All Articles in August, 2021

The dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19: a mini-review

Published on: 27th August, 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in Wuhan, China, and caused coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is still a global pandemic. Dermatologic manifestations have increasingly been identified as significant extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The dermatologic manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection reported to date include maculopapular rash, vesicular lesions, urticaria-like lesions, and chilblain-like lesions. Knowledge of dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19 may be essential for early diagnosis and a better prognosis in COVID-19 patients. This review summarizes the current understanding of common COVID-19-associated dermatologic manifestations.
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A novel case of an infantile fibrosarcoma-like tumor with KIAA1549-BRAF translocation and an oncogenic NF2p.Q459* SNV with potential clinical significance

Published on: 27th August, 2021

We report a case of a right gluteal mass from the sacroiliac joint to the knee of an infant girl. Biopsy showed histopathological features similar to infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS). However, unlike most IFS, no ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene abnormality was detected. Molecular analysis with TruSight RNA Pan-Cancer Panel detected the presence of KIAA1549-BRAF translocation and an oncogenic NF2p.Q459* SNV with potential clinical significance. A review revealed that the combination of this patient’s tumor site with the presence of a KIAA1549-BRAF translocation abnormality and an accompanying single nucleotide variant has not been previously described. The detection of this translocation abnormality raises the possibility that the spindle cell tumors in infants with an absence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene abnormality might have a distinct pathogenetic mechanism different from the previously known IFS and congenital mesoblastic nephroma. Furthermore, the discovery of BRAF translocation and its aberrant signaling of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in this tumor contributes to the promise of clinical benefit of using the MEKi trametinib for the treatment of progressive disease that is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. 
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The complex interplay in the regulation of cardiac pathophysiologic functionalities by protein kinases and phosphatases

Published on: 26th August, 2021

Protein phosphorylation regulates several dimensions of cell fate and is substantially dysregulated in pathophysiological instances as evident spatiotemporally via intracellular localizations or compartmentalizations with discrete control by specific kinases and phosphatases. Cardiovascular disease manifests as an intricately complex entity presenting as a derangement of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac or heart failure connotes the pathophysiological state in which deficient cardiac output compromises the body burden and requirements. Protein kinases regulate several pathophysiological processes and are emerging targets for drug lead or discovery. The protein kinases are family members of the serine/threonine phosphatases. Protein kinases covalently modify proteins by attaching phosphate groups from ATP to residues of serine, threonine and/or tyrosine. Protein kinases and phosphatases are pivotal in the regulatory mechanisms in the reversible phosphorylation of diverse effectors whereby discrete signaling molecules regulate cardiac excitation and contraction. Protein phosphorylation is critical for the sustenance of cardiac functionalities. The two major contributory ingredients to progressive myocardium derangement are dysregulation of Ca2+ processes and contemporaneous elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen species, ROS. Certain cardiac abnormalities include cardiac myopathy or hypertrophy due to response in untoward haemodynamic demand with concomitant progressive heart failure. The homeostasis or equilibrium between protein kinases and phosphatases influence cardiac morphology and excitability during pathological and physiological processes of the cardiovascular system. Inasmuch as protein kinases regulate numerous dimensions of normal cellular functions, the pathophysiological dysfunctionality of protein kinase signaling pathways undergirds the molecular aspects of several cardiovascular diseases or disorders as related in this study. These have presented protein kinases as essential and potential targets for drug discovery and heart disease therapy.
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Victim of violent death: what is the role of alcoholemia?

