Articles

The Indole acetic acid in bacteria, fungi and plants

Published on: 17th November, 2022

Indole acetic acid (AIA) is the most important plant growth hormone since it intervenes in the mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation and is produced mostly in the meristematic zones of the plant for apical dominance or root growth. AIA is also produced in root nodules and plant galls. In the latter cases, its presence is associated with endophytic bacteria. Although it is a plant growth hormone, it is also produced by bacteria such as Azospirillum brasilense and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. These species live in the soil (rhizosphere) or can colonize the roots (endophytic) of their hosts. From these bacteria, there are also isolates that are nitrogen fixers, which in addition to providing growth factors to plants, contribute by releasing nitrogenous molecules that improve plant nutrition.
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Post-harvest assessment of infectious fruit rot on selected fruits in Lafia, Nasarawa State Nigeria

Published on: 15th November, 2022

The post-harvest health and microbial safety of plant products and foods continue to be a global concern to farmers, consumers, regulatory agencies and food industries. A study was carried out to evaluate the pathogenicity of fungi associated with post-harvest rot of oranges, watermelons and bananas in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Healthy fruits inoculated with fungal spores obtained from rotted fruit tissues were incubated at ambient temperature conditions and observed daily for the appearance and development of tissue rot. Oranges and Watermelons had the highest number of fungal isolates (3) compared to banana (2). Fungi belonging to the genus Curvularia were the most isolated (37.50%), followed by both Aspergillus and Colletotrichum (25.00% respectively) and lastly Alternaria (12.50%). The highest tissue rot diameter of sweet orange (2.40 cm) was induced by Alternaria sp. followed by Curvularia geniculate (1.40 cm) and lastly Colletotrichum sp. (1.28 cm). The highest rot of banana fruit tissues was produced by A. niger (3.90 cm), followed by Curvularia geniculate (3.40 cm). Aspergillus sp. produced the highest tissue rot diameter on watermelon fruits (1.93 cm), followed by Colletotrichum sp. (1.30 cm) and lastly Curvularia geniculate (1.20 cm). Differences in the susceptibilities of different fruits to rot by fungal pathogens were significant (p ≤ 0.05). There is need for improved handling of fruits after harvest to prevent losses due to bacterial and fungal rots in the study area.
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Comparative study of once daily tacrolimus (extended-release capsule) versus conventional twice daily tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients

Published on: 15th November, 2022

Background: One of the common causes of chronic allograft nephropathy is nonadherence to medications, contributing to 30% of graft loss in the developed world. The non-adherence is attributed predominantly to pill burden.Once-daily dosing of tacrolimus instead of conventional twice-daily dosing may enhance adherence to medication and improve long-term outcomes. The present study is a retrospective analysis comparing the safety and effectiveness of De Novo (use from day 1) once daily (OD) Tacrolimus (extended-release capsules) to conventional twice-a-day (BD) tacrolimus, in renal transplant recipients operated at Suguna Hospital Bangalore India. Material and Methods: Records of 24 Transplant patients on De novo OD Tacrolimus were analyzed and compared retrospectively to 24 transplant patients treated De Novo with conventional BD tacrolimus on a regular follow-up for at least 2 yrs. post-transplant at our center. Results: Various parameters recorded till the last follow-up were analyzed and compared. The average weight of the cohort (64.6 kg vs. 66.6 kg), average tacrolimus dose (2.7 mg vs. 2.15 mg), average Tac dose/kg body weight (0.04 mg vs. 0.03 mg), average Sr.Creatinine, at Last, Follow up (1.2 mg/dl vs. 1.32 mg/dl) were comparable in both groups and were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). However, there was a higher incidence of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus (PTDM) noted in the Conventional BD Tacrolimus group (20.83%) compared to the OD Tacrolimus group (4.1%) and it was statistically significant (p = 0.17). The Infection rate of 41.67% in the conventional BD Tacrolimus group was much higher compared to the OD Tacrolimus group (4.17%) which was statistically significant (p = 0.01). There was 100% patient and graft survival at the end of two years in both groups. Tacrolimus Dose for OD and Conventional BD dosing were similar, unlike earlier studies recommending a 10% increase in dose for OD tacrolimus compared to BD dosing.Conclusion: OD Tacrolimus dose is comparable to conventional BD dose Tacrolimus in its safety and Efficacy; however, it scores over conventional BD dose Tacrolimus in terms of post-transplant infections and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) and a more stable serum trough level. 
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Interdictory contribution of Vitamin D to prevent corona virus infections

Published on: 16th November, 2022

The impact of vitamin D on the musculoskeletal system is well known. The diverse role of vitamin D is well supported by the functionality of vitamin D receptors and vitamin D activating enzymes (hydroxylase) present in tissues and cells. Hypovitaminosis D causes rickets, osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, and an increased risk of bone fracture. Vitamin D has immune-stimulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Vitamin D induces antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and defensin that can inhibit viral replication of pro-inflammatory cytokines that regulate inflammatory encasement. Moreover, several studies on vitamin D have shown its interdictory role in the immune and respiratory systems. This global crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic condition has increased the risk of acute respiratory tract infection by immune dysregulation along with cytokine storm, which further progress into acute respiratory distress syndrome. Vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties which are effective against respiratory viral infections. Vitamin D supplementation has shown a compatible effect on viral infection. This review article discusses the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of respiratory infections including the severity of COVID-19 infections. This review focuses on the therapeutic role of vitamin D to improve clinical outcome during COVID-19 infection and suggest its possible role in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections.
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Beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet in a woman with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Published on: 15th November, 2022

