Articles

Persistent symptomatic hyponatremia post-COVID 19: case report

Published on: 16th May, 2022

Background: Hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 is considered an independent risk factor for a prolonged hospital stay, intensive care admission, and death, but its causes and treatment are not yet well known. Many workers attribute hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 to acute kidney injury and nephropathy associated with the disease. Others suggest that it is related to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, sepsis, or hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. We report a case of persistent acute hyponatremia in a COVID-19 patient with multifactorial etiology. Case presentation: A managed 77 years with known hypertension, type II DM, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease (stage 3B and on treatment) presented with post-COVID-19 pneumonia, confusion, fever, generalized fatigability, dizziness, and lower limb edema. COVID-19 ad has been diagnosed two weeks earlier with a positive nasopharyngeal swab and was managed with dexamethasone, 10 mg oral for 10 days, azithromycin, 500 mg once orally, and levofloxacin, 500 mg once orally. At presentation, laboratory investigation showed hyponatremia (127.7 mg/dl). Conclusion: The etiology of hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 is different from that in other cases of hyponatremia and its management should be individualized according to patient history and clinical assessment, and effort is needed to determine the exact cause.
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An update on the approaches of avoidance of propagation of chronic kidney disease resulting in reversal or possible need or avoidance of kidney transplantation - a systematic review

Published on: 10th May, 2022

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) by definition is a disease characterized by irreversible elimination of renal function, which keeps propagating as corroborated by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of < 60 ml/min/1.73m2, the constant existence of presentation which pointed to Kidney injury (proteinuria, active sediments of urine, histological injury, structural aberrations or prior history with regards to Kidney transplantation) or both that are persistent for greaterthan 3 mths [1]. CKD has continued to be a worldwide Public Health problem, as well as comprises considerable healthcare along with cost burden, since a reduction in GFR has been understood to result in, escalation of Diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension cardiovascular processes, hospital admissions, cognitive impairment in addition to total mortality [2]. The prevalence of CKD has a variability as per the geographic region that varies from 10-20%, however, escalates slowly in particular in developed countries [3]. Partly this pattern might be secondary to the enhancement of the aging population all over the globe [4]. Additionally, the escalation of the prevalence of risk factors like DM, hypertension along with obesity in patients with CKD is noticeable [5].
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Face mask utilization and associated factors in combating COVID-19 pandemic among government employee in Akaki district administration offices, Oromi, Ethiopia, 2022

Published on: 10th May, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: Facemask utilization; Associated factors; Governme

Background: The novel coronavirus is a rapidly spreading respiratory disease that has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a global public health emergency. The use of face masks has been recommended by the WHO and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as a standard prevention method for transmission of COVID-19.Objective: The objective of this study is to determine face mask utilization and associated factors in combating the COVID-19 pandemic among government employees in Akaki district administration offices in Akaki District, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2022Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from December 1, 2021, to February 15, 2022, on 385 government employees working in Akaki district administration offices. After obtaining consent from the study participants, data were collected using pretested, self-administered, and standardized questionnaires adapted from other studies. After the data was collected, it was entered into Epi info version 7.2.6, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 26. A logistic regression model was computed to measure the association between the predictor and outcome variables. A p - value of.05 with a 95% CI was used as the cut-off point to declare the level of statistical significance. Results: The study showed that the magnitude of good practice for facemask utilization was 213 (53.5%) (95% CI: 1.50, 1.60) for preventing COVID-19. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds of using face masks among male employees (AOR = 0.275; 95% CI: 0.137, 0.555), employees aged 20-29 (AOR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.065, 0.481 ), employees aged 30-39 (AOR = 0.260, 95% CI: 0.109, 0.623), employees of less than five family size (AOR = 0.549, 95% CI: 0.303, 0.995), work experience at 6-12 (AOR = 0, 32, 95 CI: 0.120, 0.450), poor knowledge about face mask use (AOR = 0.504, 95% CI: 0.302, 0.844), and employees with a negative attitude (AOR = 0.430, 95% CI: 0.256, 0.721) were factors significantly associated with face mask utilization.Conclusion: The magnitude of facemask utilization was low (53.5%) compared to other studies. The results of the study showed that age, sex, household family size, work experience, poor knowledge, and the negative attitude of employees toward facemask utilization were among the factors significantly associated with facemask utilization.
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Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers of a second level hospital

