All Articles in February, 2020

Type 2 diabetes and cancer

Published on: 28th February, 2020

Diabetes mellitus increases the possibility of different cancers. Scientists have substantiated the link of diabetes with increased prevalence, augmented progression and improved cancer aggression. Research has strengthened link of diabetes with the colorectal cancer risk among various cancers. Diagnosis and treatment have made some progress in recent years, but Colorectal is major issue for the health of people even today. In order to reduce cancer mortality, there is importance of prophylaxis, evaluation and proper treatment. Factors distressing cancer prognosis is required by policy-making system for beneficial approaches of cancer patients and improvement of disease. Eventually diabetes- specific strategies for different cancers are explored.
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Pseudoephedrine protects mice from infection of H1N1 virus

Published on: 28th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8561620214

Ephedra, an ancient herb, is applied to treat common cold and influenza for such a long time in China. Pseudoephedrine is a main active ingredient from Ephedra which is used for relieving nasal congestion clinically. We previously reported that pseudoephedrine showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect other than sympathomimetic effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether pseudoephedrine could protect mice from the H1N1 virus infection. The mice were infected with a 20% LD50 influenza A virus (IAV) suspension via intranasal administration to establish a virus infection model. Further, the mice were orally administered pseudoephedrine or oseltamivir for 4 days from one day after infection. Our results showed that pseudoephedrine improved lung pathological damage during the IVA infection period, and it dramatically increased the survival rate and attenuated loss of body weight compared with the virus-infected control group. In addition, pseudoephedrine inhibited the cytokine storms and mRNAs expression of the TLR7 signaling pathway. Surprisingly, pseudoephedrine showed an inhibitory effect on the replication of IAV. These results give clear evidence that pseudoephedrine is a potential anti-influenza drug by blunting cytokine storms and inhibition of replication of IAV, and following these results, we speculate that it should be tested in the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19, a severe epidemic in China currently) in which the cytokine storms play a key role to damage bronchi and lung in the early stage.
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Analysis of factors influencing participation of farm households in watermelon production in some selected local government areas of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Published on: 28th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8930822971

The study analyzed the factors influencing participation of farm households’ in watermelon production in the study areas. Three local government areas out of Sokoto state were purposively selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Multistage of sampling techniques were used to arrive at the sample size of 181 farm households’ for the study. Likert scale is used to analyze the level of participation of farm households’, frequency and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that (55.8%) of the farm households are within the ages of 25-30 years, majority (96.7%) are male It shows that majority (64.0%) of the farm households participated in watermelon production as a result of higher income generated. Multiple regression analysis result revealed significant relationships between farm household’s participation in watermelon production and their socio-economic characteristics at p < 0.05. The constraints faced by the farm households are storage technology and improved agricultural inputs. Most (63.5%) of the farm households believed that provision of subsidized agricultural inputs and market accessibility are forms of assistance that will encourages farm households to partake in watermelon production. It is recommended that government and donor agencies should encourage farm households’ by providing them with the modern agricultural inputs so as to influence them to participate fully into watermelon production irrespective of their Socio-economic differences.
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Transference and countertransference are linked to placebo-nocebo effects and they are an auxiliary resource of unparalleled value in general medicine: Recommendations for general practitioners

Published on: 28th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541457152

Psychological phenomena of the doctor-patient relationship influence the therapeutic process. Among these phenomena are the transference (the emotions of the patient towards the doctor), and the countertransference (the emotional reactions of the doctor towards the patient). Doctor and patient are within an interactive relationship in a conscious and unconscious way: the patient is influenced by the doctor, and vice versa. Doctor is solely responsible for the control of transference and countertransference, since patients do not have a conscious perception of these phenomena. In general medicine the transference/countertransference have connotations of placebo effect and nocebo. The challenge of the doctor-patient relationship for the doctor is to realize the transference and countertransference phenomena and use them to achieve placebo effects and minimize the nocebo, and also respecting the needs of both parties, so that to improve the quality of clinical practice. Under these conditions, transference and countertransference are auxiliary resources of unparalleled value.
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Management of temporomandibudar joint ankylosis with costo-chondral graft application: Case report and review of literature

Published on: 27th February, 2020

Introduction: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is one of the most disruptive anomaly that affects the masticatory system and is referred as permanent movement disfunction of the mandible caused by bilateral or unilateral fibrous or bony adhesions and create problems. The etiology is congenital or idiopathic and include trauma, arthritis, infection, previous TMJ surgery etc. Management requires extensive resection of the ankylotic mass and reconstruction of the ramus-condyle unit with autogenous or alloplastic grafts. Most of the time, combination of surgical treatment with physiotherapy is needed in order to achieve maximum rehabilitation and functionality of the mandible. Purpose: The aim of this study is to present the surgical management of an unusual case of unilateral TMJ ankylosis and recent of literature review. Case report: A thirty-seven-year old patient reported unable moving his lower jaw. Clinical examination revealed unilateral TMJ ankylosis of congenital cause and the lateral movement of the mandible was impossible. The patient surgical treatment included resection of the newly formed bone mass, replacement of the condyle with costo-chondral graft and replaced of articular disc with the temporal fascia. Since and for ten years after surgery the patient shows no signs of relapse. Conclusion: The development of TMJ ankylosis may be congenital or acquired etiology. In order to manage it required a comprehensive clinical and radiographic examination. Surgical resection of the bone and coronoid process on the entire side is necessary and a graft that mimics the articular disc is placed, while it is necessary the immediate postoperative kinesiotherapy.
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in systemic sclerosis patientss