Published on: 25th August, 2021

Introduction: The tendency to impulsive behaviors and/or violence is exacerbated after alcohol consumption. Still, the relation between alcohol/violent deaths reported in the literature is not accurate, and in general, alcohol is only seen as a trigger to aggressive actions. The relationship of the victims with their blood alcohol is less studied. They were especially concerned about the role of alcohol as a risk factor for victims of unnatural death. Thus, our goal is to check the influence of alcohol in victims of violent deaths as homicides, suicides, and accidents. Materials and methods: Retrospectively the medical records of 805 autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine (IML) of Franco da Rocha, in the period 2001 to 2017 were reviewed. The variables studied were sex, age, types of violent death rates, and alcohol - these were considered positive when above 0.3 mg/ml. The dosage of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was performed using samples of 10 ml of blood collected at necropsy, is preferably taken from the cardiac chambers or of the right femoral vein. Dosages of alcohol in blood samples were done in the Forensic Toxicology Center of the IML by gas chromatography, using the technique of separation “headspace” and double column. Results: Drug testing for alcohol was available for 488 (79.1%) of 617 necropsies. Of the 617 subjects studied, 532 (85.7%) were male, and 85 (13.8%) were females (with high rates of adolescents). The vast majority (n = 230) were killed, and 40.5% of victims had BAC above 0.3 mg/ml of blood. Traffic accidents came next, accounting for 181 deaths, with 41% of victims presenting positive BAC. Discussion: High blood alcohol levels of the victims were associated mainly with the genesis of accidents (drowning, falls, traffic, aspiration/ smothering) and murder (with impaired ability to resist or by causing the release of impulses to engage in violent situations), about 40% of cases. Conclusion: Our results indicate that alcohol abuse is a risk factor for victims of violent death. In these cases, alcohol has two types of action. Direct: contributes to accidents of various kinds - from traffic by decreasing powers of concentration, attention, and loss of reflexes, to other types of accidents such as drowning, falls, swallowing disorders causing airway obstruction, and mechanical asphyxia. And they were indirect, making it easier for individuals to engage in conflict (and thus become victims of crimes).
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Pituitary adenoma and meningioma simulating a single selar and paraseal injury

Published on: 24th August, 2021

To analyze the importance of including axial cuts in studies of any brain region, including the selar.  Remember the possibility of the existence of two different tumors simultaneously, in the same anatomical region.
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Flow cytometry potential applications in characterizing solid tumors main phenotype, heterogeneity and circulating cells

Published on: 24th August, 2021

Flow cytometry (FCM) is a unique technique that allows rapid quantitative measurement of multiple parameters on a large number of cells at the individual level. FCM is based on immunolabelling with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies, leading to high sensitivity and precision while time effective sample preparation. FCM can be performed on tissue following enzymatic or mechanical dissociation. The expression of epithelial antigens and cytokeratin isoforms help in distinguishing tumor cells from adjacent epithelial cells and from tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Tumor phenotypes can be characterized on expression intensity, aberrancies and presence of tumor-associated antigens as well as their cell proliferation rate and eventual heteroploidy. FCM can measure quantitative expression of hormone or growth factor receptors, immunoregulatory proteins to guide adjuvant therapy. Expression of adhesion molecules tells on tumor’s capacity for tissue invasion and metastasis seeding. Tumor heterogeneity can be explored quantitatively and rare, potentially emerging, clones with poor prognosis can be detected. FCM is easily applicable on fine needle aspiration and in any tumor related biological fluids. FCM can also be used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) to assess metastatic potential at diagnosis or during treatment. Detecting CTC could allow early detection of tumors before they are clinically expressed although some difficulties still need to be solved. It thus appears that FCM should be in the pathologist tool box to improve cancer diagnosis, classification and prognosis evaluation as well as in orientating personalized adjuvant therapy and immunotherapy. More developments are still required to better known tumor phenotypes and their potential invasiveness
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Evaluation of microbial contamination in a surgical department of a Romanian military emergency hospital - A case study

Published on: 23rd August, 2021

Assessment of the microbial load of the operating environment during daily pre-, intra-, and post-operative procedures in a surgical department of a military emergency hospital in Bucharest showed the bacterial contamination of intra-operative air by increasing the number of bacteria above the allowed maximum level and the detection of a strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli).
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Application and utility of alternative methods in isolation of pure cells from forensic biological mixtures in modern-day: a review