Published on: 6th May, 2022

Background: From the first COVID-19 case in Playa del Carmen, 370 cases of infection have been reported in our staff until December 31, 2020. Material and methods: Study in workers of the General Hospital who developed SAR-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic. A sample of 30 cases of both sexes with laboratory-confirmed infection was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used with measures of central tendency, dispersion and percentages. Results: In a sample of 30 workers there were 13 doctors, 6 nurses and 11 support workers. The age was obtained as a mean of 38.8 years and SD = 10.4. Only four risk factors were found. Of the 30 infected health workers, 27 were treated on an outpatient basis and three required hospitalization. Discussion: The main symptoms in health workers are alterations in the sensation of taste and smell, but unlike our study, was headache, fever and myalgia. Likewise, it has been observed that medical are the most affected, but in this study it was support and the least affected was nursing personnel. There is no doubt that asymptomatic carriers are a serious disease transmission problem such that transmission between health workers by asymptomatic carriers is possible as was observed in this analysis.
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Dermatomycoses in Pakistan; an urgent need for National Surveillance Programs

Published on: 10th May, 2022

Despite the rising burden of fungal infections across the globe, the World Health Organization's efforts remained questionable in fungal infection-related projects. Most of the developing countries consequently lost focus on the need for assessment and establishment of national surveillance set up or advanced technology hubs against mycological infections. The current study aimed to the determination of the local burden of cutaneous fungal infections in 2019-2021. Among 497 suspected fungal cultures, 22.5% depicted fungal growth. Among males, the prevalence of dermatomycosis was 0.75 times higher than in females. Penicillium species followed by Epidermophyton and Candida species were common among subjects of < 30 years of age. The Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, mucormycosis agents, and Candida albicans infections were more common among subjects 30 to 60 years of age. Aspergillus species were more commonly observed among patients > 60 of age. 22.2% of the fungal infections were Penicillium species, 9% of the infections were Aspergillus species, followed by 4.4% of Epidermophyton, mucormycosis, Candida species, and Candida albicans respectively. There is an urgent need for the establishment of national policy for the prevention of fungal disease.
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Lip filler with hyaluronic acid - Lip up technique

Published on: 9th May, 2022

The lips and perioral region play an important role in facial aesthetics. Aging induces a loss of volume and contour of the lips, a flattening of the cupid's bow, and the appearance of perilabial wrinkles. Thus, aesthetic procedures are common in this area because fillers can reduce these alterations, improving facial harmony. Although the application of the fillers is based on some systematized framework, undesirable results could occur. The Lip Up technique is a method that applies a very small amount of small-particle hyaluronic acid, only 0.4 ml, to six specific points of the lips. The objective of the technique is to provide lifting of the labial commissures, highlighting some labial points, such as the Glogau-Klein points of the cupid's bow and its equivalent points on the lower lip. After the application of this technique, it is possible to observe an improvement of the lips with very natural-looking results.
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Antimycolytic agents: fungistatic and fungicide

Published on: 6th May, 2022

Invasive fungal infections are described as a continuous and severe harm to human health and they are associated with at least 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year. Amphotericin B exerts its activity through hydrophobic interactions with cell membrane ergosterol, cause the rupturing or leakage of cell membrane. The antifungal azole medicine group is classified as imidazoles (clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole) and triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole) that are named according to the number of nitrogen atoms in the azole ring. Flucytosine is a first-line treatment for the management of cryptococcal meningitis. The most routine adverse effects of fluconazole involve accelerated liver enzymes, gastrointestinal complaints, headache, and skin rash. If antacids, PPIs, H2 blockers administered together with ketoconazole medicines; they will reduce the blood levels of ketoconazole by increasing gastric pH because ketoconazole requires an acidic media for dissolution and systematic absorption. Griseofulvin ruptures mitotic spindle during metaphase by interacting with fungal microtubules-(-), fungal mitosis (metaphase arrest), adequate to block expansion of fungi (drug is static), preventing them from damaging.
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Anthelmintic agents: vermicide and vermifuge