Published on: 27th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541470024

ystemic sclerosis (SScl) is an autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by fibrosis and microvascular injury of the affected organs. The hallmark of the disease is thickening and tightness of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. SScl can affect virtually any organ systems, most importantly the skin, blood vessels, lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and the heart [1].
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Production and evaluation of enzyme-modified lighvan cheese using different levels of commercial enzymes

Published on: 27th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560724525

Enzyme-modified cheeses are concentrated cheese flavors produced enzymatically from dairy substrates in order to provide an intense source of cheese flavor with broad applications. Lighvan cheese is an Iranian traditional cheese with a pleasant taste and flavor generated after ripening. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to use commercial enzymes to produce enzyme-modified Lighvan cheese made from unripened and immature cheese. In this study, Neutrase (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.2%) and Flavourzyme (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) were added to the base mixture. The resulting mixture was stored in an incubator for 24, 72, and 96 h to provide intense cheese flavor. Sensory evaluations of all samples in terms of bitterness, flavor, taste, and general acceptance were also carried out. The results of the sensory evaluations revealed no significant difference between most of the samples in terms of bitterness, flavor, taste, and general acceptance with respect to the incubation duration and the type and level of the commercial enzymes (p ≤ 0.05). However, the effect of the different concentrations of Flavourzyme on the cheese texture was significant after 24, 72, and 96 h of incubation (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the effects of the different concentrations of Neutrase on the cheese texture were significant after 96 h of incubation (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, the effect of different concentrations of Flavourzyme on the general acceptance of the samples was significant following 24, 72, and 96 h of incubation (p ≤ 0.05). In general, considering the flavor, taste, texture and general acceptance scores of the enzyme-modified Lighvan cheese samples, the best sample was the sample produced by using 0.1% Neutrase and 0.1% Flavourzyme mixture.
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Symptomatic cluster-like headache in Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) and possible arteritis: Case report and an overview of the literature on secondary cluster-like headaches

Published on: 27th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541472059

Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache belonging to the group of trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias, characterized by short attacks of very severe headache, always involving the same side of the head, more frequently localized to the periorbital and temporal area, associated with homolateral tearing, red eye, nose obstruction or rhinorrhea, ptosis, miosis, and restlessness. These attacks generally last 15-180 minutes and can occur from once every day to 8 times a day. 
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A remote cause of anuria in a child

Published on: 26th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8582359236

Acute renal injury is a rare complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with mesPGN. Here we present a 2-year-old male patient with 4 days history of anuria, generalized edema and hypervolemia. Any evidence other than proteinuria and renal failure could not be identified with laboratory tests and doppler ultrasonography. Anuric presentation was thought to be related with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, diffuse mesangial sclerosis or acute tubular necrosis. However, renal biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (mesPGN). Prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day was prescribed. Diuresis was started gradually and on the 10th day of disease, anuria was resolved and acute renal injury recovered without any sequel. This case is presented because of the incompatibility between clinical findings and histopathologic diagnosis. It is concluded that although rare, anuria and acute renal injury could be the presenting symptom of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood. 
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Acrometastasis as first sign of adenocarcinoma of the lung

Published on: 26th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8559313349

Lung cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metastasis can be seen in many organs in advanced-stage disease. Acral metastasis rate in cancer is quite low. However, because of the direct opening of the arterial circulation, the risk of acral metastasis stem from lung cancer is higher than any other cancers. Although the mechanism is not known exactly, acral metastases occur in dominant extremities. Here, we present a case with lung adenocarcinoma metastasis of the left hand in the second phalanx. We presented this case which is rarely seen in the literature to emphasize acral metastases.
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in silico discovery of potential inhibitors against Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4: A major biological target of Type-2 diabetes mellitus

Published on: 26th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8560723476

Objectives: Type-2 diabetes mellitus, caused by impaired secretion of insulin, is becoming one of the health hazardous threats to human lives across the world. Its prevalence is rising with time. In this study, 2750 phytochemicals, that are considered to have great ability to eliminate diseases caused by different viruses and bacteria, are obtained from different medicinal plants and discovery of inhibitors through in silico method was performed against Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). Method: The pharmacological assessment and pharmacokinetics of phytochemicals, molecular docking and density functional theory (DFT) analysis helped to explore the inhibitory action of phytochemicals against DPP4. Total forty-nine phytochemicals were screened initially to reduce the number of compounds to be analyzed further based on a threshold of binding affinity ≥ -5.5 kcal/mol and were considered for further computational studies to analyze their inhibitory effects for DPP4. For comparison and validation of the results of present study, various previously reported and experimentally validated compounds were docked with the DPP4. For these dockings, binding affinity was predicted and compared with those of phytochemicals to check if these phytochemicals are competent enough to be used as an inhibitor in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future. Results: Only four phytochemicals showed binding affinity greater than those of experimentally validated compounds. These included two phytochemicals from Silybum marianum, i.e. Diprenyleriodictyol and Taxifolin and while other two phytochemicals from Santolina insularis and Erythrina Varigatae i.e. Papraline and Osajin respectively. The reactivity levels for these four phytochemicals with the binding site residues of DPP4 were obtained by DFT based analysis, in which ELUMO, EHOMO and band energy gap were computed. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is concluded that these four phytochemicals, after passing through in vitro and in vivo validation, can be utilized as potential DPP4 inhibitors as they have strong properties as compared to those of various experimentally validated inhibitors.
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Two different patterns and outcome of neodymium YAG capsulotomy

