Articles

Clinical utility of intracardiac echocardiography in transvenous lead extraction

Published on: 4th August, 2022

The epidemics of heart failure and an aging population resulted in an exponential rise in the use of cardiac implantable devices (CIEDs) in developed countries. This is paralleled by the increased rate of complications such as system infection or malfunction. The higher number of complications, and longer patient life expectancies, are followed by an increase in the need for lead extractions. 
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Role of perioperative plasma D-dimer in intracerebral hemorrhage after brain tumor surgery: A prospective study

Published on: 2nd August, 2022

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most feared complications after brain tumor surgery. Despite several factors being considered to influence bleeding, an increasing number of clinical studies emphasize that hemostatic disorders, developed during surgical aggression and tumor status, could explain unexpected ICH. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of perioperative D-dimer levels on ICH after brain tumor surgery. Methods: This prospective, observational, 18-month study, at a single third-level hospital, included all consecutive adults operated on brain tumors and postoperative stay in an intensive care unit. Three blood samples evaluated D-dimer levels (A-baseline, B-postoperative and C-24 hours after surgery). The normal range considered was 0-500ng/ml. ICH, as a primary outcome, was defined as bleeding that generates radiological signs of intracranial hypertension either by volume or by mass effect on the routine CT scan 24 hours after surgery. Other tumor features and hemostasis variables were analyzed. Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact test were used in the inferential analysis for qualitative variables and Wilcoxon and T-Test for quantitative ones. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant for a confidence interval of 95%. Results: A total of 109 patients operated on brain tumor surgery were finally included, 69 male (63,30%) and 40 female (36,70%), with a mean age of 54,60 ± 14,75 years. ICH was confirmed in 39 patients (35,78%). Their average of DDimer was A-1.526,70 ng/dl, B-1.061,88 ng/dl, and C-1.330,91 ng/dl (A p0.039, B p0,223 C p0.042, W-Wilcoxon test). The male group was also associated with ICH (p0,030 X2 test). Of those 39 patients with ICH, 30 in sample A (76,9%), 20 in sample B (51,28%) and 35 in sample C (89,74%) had a D-dimer > 500 ng/dl (p0,092, p1, p0,761 X2 test) and the relative risk of developing a postoperative hematoma in this patients was increased 0,36-fold presurgery, 0,25-fold postsurgery and 0,40-fold 24hours after surgery. D-dimer variation, had no statistical significance (p0,118, p0,195, p0,756 T-test). Platelets and prothrombin activity were associated with D-dimer levels only in sample A (p 0,02 and p 0,20, W Wilson). Conclusion: High levels of perioperative D-dimer could be considered a risk marker of ICH after brain tumor surgery. However, more studies would be worthwhile to confirm this association and develop primary prevention strategies for stroke. 
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Light beams, photons, axions

Published on: 2nd August, 2022

The question of the interaction of light with small particles, with molecules, atoms in gases, in liquids has been considered by many authors in the scientific literature. As a rule, this is elastic, Raman, or Rayleigh scattering. The frequency of the scattered light in the first case is the same as that of the incident, and in cases 2 and 3, the spectrum of scattered radiation is enriched with the corresponding components. The subject of this work is the interaction between each other in the medium of two coherent light beams. 
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A rare variant of the radial artery was discovered during a pseudoaneurysm of the brachial artery in a hemodialysis patient

Published on: 2nd August, 2022

The radial artery shows great anatomical variability with respect to its origin [1]. Generally, its origin is located in the cubital fossa at the level of the neck of the radius [2]. However, the artery may have a high origin from the brachial artery or even the axillary artery [1].
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VEP visual acuity in children with cortical visual impairment

Published on: 2nd August, 2022

Given improvements in neonatal care and the increased survival rates of infants born pre-term, Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) is now the leading cause of visual impairment (VI) in the developed world. In this study, Step VEPS, transient VEPS and Vernier Sweep VEPs all demonstrated unbiased relationships with Preferential looking (PL) cards over the whole range of Visual Acuity (VA) in children with CVI, allowing equations for clinical use to be derived. The results also suggested that a slower, vernier steady-state stimulus of 80% contrast and presented with the Step VEP algorithm could further improve VA agreement with PL and optimise developmental sensitivity. An eye tracking device has proved very useful in the clinical assessment of this cohort. It is also now known that children can have good VA and CVI, and that sweep VEPS can highlight higher processing deficits. As well as negative findings, compensatory neuroplasticity is thought to occur during maturation and it is now realistic to study this mechanism, and other age-related changes across VI with functional tests and neuroimaging (including VEPS). A cross-sectional study of adults would highlight CVI’s ultimate functional limitations.
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Teledentistry and Digital Therapeutics (DTx) for dentistry