Published on: 6th May, 2022

Helminthiasis is also known as worm infection, is any macroparastic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms known as helminths. Anthelmintic agents are medicines that used for treatment and inhibition of parasitic infections caused by helminths; which involve both flat worms, such as, flukes and tapeworms and round worms, such as, nematodes. Anthelmintics are categorized into groups depending on the basis of their identical chemical structure and mode of action. Thiabendazole, mebendazole, and albendazole belong to benzimidazoles group of antihelmenthic medicines. From benzimidazoles group of antihelmenthic, thiabendazole was first discovered in 1961 and already a mentioned number of more benzamidazoles were interpolated as wide spectrum anthelmintics. Praziquantel has a particular effect on the enveloping layer of trematodes and increases permeability of calcium ion influx leading to uncontrolled muscle contraction and paralysis. Praziquantel has a particular toxic effect on schistosome parasites, where its mode of action has been resulted more extensively than in cestodes. Coadministration of mebendazole with CYP450 inhibitors medications such as cimetidine, ketoconazole and etc may be increases plasma levels of mebendazole, by extending the half-life and decreasing plasma clearance.
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Effectiveness of different cord care interventions on omphalitis prevention among neonates in Nakuru County Hospital, Kenya

Published on: 5th May, 2022

Background: Sepsis among newborns is common and a major cause of neonatal deaths in developing countries. Annually, about 4 million neonatal deaths occur around the world. Of these, more than 30% are caused by infections majority of which start as umbilical cord infections. Topical umbilical cord care can reduce omphalitis (umbilical cord infection) and neonatal mortality among newborns.Objective: This study aimed to compare the incidence of omphalitis in different cord care interventions (Dry, Chlorhexidine, and Alcohol) in Nakuru County, Kenya. Methodology: A randomized controlled trial was carried out between July 2018 and June 2019. A total of 540 newborns were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 cord care regimens; twice cord cleansing with 4% chlorhexidine (Group 1), twice cord cleansing with 70% alcohol (Group 2), and dry cord care (Group 3) as control. Results: The risk of omphalitis was significantly reduced in the chlorhexidine group than in dry and alcohol cord care groups. The incidence of omphalitis was 1.95 times more likely to occur among the dry cord care group [AOR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.13-3.38; p = 0.017] compared to the chlorhexidine group. Similarly, babies in the alcohol group were nearly 2 times more likely to develop omphalitis [AOR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.15-33.40; p = 0.014] compared to those in the chlorhexidine group.Conclusion and recommendation: Chlorhexidine topical cord care significantly reduces the risk of umbilical infection in neonates when compared to both topical alcohol application and dry cord care approach. It should be recommended to be used topically for the prevention of omphalitis in our setup.
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Food applications of Aloe species: A review

Published on: 4th May, 2022

Plants have a high concentration of biologically active molecules. Aloe plants tend to store water and important chemical constituents in their swollen and succulent leaves due to their ability to survive in hot and dry conditions, which makes them a unique source of phytochemicals. The Aloe leaf contains more than 200 nutritional substances, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and active enzymes. These constituents are analyzed as phytochemical screening (qualitative analysis) or proximate and mineral content analyses (quantitative analysis). Aloe is used as a food product and beverage ingredient. Functional and nutraceutical foods, edible coatings/films, Aloe species as cooked vegetables, and raw eating of Aloe species are how the Aloe plant is considered in food applications. The researchers reported edible Aloes for several species. However, it is not mean that all species of Aloe are edible. It is not only the leaves of Aloe that have nutritional values also other parts of the plant do. The study evaluated the nutritional value of Aloe flowers and their possible use as edible flowers. Aloe species are increasingly being incorporated into different health drinks, foods, and beverages due to the beneficial biological activities of the phytochemicals.
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