Published on: 25th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553878059

Visual impairment is a global health problem. Cataract is responsible for 50% of blindness worldwide [1]. Posterior capsular opacification is the most common late complication of cataract surgery as a result of proliferation of residual lens epithelial cells overall 25% of patients undergoing extra-capsular cataract surgery develops visually significant PCO within 5 years of the operation [2]. Nd: YAG laser provides the advantage of cutting the posterior lens capsule, thereby avoiding and minimizing infection, wound leaks, and other complication of intraocular surgery. Thus Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is noninvasive, effective and relatively safe technique [3]. However, this procedure is associated with complications such as- postoperative increased intraocular pressure (IOP), cystoid macular edema (CME), disruption of the anterior vitreous surface, uveitis, lens subluxation, increased incidence of retinal detachment and pitting of the IOL [4]. Laser shots can be applied in several patterns such as “Cruciate or Cross pattern”, “Can opener”, inverted “U-Method” and in a “Circular pattern”. Many authors promote the use of a cruciate pattern in the Centre of the visual axis, with the clinician starting off on both axes away from the Centre to avoid pitting the lens centrally [5]. This study mainly aims to analyze the effect of various forms of PCO capsulotomy openings on visual function after Nd: YAG capsulotomy.
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Convalescent plasma: a valid option in the treatment of COVID-19?

Published on: 25th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8586062233

In the late of 2019, there is an outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. The patients appear respiratory symptoms, fever, and cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans and is transmitted mostly via droplets or contact. People of all ages are susceptible to the virus. Up to the middle of February 2020, the number of infected persons in China is over 65,000. The case fatality rate was 2.38%, and elderly men with underlying diseases were at a higher risk of death [1].
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A retrospective study for Colorectal Cancer in Vlore, Albania-suggestions for further implications

Published on: 25th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8554448050

Objective: Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in men and women worldwide as well as one of the most common causes of death from cancer. It has a higher prevalence in men than women. The treatment of colorectal cancer (surgically or through chemotherapy) severely affects both patients and their families. The objective of the study was to identify cases of colorectal cancer, evaluate their demographic and clinical data, and identify any statistical relationship. Methods: This is a retrospective study. The data were collected through the revision of cancer patients’ files in the Chemotherapy Center at Vlore Regional Hospital, Vlore, Albania. The analysis included files from 2015-March 2019. A total of 72 patients’ files with colorectal cancer were analyzed. Result: Mean age of patients 66.36 ± SD10.99 years old, range 38-86. Most of the patients were male (n = 45) and with colon cancer type (n = 44). 19 patients had treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. 56.34% of patients with colorectal cancer are still alive. The results of the study are the same as the global trend in terms of age, gender, type of cancer but not in terms of years of survival, which appear lower. Conclusion: The study suggests that in demographic terms patients with colorectal cancer have no difference from world trend. There was also a marked lack of documentation regarding the clinical data of patients. The complete and accurate documentation of cases with colorectal cancer is recommended to develop quality models of nursing care as well as to design effective promotional and preventive campaigns for colorectal cancer.
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Translation, adaptation and validation of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in Urdu

Published on: 25th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541455755

The current study was carried out to translate, adapt and validate Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in Urdu language and in Pakistani culture. The current translation was aimed to produce a more user friendly and clinically applied version of DASS. The systematic procedure involved in translation focused on maximizing levels of semantic and conceptual equivalence. A test re-test pilot study was conducted on 30 participants to analyze the translated version initially, the results of which determined a significant positive correlation between original and translated versions. The main study involved 300 conveniently selected Pakistanis. The findings revealed that the translated version titled U-DASS-42 was highly reliable and valid in Pakistani culture. The newly developed U-DASS-42 is attached with this paper for the convenience of Pakistani researchers.
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Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) and microvasculitis: A comparative study between nasal cytology and pathology

Published on: 24th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8540540513