Objective: To evaluate the effects on quality of life and body composition of a Ketogenic Diet (KD) in a woman with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Methods: Physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health conditions were evaluated with the SF-36 questionnaire; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to determine body composition; parameters were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks of KD.Results: At baseline PCS and MCS were 20.6 and 20.7 respectively with 37.9% fat mass. After 12 weeks SF-36 values significantly improved: PCS 55 and MCS 66.1 with 33.9% fat mass. Conclusion: KD improved the patient’s quality of life and decreased fat mass. Further studies will be needed to better elucidate the beneficial effects of KD among people with CMT.
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An updated review of published human health risk-benefit assessment studies in the scientific literature

Published on: 15th November, 2022

Background: Public health policies in the area of food and diets tend to separate recommendations on food safety and nutrition. However, food products can simultaneously have risks and benefits. Risk-benefit assessment (RBA) seeks to integrate the assessment of both risks and benefits to aid complex decision-making using a multidisciplinary approach. In this study, a systematic literature review of recent RBA studies was performed, focusing on food consumption and human health following earlier reviews by Boué, et al. (2015) and Thomsen, et al. (2021). Results: A total of 50 new RBA studies were reviewed since 20 May 2014. Our current literature review shows that the majority of RBA studies conducted in recent years remain focused on seafood, with studies on fish alone comprising 34% of all studies; the focus being on the benefits of fish consumption versus contaminant exposure. Most of the studies have been conducted in Europe (n = 31) and Asia (n = 11). Conclusion: RBA has the potential to be applied more widely to other food choices such as alternative proteins, yet application remains limited to specific applications and contaminant/nutrient case studies. In recent years, a few RBA studies have been reported on less mainstream food sources and one specifically on novel foods. Novel foods offer a unique application space for RBA as their development is focused heavily on the benefits to the consumer, society, and environment, yet there remains uncertainty as to their safety. 
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How to avoid partial implantation of people with cochlear malformation

Published on: 14th November, 2022

Many advances have been made in recent years in the development of hearing and cochlear implants. These use acoustic and electrical stimulation technologies to improve speech intelligibility for the hearing impaired. However, for cochlear prostheses, the results are not very promising and vary from one patient to another. Certain technical and sometimes physiological problems have limited the expected performances of these devices, especially for children and the elderly. These problems include cochlear malformation and ossification of the auditory channels. This led us to reduce the number of electrodes in order to allow quality deep insertion while preserving the low-frequency acoustic bands of the operated patient.
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Pseudomonas stutzeri meningitis in a patient with post-laminectomy CSF leak and infected pseudomeningocele: a case report

Published on: 11th November, 2022

Spine degenerative surgeries are very common but carry multiple complications such as dural tears, CSF leak, pseudomeningocele and very rarely meningitis. Here we report such a case and discuss the possible causes, management and review of the literature.It’s a case of a 68-year-old man who underwent a posterior laminectomy that was complicated by a CSF leak and pseudomeningocele. Twelve days later the patient developed a severe bifrontal headache and then altered sensorium. CSF studies revealed severe meningitis with Pseudomonas stutzeri. It was multi-sensitive and after initiation of gram-negative coverage the patient markedly improved. However, the meningitis was further complicated by cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and he was also started on anticoagulation.Conclusion: Pseudomonas stutzeri has rarely been reported as a cause of meningitis and has never been reported post-laminectomy. Meningitis symptoms and signs could be obscured by the use of steroids in the postoperative period. Hence, it is of paramount importance to look for any subtle signs of infection in the postoperative period and question the use of high-dose steroids that could easily mask them.
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An unmistakable tumour of the tongue

Published on: 11th November, 2022

A 37-year-old woman suffered from a painful and swelling lesion of the base of the tongue, with no history of smoking or medical history of tumours.
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Dynamic knee valgus in anterior cruciate ligament non-contact injury and reinjury in professional female athletes. Determinant or not?

Published on: 15th November, 2022

Dynamic Knee Valgus (DKV) is correlated with both, Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury and hip and ankle disorders in female athletes and has a more significant prevalence compared with male athletes because of numerous factors. The aim of this study is to determine if the connexion between DKV, landing errors, and non-contact ACL injury and re-injury in high-performance, adult, female team sport athletes can be eliminated by changing the frontal plane movement pattern and the landing errors during the rehabilitation process (RHB), a process which was focussed on dynamic knee stability with multidimensional single-leg jump landing training, on 3D knee balance improvement and multistimulus perturbation challenges and tasks,+ eccentric & concentric exercise, strength & conditioning, aerobic training that lasted from 26 - 44 weeks.Assessing and eliminating-reducing DKV during the RHB is mandatory in lowering the re-rupture rates in female professional athletes after ACL surgery and in preventing opposite knee trauma.
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