Published on: 23rd August, 2021

Development of genetic profiles from the biological mixtures has remained challenging, although modern-day technologies may help forensic scientists to attain a reliable genetic profile in the identification of the accused. In the case of rape, vaginal swab exhibits usually contain epithelial cells of victims and sperm cells of accused, such samples are more challenging when there is more than one contributor. In such cases, separation of distinct cells from a mixture that includes blood cells, epithelial cells and sperm cells for their single genetic profile is important. In the last ten decades several new techniques were developed and invented for the separation of single cell from the biological mixture that includes differential lysis, laser micro-dissection, cell sorting (FACS), sieve-based filtration, (vi) micro-fluidic devices or immunomagnetic beads cell separation of fresh samples, and the magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Out of them, some techniques have been commonly applied for cell separation in forensic biology. Each technique has its own limitation. Some recent studies showed, magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), laser capture microdissection (LCM), DEPArray technology and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) has proved to be effective in separation of single cell from cell mixtures. Therefore, in this review we have evaluated these four alternative methods and their potential application in the modern-day over the others for the separation of a single cell from the mixture. In this review we also discuss the advantage of these methods and their modern–day applicability and acceptance in the forensic world.
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Factors influencing referral delay of cancer patients to an oncology unit in the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia

Published on: 20th August, 2021

Introduction: Cancer treatment and prognosis depend heavily on early detection. Survival in the early stages is excellent for almost all types of cancer. Unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia, a large number of cancer patients present with advanced disease, resulting in a poor prognosis. There are three levels of delay in the management of cancer patients. The first level is the time between the first cancer-related symptoms and the presentation to the health facility, the second level is from the presentation to the diagnosis, and the third level is between the diagnosis and the treatment. This study aims to determine if there is a delay, at what level and to study the factors causing such delays.Materials and methods: Two hundred cancer patients who presented to the Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Oncology Department, were interviewed from January 1st to June 30th, 2018. The interviews were conducted by trained physicians familiar with the questionnaire’s contents. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: a demographic section and three more sections to identify factors causing the delay at the three levels from the patients’ perspectives. All data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0.Results: The mean patient age was 63 years. A total of 112 patients were female and 88 were male. The most common cancer type was breast cancer (27.5%). Among the patients, 61% were illiterate and 25.5% had elementary school degrees, 86% expressed little or no general medical knowledge about cancer. More women than men paid attention to cancer symptoms (70% vs. 54%). 75% of the patients presented to the first health facility after 2 months from the first appearance of symptoms (level 1 delay). Only 2% of the patients presented within one week. 50% of the patients received a diagnosis after visiting two health facilities. All patients were diagnosed at hospitals. 40% of patients used alternative medicines, 70% of whom thought this was the cause of their delayed presentations. 67% had their diagnosis confirmed within one month (level 2 delay), and 66% started their definitive treatment within one month (level 3 delay). 75% of the patients blame themselves for the delay. Educational level (p = 0.03), knowledge about cancer (p < 0.01), and the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with delayed presentation of patients to the health facility. Conclusion: There is a delay in the presentation of cancer patients (level 1) in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. Educational level, knowledge of cancer symptoms, and use of complementary and alternative medicines are the main causes. There were no delays in diagnosis and start of treatment (level 2,3).
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of transcranial electrostimulation in treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders

Published on: 17th August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272357891

Objectives: Evaluation of the effectiveness the method of transcranial electrostimulation in treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders with the use of a patches by the company “Aganyan”. Materials and methods: The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, participated 106 patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. All participants in were divided into tables according to gender, age and diagnosis. Each subject was given the “Aganyan” patches and a special brochure, in which the method of application was indicated in detail. The wearable patch includes a flexible substrate, a binder an adhesive layer, with an electrode foil attached to it. Patients applied one patch behind each ear. The patches were applied for eight hours every third day for three months. To assess the effectiveness of therapy in patients the following tests were used: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale; MMSE Scale: Concise Mental Status Scale; diaries of observation of the patient’s condition to identify side effects; special brochures in which the subjects independently indicated the effects of the “Aganyan” patches. Tests were performed before and after the use of the “Aganyan” patches. Results: When using the patches of the “Aganyan” company, none of the participants in the study had any side effects; According to the results of the Montreal test according to the criterion of memory and the MMSE test, the effectiveness of the patch was noted in patients with all clinical diagnoses. The greatest positive dynamics was revealed according to the results of the Montreal test according to the criterion of memory in patients with migraine (30%), insomnia (31%), vascular dementia (32%), and according to the results of the MMSE test in patients with diagnoses: cerebrovascular disease: consequences of a cerebral infarction brain (31%), vascular dementia (56%). Conclusion: The patches of “Aganyan” company have proven its effectiveness through electrical stimulation with low-intensity current in patients in different age groups with different clinical diagnoses.
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Immunocompromised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in intensive care units, outcome and mortality