Purpose: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent peripheral vertigo syndrome in otoneurological clinical practice and is characterized by short and paroxysmal objective vertigo crises caused by changes in the position of the head on specific planes of space. Secondary microvasculitis is characterized by inflammatory destruction of the small vessels. Starting from this point, this work is based on the research of correlation between microvasculitis (especially secondary), recurrent BPPV and nasal cytology, an aspect, among other things, poorly documented. Materials and methods: To evaluate the relationships between recurrent BPPV and secondary microvasculitis, nine patients with this disorder, 5 males and 4 females aged between 25 and 40 years were observed (average age 30.6). Non allergic pains in the small joints and in the anamnesis nothing relevant in the gentiles and collaterals: Evaluated with vestibular audiometric examination, nasal cytology and vascular examination with corneal HRT results. Nasal cytology, in all cases, has documented the presence of rare mast cells. The hemodynamics of the microcirculation with a confocal microscope has revealed blood flow alteration in all subjects. Discussion: Analyzing the results, both the prevalence of the right side and a close relationship between vasculitis and BPPV could be seen. Conclusion: The study of the nasal mucosa and the research of inflammatory cells could be fundamental for the study of BPPV in which as we have seen the important biochemical role for the onset of these diseases.
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Minimally invasive gracilis muscle transposition: Initial report

Published on: 23rd February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8861740961

Rectourethral fistula (RUF) is a divesting complication after prostate cancer treatment. The RUF incidence after radical prostatectomy is about 0.5% to 2%, [1,2]. Radiotherapy, criotherapy and high intensity focused ultrasound are other more severe causes [3,4]. Repair of RUF is a challenging surgical procedure. There are some possible approaches but transperineal is the most utilized. In cases of complex fistulas interposition of muscle flaps between the rectum and urethra is highly recommended. Gracilis muscle transposition (GMT) is the preferred, due to excellent mobility and vascularization for perineal reconstruction [5,6]. Dissection of the gracilis muscle is done using one, 2 or 3 large incisions in the medial border of the thigh. The aim of this report is present a new minimally invasive access to obtain a pediculate flap of gracilis muscle to interposition between bladder and rectum to treat RUF.
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Sexual addiction, self-esteem and personality dimensions

Published on: 20th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8554459872

Sexual addiction is a growing reality. The acknowledgment of this disorder requires to identify vulnerability factors. Besides, it would improve the management and treatment of these people. We used a cross-sectional study with a sample of voluntary subjects recruited online anonymously. A prepared questionnaire explored the general and clinical data of the sample. The psychometric scales used were: Carnes Sexual Addiction Screening Test, the French Big Five Inventory for personality dimensions and the Rosenberg Scale for self-esteem. Five hundred and ten individuals were included. 38 people (8%) had sexual addiction. 68 people (13%) had attenuated symptoms of sexual addiction. The average age of the group with sexual addiction was 30.8 years with a male predominance. The majority had a higher academic level, was single (39.5%) and are working (73.7%). Our study revealed that self-esteem was below average in 73.7% of people with sexual addiction. Concerning personality dimensions, individuals with sexual addiction had higher scores in Neuroticism. The analytic study showed that four variables were statistically correlated with sexual addiction: male sex; low self-esteem; a large N dimension and a low C and E dimension. The concept of sexual addiction, still poorly defined, is beginning to be recognized. The need for more research is required to identify the factors of vulnerability with the aim of developing the preventive axis and improving the quality of life.
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Retinopathy of prematurity - Intersibling divergence of risk factors among twins

Published on: 19th February, 2020

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a consequence of an arrest in normal retinal neural and vascular development, which determines the aberrant retinal regeneration [1,2]. ROP is a disease process mostly reported in preterm neonates ranging from mild, transient changes in the retina with regression to severe progressive vasoproliferation, scarring, detachment of retina and blindness and it is common blinding disease in children and a major cause of vision loss among preterm infants [3]. Today it is well known that oxygen therapy is not the single causative factor, but many other risk factors play a causative role in the pathogenesis of ROP [4,5]. The risk factors for ROP include oxygen administration, hypoxia, hypercapnia, blood transfusion exchange transfusion, apnea,sepsis and total parenteral nutrition. The incidence of ROP has been reported to be similar in multiple and singleton births [6-8]. Twin studies show that from 70% to 80% of the susceptibility to ROP is conditioned by genetic factors [9,10]. Hence this study is to find out the incidence of ROP in twins in a tertiary care centre in a developing country. It also attempts to identify the difference in risk factors among twins which predispose to ROP in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
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Raw materials criticalities in material selection & design

Published on: 19th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8554447253

Circular Economy, Sustainability, Design for Environment are some of the keywords that identify new formidable challenges to be faced in the next years. Raw materials have a dominant role in reaching that goal. Green energy, electric vehicles, communication, etc. depends on raw materials labeled as critical because of their economic importance coupled with high supply risk. For this reason, mitigating actions need to be used in materials selection and design such as material substitution, improved materials efficiency and recycling. In this technical communication, a method to implement raw materials criticality issues in materials selection is described according to the recent literature. The strategy is based on Ashby’s approach and the definition of the alloy criticality index quantifying the criticality per unit of mass of the material.
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The Importance of Potato virus Y Potyvirus

Published on: 19th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8930826479

