Articles

Mechanistic Insights into UV Spectral Changes of Pyruvic Acid and Pyruvate Part 1: Interaction with Water Molecules

Published on: 16th July, 2024

We investigate how the UV spectra of pyruvic acid (PA) and pyruvate are impacted by interactions with water molecules. In particular, we would like to understand the mechanistic origin of the blue shift in the n →− π∗ transition. Pyruvic acid is the simplest α-keto organic acid and is common in the environment. We use density functional theory to optimize geometries to determine excitation energies and find that the excitation energies of the two main pyruvic acid conformers and pyruvate blue shift when interacting with 1 to 4 water molecules, both in vacuo and in a solvent. The excitation wavelength is blue-shifted by 0.9-9.2 nm when adding water molecules to the lowest energy conformer of PA. Calculations of the UV spectra of pyruvic acid (PA) and pyruvate are crucial for understanding the impact of the interactions with water molecules.
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B-ultrasound-guided Intrahepatic Infusion of Autologous Bone Marrow Cells for Decompensated Cirrhosis

Published on: 12th July, 2024

Objective: To study the therapeutic effect of B-ultrasound-guided intrahepatic infusion of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells on decompensated cirrhosis. Methods: To observe the clinical treatment of 75 cases of decompensated cirrhosis. Among them, 30 cases received routine liver protection and diuretic treatment. 45 cases were treated by percutaneous transhepatic infusion of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells under the guidance of B ultrasound. There were no significant differences in liver function and blood routine indexes between the two groups before treatment (p > 0.05). Results: The indexes of liver function and blood routine at different time periods of 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months in the conventional treatment group did not change significantly. 6 cases died of liver failure within 1 year, the fatality rate was 20%. The indexes of liver function and blood routine of percutaneous liver transhepatic infusion of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months under the guidance of B-ultrasound were significantly better than those of the conventional treatment group (p < 0.05). One case died of gastrointestinal bleeding in the group of percutaneous transhepatic infusion of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells guided by B ultrasound, with a fatality rate of 2.5%. Compared with the conventional treatment group, there were significant differences (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Conventional drug therapy has no obvious effect on decompensated cirrhosis. Intrahepatic infusion of bone marrow nucleated cells can significantly promote liver function reconstruction in decompensated cirrhosis.
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Melaleuca Essential Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia cheel) in the Control of Beans Diseases

Published on: 12th July, 2024

Bean cultivation is vital to the global food and economy, especially in Brazil. Facing challenges from diseases that affect production, it is crucial to seek new strategies to maintain productivity and sustainability. Melaleuca alternifolia, known as the tea tree due to its medicinal properties, has little explored potential in controlling diseases in bean plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of tea tree essential oil in controlling diseases in bean cultivation. In vitro tests were carried out to evaluate bacterial growth, at concentrations of (0.0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%). And antibiogram with the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, in different concentrations (0.0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3%). For the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola, sporulation tests were carried out, using direct and indirect methods, at concentrations of (0.0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3%). Furthermore, for the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, mycelial growth tests were carried out with the same concentrations. The experiments took place in vivo, with a completely randomized statistical design, involving five replications per treatment and concentrations varying from (0.0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%). Disease incidence was assessed using a diagrammatic scale, disease severity, Area under the Disease Progress Curve (AACPD) and Area under the Incidence Progress Curve (AACPI). Melaleuca Essential Oil (EO) inhibited the development of fungi and bacteria in in vitro tests starting at 0.5%. In vivo, Melaleuca Essential Oil (EO) showed a significant reduction in the incidence and severity of the disease from 0.5% in both fungi and bacteria. Melaleuca EO can be an effective alternative for disease control in bean cultivation. 
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Beta-1 Receptor (β1) in the Heart Specific Indicate to Stereoselectivity