Published on: 17th August, 2021

Background: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak severely hit Northeastern France from March to May 2020. The massive arrival of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in the intensive care units (ICU) raised the question of how immunocompromised patients would be affected. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical, biological and radiological features of 24 immunocompromised ICU patients with severe SAR-CoV-2 infection. Results: The mortality rate was significantly higher for immunocompromised patients compared with other patients (41.7% versus 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.021). Mortality occurred in the first 2 weeks of intensive care, highlighting the possible interest in prolonged full-code managnement of these patients. Finally, patients with lymphoid malignancies appeared to be particularly affected, mostly with monoclonal gamma-pathology. Conclusion: Mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory syndrome in immuno-compromised patient is high. No treatment was associated with survival improvement. Prolonged full-code management is required for these patients.
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An incidental case report of Disc Battery Ingestion in a child with congenital hearing loss

Published on: 17th August, 2021

Foreign body ingestion in children is a serious problem encountered among children. Approximately 80% of cases of foreign body ingestions occur in children between the ages of six months and three years [1]. Button battery ingestion occurs at an estimate rate of ten in one million people per year, a small group of which are retained in the esophagus and later become complicated [2]. Button battery ingestion can lead to esophageal perforation and death within hours if not appropriately diagnosed [3].
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Update on treatment options and translational implications of sleep disruption

Published on: 17th August, 2021

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition that is associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Sleep disruptions are commonly seen in NAFLD, and the disease process is associated with sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, circadian rhythm disorders, and insufficient sleep. The intermittent hypoxia seen in obstructive sleep apnea may contribute to fibrotic changes in the liver.A major component of this linkage may be related to gut microbiome changes. One notable change is increase in Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, and decrease in flora that ferment fiber into anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids. Several therapeutic options exist for NAFLD that target both sleep and NAFLD, including non-pharmacological factors, such as lifestyle modification (mainly diet and exercise). Pharmacological options include melatonin, Vitamin E, thiazolidinediones, and fecal microbiota transplantation.Core tipThe pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is closely tied to sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities, through shared inflammatory pathways and altered metabolism. This review explores the pathogenesis of NAFLD in the context of sleep and circadian abnormalities. The associated inflammatory response is linked to changes in gut-microbiome interactions that contribute to the disease process. Understanding of this linkage has implications for various therapies for disease mitigation.
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Leiomyosarcoma in pregnancy: Incidental finding during routine caesarean section

Published on: 16th August, 2021

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is uncommon tumour arising from the female reproductive tract. Incidence of LMS in pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 10 cases reported thus far in medical literature.We present a case of myomectomy performed during elective caesarean section for breech presentation, due to its easy accessibility and well contracted uterus. Subsequent histology revealed LMS on final specimen. Patient subsequently underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. No chemotherapy was given as she opted for close clinical- radiological monitoring instead. This case report highlights the importance of discussion with patients regarding the risk of occult malignancy in a fibroid uterus. Appropriate management of uterine leiomyosarcoma in pregnancy remains unclear. Consideration of removing an enlarging leiomyoma during caesarean section might be ideal in view of its malignant potential, just like in this case; however, location of the tumour and risk of bleeding needs to be weighed. Ultimately, management of such cases needs proper discussion between obstetrician and the patient.
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An algorithm to safely manage oral food challenge in an office-based setting for children with multiple food allergies