Potato virus Y Potyvirus (PVY) is one of the most important aphid transmitted viral pathogen of potato worldwide. PVY affects potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.), which is an important economic crop. PVY infection with potato viruses usually causing severe economic damage affecting both tubers quality and trade. PVY can degrease the production of certified seed and also crops grown for processing or fresh market. Potato is considered as one of the most economically important solanaceous crops cultivated in different regions that (PVY) has been studied in many parts of the world. Wide host plant range is a characteristic of viruses belonging to the Potyviridae. 495 species in 72 genera of 31 families were reported to be infected by PVY. Under field conditions, potato plants are subjected to attack by many viruses. The most cited virus could affect potato in the world is PVY. It has been long recognized as a threat to potato cultivation. Several studies carried out and reported that PVY is the most important virus infecting potato in different localities. Our review article is showed that PVY are the most frequently detected viruses in potato.
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Molecular profiles of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity markers in dysmenorrheic (on treatment or not) students

Published on: 18th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550958914

Background: Dysmenorrhea is menstrual disorder that affects about 40% - 90% of women worldwide, it is associated with oxidative stress. The current treatment of this condition is administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which when frequently used, may affect organs. Objective: Assess the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity side effects related to dysmenorrhea and its treatment Materials and methods: A survey (questionnaire) was designed and implemented on 689 female students of the University of Dschang. After this, and following the inclusion criteria, 191 blood samples were collected for assay of hepatotoxicity markers (transaminases, albumin), nephrotoxicity indicators (creatinine, urea, total protein) and the inflammation associated indicators. The measurements were performed on fully automated Olympus AU 400 Analyzer, using standard reagent kits. Results: Subjects with untreated dymenorrhea lasting more than five years had a significantly high level (p < 0.05) of ALT (39.47 ± 15.74 IU/L) and AST (44.37 ± 13.74 IU/L). Transaminases levels were significantly associate (p < 0.01) and positively correlate (0.251 for ALT and 0. 223 for AST) with the disease duration. Dysmenorrheic individuals on medication for more than 9 years had significantly higher ALT (25.14 ± 7.85 IU/L) and AST (35.26 ± 0.70 IU/L) levels (p < 0.05) compared to those under treatment for less than 5 years (19.37 ± 8.27 UI/L and 27.68 ± 8.56 UI/L). The use of analgesics, regardless of the duration of treatment, had normal creatinine clearance (107.44 ± 30.86 ml/min), compared to those treated with either anti-inflammatory drugs (71.56 ± 26.44 ml/min), or a combination of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs (81.34 ± 31.97 ml/min), which was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea duration, type and duration of treatment potentially expose participants to liver and kidney disorders.
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Localization of the occluded vessel in acute myocardial infarction

Published on: 18th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550958571

This is a review of features in ECG to diagnose the culprit artery responsible for the infarction. Localization of the occluded vessel in acute myocardial infarction is important for many reasons: to know which artery is to dilate and stent; to assess the severity of the lesion; to compare with the echocardiographic area with hypokinesia or akinesia and to differentiate the recent from the old occluded vessel. The ST-segment changes in 12-lead ECG form the basis of diagnosis, management, and prognosis.
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ECG interpretation and commentary

Published on: 18th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550965055

This is demonstration of selected ECGs for learning or for exams; guided by lessons from great teachers as Prof. Hein Wellens MD. Here we provide advanced examples with comment and analysis.
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Chlorhexidine and oral cancer: A short review

Published on: 18th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8535180883

Owing to the ever westernizing lifestyles in developing countries like India, the escalation of oral cancer patients are in need of urgent plan of action. With tobacco being the commonest cause for causation of oral cancer, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2016-17 revealed that almost 28% of whole population of India is consuming tobacco in either smoking or smokeless form. With these increasing numbers, the expected death toll to be expected to touch 1-2 million mark by the year 2035 [1]. Although, the current Onco-medicine fraternity excels in rendering care to oral cancer patients in the form of surgeries, chemotherapy and radiation-therapy. Often, these treatment modalities impart some unwanted adverse effects like, docetaxel (DCT) is known for its hepatotoxicity [2,3] whereas, one of the commonly used cisplatin (CIS) presents with nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression and vomiting [4,5]. Literature suggests of many non conventional medicaments being tested in past for their anti onco-genic effect, where few being effective and others being questionable ones. Chlorhexidine being one among them showing some how promising anti onco-genic activity with feeble amount of studies being conducted in past. Chlorhexidine, one of the most commonly prescribed mouthrinse in the field of dentistry, with varying concentrations of 0.12% and 0.2% concentrations. Although, apart from being broad spectrum antibiotic, its capability to dismantle the protein – protein bond between anti – apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl-xL and its pro – apoptotic binding partners [6]. The current study was conducted on three cell lines of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-4, SCC-9, SCC -15) and two pharynx carcinoma cell lines (FaDu and Detroit 562). The compounds induced apoptosis through mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway in oral tumour cell lines. Another study conducted to assess the similar anti – oncogenic activites of chlorhexidine mouthrinse along with cranberry [7]. It was evident from results that, with increasing concentrations of chlorhexidine mouthrinse, there was increase in mean percent growth inhibition. The authors concluded saying, chlorhexidine has showed both anti cancerous as well as anti bacterial activity required to tackle common oral infections, part of common anti cancer therapy. Fernando Martínez-Pérez et al (2019) conducted study, where antitumor activity of Lipophilic Bismuth Nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) and chlorhexidine on human squamous cell carcinoma was assessed using energy dispersive X – ray spectroscopy in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (EDS-SEM). Study revealed, BisBAL NPs and chlorhexidine both showed cell growth inhibition on both cancer cell line (CAL-27) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Although, chlorhexidine showed non specific cytotoxicity for both tumoral and non tumoral control cells. The suggestive mechanism of action might be loss of cell membrane integrity [8]. Although Eliot MN (2013) conducted study, to assess the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma secondary to use of alcohol containing and non alcoholic mouthwashes including chlorhexidine. The study was concluded with an assumption based on chlorhexidine mouthwash alters the oral flora [9], thus resulting in increasing risk exponentially through diverse change in oral bacteria and altered immune response with contribution towards genesis or promotion of cancer [10]. On the contrary, alcohol consumption and smoking are predisposing factors towards upper digestive tract cancer. The main causative factor being the first metabolite of alcohol, acetaldehyde. And much higher levels are derived from oral bacteria and thus, same can be altered in favour through usage of chlorhexidine mouthwash, to avoid excessive production of acetaldehyde intra orally. In conclusion, chlorhexidine mouthwash has been into dental practice since long and the role it plays in either ways has to be assessed by a multi dimensional study with cell lines including that of control to derive better compared conclusions.
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An unusual case of a maxillary sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma

Published on: 18th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550965615

It’s a 24 years old female patient who presented with rhinological burning pain evolving since 1 year. She didn’t consult until a blistering lesion filled half of the oral cavity. The initial biopsy of the tumor was interpreted as a round cell tumor process.
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Angiotensin II type 1 receptor and the activation of Myosin Light-Chain Kinase and Protein Kinase C-βII: Mini Review

Published on: 17th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8534733539

The involvement of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart, where the various activations are very limited, allows simple analysis of the kinase systems involved and thence extrapolation of the mechanism to that of angiotensin control of activation of cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction. The involvement of phosphorylation of the myosin light chain in the control of contraction is accepted but not fully understood. The involvement of troponin-I phosphorylation is also indicated but of unknown mechanism. There is no known signal for activation of myosin light chain kinase or Protein Kinase C-βII other than Ca2+/calmodulin but the former is constitutively active and thus has to be under control of a regulated inhibitor, the latter kinase may also be the same. Ca2+/calmodulin is not activated in Frank-Starling, i.e. there are no diastolic or systolic [Ca2+] changes. I suggest here that the regulated inhibition is by myosin light chain phosphatase and/or β-arrestin. Angiotensin activation, not involving G proteins. is by translocation of the β-arrestin from the sarcoplasm to the plasma membrane thus reducing its kinase inhibition action in the sarcoplasm. This reduced inhibition has been wrongly attributed to a mythical downstream agonist property of β-arrestin.
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Peptide-based antifouling aptasensor for cardiac troponin I detection by surface plasmon resonance applied in medium sized Myocardial Infarction

Published on: 14th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541469721

Highly selective and sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a powerful complement to clinical diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this study, a strategy for cTnI detection was developed by constructing a universal biosensing interface composed of zwitterionic peptides and aptamers. The peptides were self-assembled onto gold chips, and some of them were biotinylated. The cTnI-specific binding aptamers were immobilized through the streptavidin-biotin system. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements revealed the preparation process. The developed aptasensor presents a linear detection with cTnI ranging from 20 ng/ml to 600 ng/ml and a detection limit of 20 ng/ml. The high immobilization of the aptamer enhances the sensitivity of the aptasensor and the calculated KD was 6.75 nM. Due to the outstanding antifouling property of the zwitterionic peptide, the developed aptasensor possesses a high resistance towards protein fouling. Moreover, the aptasensor has excellent selectivity and specificity towards cTnI in complex media. Hence, the proposed peptide-based aptasensor shows great potential for practical application in medium sized Myocardial Infarction (MI).
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Anal cytology in immunocompetent patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II and CIN III)

Published on: 13th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550959427

Introduction: Anal cancer is directly related to the presence of high-grade HPV. Immunocompromised patients have defined conducts, something which is not observed in immunocompetent patients. Objective: To study the anal cytology of patients with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CINII and III) in order to propose a protocol to be followed by the Oncology Gynaecology Service at the Samuel Libânio Clinical Hospital (HCSL). Methods: Clinical, prospective, transversal and single-centered study. Sampling was by convenience within one year. A total of 150 patients were studied. Out of these, 76 were patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions diagnosed through histopathological examination of the uterine cervix (Study Group) and 74 without high-grade intraepithelial lesions and with cervical cytology negative for neoplasia (Control Group). The following variables were analyzed: age, sexarc, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, STD history (not HPV), menopause, Hormone Replacement Therapy, anal sex practice, parity, number of sexual partners and contraceptive use. Results: There was no significant difference between the number of cases in altered anal cancer oncology in the study group, in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: There were changes in the anal cytology of the study group and these should be evaluated due to the risk of dealing with pre-neoplastic anal lesion. Clinical Trials: NCT03241680.
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Progress of chemical components and biological activities of Fructus Amomi

Published on: 13th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8627826331