Published on: 10th July, 2024

The β1 receptor is one of the three beta receptors present in the human body, namely β1, β2, and β3. The β1 receptor is predominantly located in the heart, where it plays a crucial role in regulating the heart rate and the force of contraction, thereby increasing the cardiac output and the efficiency of blood pumping throughout the body. This receptor is targeted by a variety of pharmaceutical agents known as beta-blockers, which are commonly used in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, angina, and arrhythmias.The β1 receptor exhibits stereoselectivity, meaning that different enantiomers (chiral molecules) of beta blockers can have varying levels of effectiveness and side effects. This study focuses on the stereoselectivity of the β1 receptor and the clinical implications of this property. It includes an examination of various β1 blockers, such as propranolol (a non-selective beta  blocker), and selective β1 blockers like atenolol, bisoprolol, nebivolol, metoprolol, esmolol, acebutolol, and betaxolol. Each of these drugs has a unique chemical structure, with specific functional groups that contribute to their selective action on the β1 receptor.Furthermore, the β2 receptor, which is mainly present in the bronchi and bronchioles, is responsible for bronchodilation, and the β3 receptor, found in the bladder, helps reduce urinary urgency. Understanding the distinct locations and functions of these receptors allows for the development of targeted therapies with minimal off-target effects.This review highlights the importance of stereoselectivity in the development and use of β1 blockers, discussing their chemical structures, pharmacological activities, and therapeutic uses. It also explores the potential for future research and development of more selective and effective β1 receptor agonists and antagonists, which could offer improved therapeutic outcomes for patients with cardiovascular diseases.This study underscores the significant role of the β1 receptor in cardiovascular health and provides insights into the ongoing advancements in beta-blocker therapy. By delving into the stereoselectivity and specific actions of these drugs, the research aims to enhance the understanding and optimization of β1 receptor-targeted treatments in clinical practice.
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Accessory Splenic Mass Masquerading as Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Dilemma

Published on: 10th July, 2024

The spleen plays a pivotal role in our immune system by facilitating the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes and monocytes. Typically located in the left upper quadrant retroperitoneally, splenic tissue found outside of its usual position is termed ectopic spleen. When the tissue maintains its histological architecture and encapsulation and receives blood supply from splanchnic vessels, it is called an accessory spleen. Although it commonly presents near the splenic hilum or pancreatic tail, rare instances have been reported in the gastric, liver, gastrosplenic/lienorenal ligaments, as well as thoracic and gonadal regions. However, the case of an accessory spleen, mimicking a hepatic lesion in the right diaphragm represents a novel observation.
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Design and Construction of Automatic Facemask and Body Temperature Scanning Entry Barrier Machine

Published on: 10th July, 2024

In the context of the global pandemic, public health screening has become paramount as the whole world including developed countries is going through a health crisis. A face mask prevents transpiration and protects against airborne transmitted bacteria or viruses. In the previous scenario of coronavirus, it was critical to eradicate this sickness and preserve our lives. Hence, prevention is better than cure becomes true. Accordingly, many precautionary measures were taken to reduce the spread of the virus. One such method of prevention is wearing a mask and regular monitoring of body temperature. This research dealt with the design and construction of an automatic entry barrier machine that integrates both facemask detection and scanning of individuals exhibiting elevated body temperature functionalities without any human interference. This was accomplished by simulating and synergizing a microprocessor (Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+), a Pi camera, an Infrared Non-contact Temperature sensor, a servo motor, and other components. The barrier arm opens and allows entrance at normal temperature by indicating a green light, displaying ‘allow’ on the LCD, and signaling once or preventing entrance at an elevated unacceptable temperature by indicating a red light, displaying ‘not allowed’ on the LCD, and signaling five (5) times.
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The Effects of Interval and Traditional Resistance Exercise on Hormonal Control of Adipose-tissue Lipolysis in Healthy Young Men

Published on: 11th July, 2024

Purpose: Lipolysis is regulated by lipolytic hormones, like insulin, cortisol, growth Hormone (GH), and catecholamines. Unregulated lipolysis results in the accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs), leading to dysfunction of cells and death. Thus, the main aim of this study was to determine the effects of interval and traditional resistance exercise on hormonal control of adipose-tissue lipolysis in healthy young men.Methods: Twelve healthy males (Mean ± SD; age, 25.5 ± 3.1 years; Body mass index, 24.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2) performed tradition resistance exercise (TRE) at 80% of 1RM (3 sets of 6 repetitions) with 2 min passive recovery, and an interval resistance exercise (IRE) trial at 60% of 1RM (3 sets of 6 repetitions) followed by active recovery (1 set of 6 repetitions at 20% of 1RM). Three blood samples were taken before and immediately after exercise, and after one-hour recovery and were analyzed to measure epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and GH. Results: Statistical analyses of the data revealed that concentrations of cortisol and GH increased in response to resistance exercise and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) during the recovery period. Although there were no significant differences between the two protocols for cortisol concentration, GH increases following IRE were profoundly higher than TRE protocol. Epinephrine and norepinephrine increased (p < 0.05) in response to both resistance exercise trials, though, no between-group differences were found for these variables. Conclusion: The results of our study showed increases in GH, cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in two resistance exercise protocols which may lead to increases in fat oxidation.
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Gentian Violet Modulates Cytokines Levels in Mice Spleen toward an Anti-inflammatory Profile

