Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The invasive fungal infection was successfully managed with a combination of voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin-B.
Discussion: Fusarium species can cause invasive infections that may become disseminated and life-threatening in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Conclusion: Combined antifungal therapy and recovery of neutrophil count are essential to control invasive Fusarium infections
Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a double-stranded DNA virus, is a highly contagious human neurotropic virus that belongs to the alpha group of herpes viruses [1-4]. Primary VZV infection (chickenpox) occurs in childhood then the virus becomes latent in the nerve ganglia [1,5-7]. Reactivation of the virus may occur decades later and cause herpes zoster (HZ) which is manifested by a typical painful skin eruption that has characteristic dermatomal distribution [1,5]. Reactivation of VZV is usually predisposed to: old age; comorbid medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive airway disease, and end-stage renal disease; and immunosuppression due to malignancy, autoimmune disorders, immunosuppressive therapies, trauma, cytotoxic chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and solid organ transplantation (SOT) [1,5-7].
Experience with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome (MF/SS) is limited to a small number of case reports and case series [1,2]. The advantage of allogeneic HSCT has been indicated in progressive disease in the review of CIBMTR study groups . A consensus is still not available about the intensity and the content of the conditioning regimen due to the rarity of the disease and heterogeneous patient groups.
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