Published on: 5th August, 2022

Due to the global pandemic spread of COVID-19, the medical field has experienced many changes [1]. One of the main changes is the attention to Telemedicine (Digital Medicine), which is a part of Digital Health. The combination of ‘Digital’ and ‘Dentistry’ can be awkward because dental treatment is often conducted face-to-face with clinical treatment, but it is planned to proceed with the inevitable flow of the times [2,3]. In addition, Digital therapeutics (DTx), a part of digital dentistry, is a narrower concept and has an evidence-based effect on diseases. This article contains opinions on the concept and current status of Teledentistry and the application of DTx [4].
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The protective potential of Carbonic Anhydrase VI (CA VI) against tooth decay in children: A systematic review of the literature

Published on: 2nd August, 2022

Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in saliva with possible pH regulation, taste perception, and tooth formation effects. Objective: The aim of this work was to undertake a systematic review regarding the relationship between the expression/activity of CA VI in saliva and in dental biofilm and caries experience. Study design: Five databases were searched until February 2020. The composition was based on the PRISMA statement and on the PICOS model. First author, year, subject characteristics, analysis performed, outcome, measures & variables were extracted. The used terms were “carbonic anhydrase VI”, “saliva”, “dental biofilm” and “dental caries”.Results: Five studies in the English language were selected for this systematic review and the main discussed topics were the expression/activity of CA VI in saliva and/or in the dental biofilm of children, and its relationship with dental caries. Conclusion: Salivary carbonic anhydrase plays an important role in the caries dynamics process since there is an association between the expression/activity of CA VI in saliva and the experience of caries. Thus, this protein can predict the risk of dental caries in young patients.
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Environmental impact assessment of demolition of a building in India-A case study

Published on: 3rd August, 2022

Buildings are demolished, when they outlived their service life, become structurally/functionally unfit, or have been built illegally. In India, an RCC framed, 40-storied high-rise building, with a built-up area of about 75,000 sqm, built without relevant approvals along with lots of violations of building bye-laws, has been demolished. There is nothing new in this demolition process, but its effect on the environment is unavailable. A study has been conducted to understand the environmental impact of this demolition. Based on the main primary construction materials, the embodied energy of this demolished building has been computed as 7.07 GJ/sqm.The civil construction cost of the building was found to be about INR 200 Crores (USD 27 million, assuming a conversion rate of 1 USD 75 INR in the year 2022). Expected GHGs emissions corresponding to this embodied energy were estimated as 42.42 × 103 MT. Energy in the demolition of the building has been computed to be about 8.7 GJ/sqm. The situation, in which this building can be retrofitted and made compliant with local building bye-laws, has been analyzed for its environmental impact. 
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Efficiency of different methods for calculating the mechanized tunnels face pressure considering an earth pressure balance

Published on: 2nd August, 2022

Different methods for calculating and estimating a safe face pressure were proposed by researchers, which have some advantages and disadvantages. In each of these methods, some related parameters such as soil geotechnical parameters, dimensions of the tunnel, and geological conditions are used. In these methods, using a series of mathematical or empirical functions, the face pressure is calculated. In this study, the face displacements were obtained using the finite difference numerical FLAC3D, the COB (Netherlands Underground Science Center) empirical, and the Leca and Dormieux (1990) analytical methods. The impact of the COB method on different ground stiffnesses is studied and evaluated. The reference case of this research is the Tehran Metro Line 6 tunnel (excavation radius: 4.6 m).
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Research question approach in the study of neonatal sepsis

Published on: 1st August, 2022

Neonatal sepsis is a systemic infection that causes high morbidity and mortality rates in newborns during the first month of life. Although there is abundant literature on the subject, it remains a fundamental public health problem due to its high prevalence in underdeveloped countries. This article aims to highlight the importance of the approach in investigating neonatal sepsis using causality research questions, which generate knowledge to promote better care and reduce the complications associated with neonatal sepsis in newborns.
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