Fructus Amomi is “one of the top four south authentic Traditional Chinese Plant Medicines”, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical districts of China, such as Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, etc., which has ever been used in clinical for treatment of the digestive diseases. In addition, it has also been used as spices. In recent years, some research about its components together with pharmacological activities have been reported. In this Mini review, we mainly describe the recent progress of the components and pharmacological activities of Fructus Amomi, to provide the reference for the relevant researchers.
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Sensitivity and Intertextile variance of amylase paper for saliva detection

Published on: 12th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550282807

Contemporary forensic science hinges on DNA analysis to link an individual to a crime scene. Sources of DNA include bodily fluids, including saliva. Amylase is a primary enzyme in human saliva and thus, if detected, indicates possible presence of human saliva. Amylase paper can be used to map apparent saliva and thus provide a source from which DNA can be extracted and analyzed. In this study, the sensitivity of amylase paper was tested, firstly, using dilutions of an amylase standard and subsequently also tested using fresh human saliva. Three trials total were conducted, the first two using an amylase standard and a third using fresh saliva. The first two trials demonstrated firstly that detection of amylase is dependent on the material upon which amylase is deposited. The third trial demonstrated that amylase levels in human saliva may drop significantly somewhere around 48-72 hours. All trials were consistent in the concentration of amylase that Seratec Amylase Paper will detect.
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Improving cancer diseases classification using a hybrid filter and wrapper feature subset selection

Published on: 11th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8550274050

In the classification of cancer data sets, we note that they contain a number of additional features that influence the classification accuracy. There are many evolutionary algorithms that are used to define the feature and reduce dimensional patterns such as the gray wolf algorithm (GWO) after converting it from a continuous space to a discrete space. In this paper, a method of feature selection was proposed through two consecutive stages in the first stage, the fuzzy mutual information (FMI) technique is used to determine the most important feature selection of diseases dataset through a fuzzy model that was built based on the data size. In the second stage, the binary gray wolf optimization (BGWO) algorithm is used to determine a specific number of features affecting the process of classification, which came from the first stage. The proposed algorithm, FMI_BGWO, describes efficiency and effectiveness by obtaining a higher classification accuracy and a small number of selected genes compared to other competitor algorithms.
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Assessment of physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding smoking cessation management in the Gaza Strip

Published on: 11th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8549664436

Background: Despite its negative effects, approximately 23% of Palestinians (≥ 18 years) smoke cigarettes. Studies have shown physicians to be an important channel for smoking cessation intervention. This investigation examines physicians’ smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in the Gaza strip (Palestinian Territories). Methods and findings: A convenience sample of 154 physicians in medical and surgical units took part in this investigation (87.7% response rate). The data show that 37.8% of physicians in Gaza smoke, and most of them about 72% smoke in the hospital’s public spaces, thereby implicitly giving public approval for smoking. While 82.4% reported that they advise patients who smoke to stop, the majority (59%) also believe that their own smoking habits negatively influence the impact of that advice. Unfortunately, our survey showed that physicians’ knowledge levels towards smoking addiction and management were lower than expected (e.g. only 34% knew that nicotine dependence is a psychiatric disorder that necessitates treatment). The physicians in this study believed that the primary barriers to failure of their patients’ smoking cessation were the perceived lack of will (81.3%), and the strength of patients’ addiction (67.9%). Moreover, (61%) of physicians did not spend enough time to convince their patients to quit smoking. Conclusion: Smoking is common among Gaza-strip physicians, and unfortunately, most of them smoke in the hospital’s public spaces. Many obstacles face the smoking cessation program that some physicians linked it to patients, and others linked it to the health-care system. Furthermore, smokers in Gaza receive poor care regarding assessment, referral, and management of their smoking habit.
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Delayed penile prosthesis implantation in the delayed presentation of ischemic priapism

Published on: 6th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541455754

Priapism is currently defined as a prolonged painful erection without sexual stimuli, if priapism persists > 36 hours, conservative treatment does not lead to detumescence. The most common etiologies are: medications into corpora cavernosa, anti-psychotics, anti-hypertensives, hematological disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia). The Penile prosthesis is the choice treatment for restoring the erectile function after the failure of the conservative treatment. But the corporal fibrosis makes it very difficult, with high risk of complications [1].
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In vitro and preventative field evaluations of potential biological control agents and synthetic fungicides for control of Clarireedia jacksonii sp. nov.