Published on: 10th July, 2024

Introduction: Gentian Violet (GV) is a triphenylmethane industrial dye that is known for its antibacterial, antiviral, anti-helminthic, and anti-tumor effects. Although many studies focused on determining the biological and pharmacological applications of GV, its exact effect on the immune response has not been elucidated yet. Methods: In this study, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of GV in BALB/c mice after intraperitoneal injection of the dye by assessing cytokines levels in the spleen. Results: Our data show that GV-treated mice have decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4) in their spleens. In addition, IFN-γ which can modulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production was upregulated in GV-treated mice. Conclusion: Together, these findings suggest an anti-inflammatory activity of GV that warrants further studies investigating the potential of GV in immunotherapy. 
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Radiomics by Quantitative Diffusion-weighted MRI for Predicting Response in Patients with Extremity Soft-tissue Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma

Published on: 9th July, 2024

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relevance of first- and high-order radiomic features derived from Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) maps for predicting treatment response in patients with Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma (UPS).Methods: This retrospective study included 33 extremity UPS patients with pre-surgical DWI/ADC and surgical resection. Manual volumetric tumor segmentation was performed on DWI/ADC maps acquired at Baseline (BL), Post-Chemotherapy (PC), and Post-Radiation Therapy (PRT). The percentage of pathology-assessed treatment effect (PATE) in surgical specimens categorized patients into responders (R; PATE ≥ 90%; 16 patients), partial-responders (PR; 89% - 31% PATE; 10 patients), and non-responders (NR; PATE ≤ 30%; 7 patients). 107 radiomic features were extracted from BL, PC, and PRT ADC maps. Statistical analyses compared R vs. PR/NR.Results: Pseudo-progression at PC and universal stability at PRT were observed in R and PR/NR based on RECIST, WHO, and volumetric assessments. At PRT, responders displayed a 35% increase in ADC mean (p = 0.0034), a 136% decrease in skewness (p = 0.0001), and a 363% increase in the 90th percentile proportion (p = 0.0009). Comparing R vs. PR/NR at BL, statistically significant differences were observed in glrlm_highgraylevelrunemphasis (p = 0.0081), glrlm_shortrunhighgraylevelemphasis (p = 0.0138), gldm_highgraylevelemphasis (p = 0.0138), glcm_sumaverage (p = 0.0164), glcm_jointaverage (p = 0.0164), and glcm_autocorrelation (p = 0.0193). At PC, firstorder_meanabsolutedeviation (p = 0.0078), firstorder_interquartilerange (p = 0.0109), firstorder_variance (p = 0.0109),    and firstorder_robustmeanabsolutedeviation (p = 0.0151) provided statistically significant differences.Conclusion: Observing a high post-therapeutic ADC mean, low skewness, and high 90th percentile proportion with respect to baseline is predictive of successfully treated UPS patients presenting > 90% PATE. Highly significant higher-order radiomic results include glrlm-highgraylevelrunemphasis (BL) and first-order-mean absolute deviation (PC).
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Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis-optimizing Medical Management: Whether we need a Liver Transplant

Published on: 9th July, 2024

Severe alcoholic hepatitis is an ethical and clinical conundrum, wherein a liver transplant is often recommended. The adequacy of medical treatment versus the risk of recidivism after transplant is often debated. Complete recovery in 26 of 27 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis was observed, and hence the data was retrospectively analysed.Methods: 27 patients, with severe alcoholic hepatitis, with Maddrey's discriminant function between 59.7 to 165.2 (mean 107.53), from June 2017 to May 2022, were followed up for between 11 months to 6 years. INR ranged from 1.99 to 3.7 (mean 2.709), and bilirubin was between 7.6 to 37.01, (mean 20.859). 8 patients had pre-existing liver cirrhosis. All patients received probiotics, nutritional support, physical rehabilitation, saturated fat (clarified butter/ desi ghee) supplementation, and anti-oxidant support. At 90 days, total bilirubin improved to between 1.0 to 6.8 (mean 2.625). ALT (Alanine Transaminase/ SGPT) ranged from 65 to 550 (mean ALT – 197); and AST (Aspartate Transaminase / SGOT) ranged from 58 to 810 (mean AST – 271.51). Both the AST and ALT were near normal after 90 days. One patient died due to bacterial pneumonia and sepsis; the remaining 26 patients made a complete recovery. All patients including those with diagnosed liver cirrhosis, had complete resolution of their ascites, and near-normal liver function. At the last outpatient visit, none had ascites, edema, or encephalopathy, and had normal albumin levels and INR values. Conclusion: Probiotics, nutrition, a saturated fat diet, and exercise; all have shown benefits in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis when tested individually. Concomitant use of all the above has not been reported in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. The role of nutrition alone versus the contribution of nutritional deficiencies and the role of gut-derived endotoxemia need to be studied in detail. How to identify patients who need a transplant, if it is needed at all, remains a challenge.
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