Published on: 6th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8537104274

Clarireedia jacksonii sp. nov. Formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett, the causal agent of dollar spot (DS), is the most destructive pathogen in turfgrass. Symptoms appear as circular patches 10-40 mm in diameter with small tan lesions surrounded by a darker band, sometimes presenting an hour glass appearance. A multi-year study was initiated with the objective of determining the efficacy of biological control agents (BCA) and tank mixes of BCA’s and synthetic fungicides on DS control. Nutrient source was also evaluated to determine any interaction with the BCA’s and tank mixes. in vitro studies evaluated the efficacy of synthetic and BCA’s for C. jacksonii control. Quarter strength potato dextrose agar was amended with ¼, ½ and full labeled rates of various products. Chlorothalonil at all rates provided greatest (> 90%) control of C. jacksonii for study duration. Biological control agents provided best efficacy at ¼ and ½ label rates. Streptomyces griseoviridis provided least efficacy and may have exacerbated formation of C. jacksonii. Preventative field evaluations for synthetic and BCA’s provided different results between two study years. In Year 1, all treatments had < 15% disease severity for the duration of the study. In year 2, disease pressure was extremely elevated. Synthetic program 1, centered on azoxystrobin + propiconazole applications and conventional fertility sources, provided best results with < 5% disease severity for the duration of the study. Reduced synthetic program 1, and synthetic program 2 followed closely with < 10% disease severity. Reduced synthetic programs were based on monthly applications of either chlorothalonil or pyraclostrobin every 30 day, alternated with biofungicide applications. Synthetic program 2 utilized rotation applications of pyraclostrobin and chlorothalonil every 14 days. Organic programs, utilizing only biofungicides and organic fertility sources, provided the least amount of control and exceeded the 15% threshold by the second month of the evaluation period.
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Case-based education to improve learning and faculty teaching of residents and students in a clinical setting

Published on: 5th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8553243394

Introduction: Current pediatric residents spend less time in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and as a result, resident exposure to neonatal pathophysiology has decreased. Engaging learners efficiently while balancing clinical demands is challenging. Practices to enhance adult education include integration of problem centered learning into the demands of daily life in an environment in which learners feel safe asking questions and expressing themselves. Methods: With this principal in mind, we developed a curriculum to enhance resident and medical student education during busy NICU rotations. The curriculum was case-based, available on-line and facilitated by neonatology faculty and fellows. A template designed to be concise and interactive was used to create and present the cases. After the case vignette, the template prompted medical students and residents to generate a differential diagnosis, order a diagnostic workup and narrow the diagnosis. Discussion of the diagnoses occurred at the conclusion of the cases; however, the template discouraged didactic lectures. Results: In two years, cases were viewed 2,362 times. Facilitators and learners rated the quality and utility of the cases favorably overall. Cases took approximately 20 minutes to complete. Approximately 57% of survey respondents reviewed 1-2 cases per week and 9.6% reviewed 3-5 cases per week. Discussion: A template with a concise and consistent format to construct and present cases allows for the creation of a curriculum that can be incorporated into a clinically demanding service and may enhance clinical teaching and learner engagement.
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Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa of the Proximal Esophagus: An Under recognized Entity

Published on: 5th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8534144758

Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) is an islet of gastric mucosa within the esophageal mucosa. These lesions can sit throughout the digestive tract and rarely in the upper third of the esophagus. The pathophysiology of HGM remains poorly understood. Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of HGM, clinical signs, endoscopic, microscopic aspects and different epidemiological factors associated. All patients from a single endoscopy center with HGM of the upper third of the esophagus were included over a 5-month evaluation period. All lesions seen in endoscopy were confirmed by histological analysis. The prevalence was 1.3% with a clear male predominance. 80% of patients were symptomatic and received medical treatment, clinical evolution was good. No case of dysplasia was identified and no complication was observed. Due to insufficient data in the evolutionary literature, the management of HGM remains debated and could resemble that of Barett’s esophagus for monitoring and therapeutic management, particularly in the event of symptoms or dysplasia.
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Medicinal plant extract associated with bacterial cellulose membrane: Antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties

Published on: 4th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8531081943

Burns injuries induce a state of immunodepression that predisposes to a bacterial infectious complication that leads to several comorbid diseases and high mortality rate. Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L.and Matricaria recutita L. are acknowledge by antimicrobial effects. Previous studies about anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Aloe vera (L.) Burm., Calendula officinalis L. and Matricaria recutita L. are knowledge by antimicrobial effects. Bacterial cellulose membrane (nature BCM) is a potential carrier as a drug delivery system in the wound and burn treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts of A. vera, C. officinalis, and M. recutita incorporated in BCM against bacterial strains commonly present in wound and burns. The agar-dilution susceptibility testing was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The standardized extracts of A. vera, M. recutita, and C. officinalis were, respectively, used at 3.25% of total polysaccharides, 1% of apigenin 7-O-glucoside and 0.084% of total flavonoids expressed in quercetin. The BCM incorporated with A. vera extract was efficient to prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. BCM loaded with C. officinalis inhibited the growth of S. aureus. The BCM loaded with A. vera and C. officinalis extract showed better antibacterial activities against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and, consequently, properties to prevent infectious disease in the wound or burn caused by these bacteria.
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Rubella infection: Advances and challenges in the diagnosis and prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Published on: 4th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272365860

Rubella remains an important pathogen worldwide, with many cases of congenital rubella syndrome per year. Rubella vaccination is included in the vaccination program of many countries. WHO has set goals for the elimination of measles and rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome by 2020. Worldwide, the rubella vaccine is highly effective and safe, and as a result, endemic rubella transmission has been halted in the Americas since 2009. Incomplete rubella vaccination programs result in continuous disease transmission, as evidenced by major recent outbreaks in some countries around the world. In this review, we present the rubella control, elimination and eradication policies and a brief review of the rubella laboratory diagnosis.
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