Published on: 11th August, 2021

Background: In France, from 30% to 35% of children suffer from multiple food allergies (MFA). The gold standard to diagnosis a food allergy is the oral food challenge (OFC) which is conducted in a hospital setting due to risk of anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to evaluate an algorithm to predict OFCs at low risk of anaphylaxis that could safely be performed in an office-based setting. Methods: Children with MFA and at least one open OFC reactive or non-reactive to other allergens were included. The algorithm was based on multiple clinical and biological parameters related to food allergens, and designed mainly to predict “low-risk” OFCs i.e., practicable in an office-based setting. The algorithm was secondarily tested in a validation cohort. Results: Ninety-one children (median age 9 years) were included; 94% had at least one allergic comorbidity with an average of three OFCs per child. Of the 261 OFCs analyzed, most (192/261, 74%) were non-reactive. The algorithm failed to correctly predict 32 OFCs with a potentially detrimental consequence but among these only three children had severe symptoms. One hundred eighty-four of the 212 “low-risk” OFCs, (88%) were correctly predicted with a high positive predictive value (87%) and low negative predictive value (44%). These results were confirmed with a validation cohort giving a specificity of 98% and negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: This study suggests that the algorithm we present here can predict “low-risk” OFCs in children with MFA which could be safely conducted in an office-based setting. Our results must be confirmed with an algorithm-based machine-learning approach.
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An educational strategy for the implementation of a delirium assessment tool

Published on: 10th August, 2021

Background: Delirium is an acute syndrome of organ dysfunction with long-term consequences which commonly occurs in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The incidence of delirium ranges from 30% - 50% in low severity ICU patients and up to 80% in mechanically ventilated patients. This condition is frequently under-recognized and daily routine screening is a key strategy to early intervention. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) are the most recommended assessment tools for detecting delirium in the critical ill patient. Objective: The main objective of this study is to educate ICU staff about delirium. In addition, nurses were trained to use the CAM-ICU as a standard screening tool. The intervention was evaluated through a survey aimed at ICU staff. Methods: An educational intervention was started in 2014 in our ICU. An educational package for ICU staff consisted of a didactic brochure and explanatory videos. One-on-one teaching, case based scenarios and didactic teaching were strategies used in the implementation process. The entire intervention was evaluated by means of a survey directed to the professionals. Results: The structure of the didactic brochure was simple in order to have an easy understanding of the CAM-ICU tool. We also created 10-minute videos. According to the results of the satisfaction survey (N=62), disorganized thinking was the most difficult feature of CAM-ICU to interpret. When in doubt, consultation between co-workers was the primary resource selected by unit staff. Conclusion: This initiative achieved the objective of training health care professionals in the application of the CAM-ICU tool with a good level of satisfaction from them. Therefore, ICU staff consider delirium management in the broader picture of critically ill patient care as a major activity of daily practice.
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Difference between conventional and modern methods for examination of fingerprints

Published on: 10th August, 2021

The impression of frictional ridges of the finger is known as fingerprints. Owing to this uniqueness, the fingerprints have long been used to identify a person since Ancient times. In any crime scene the presence of fingerprint makes the identification of the Culprit very easy. The fingerprints can also easily be embedded on any item such as paper, Clothing and body of the victim. To utilize this uniqueness of fingerprints forensic experts devised many techniques to obtain a clear fingerprint. These come under two categories i.e. Conventional and modern methods. The conventional methods are although important but there are limitations of them. Just take the example of powder method. Powder method require different powders for different Surfaces and colors, but modern method like quantum dots method can easily detect Fingerprints on all surfaces regardless of their color giving great resolution in seconds. Other methods like physical developer method is very time consuming and expensive, carbon Black method creates mess and does not work on porous surface, iodine fuming and Naphthaloflavin does have an advantage that it can bring up prints on skin also but it does not Work on metallic surfaces. VMD also fails on heavy plastic polymers and body oils. But some modern methods like nanotechnology can obtain high resolution prints old and dried prints also within 3 minutes. Laser technology is very fast, accurate and can be used for Fingerprints up toten years old also on any surface without any mess. Multimetal deposition Method can even be used to identify smokers and drug addicts and can be used Porous, non-porous and wet surfaces.
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A rare presentation of orbital dermoid: A case study

Published on: 10th August, 2021

Introduction: A dermoid cyst is a developmental choristoma lined with epithelium and filled with keratinized material arising from ectodermal rests pinched off at suture lines. These are the most common orbital tumors in childhood. They are categorized into superficial and deep. Superficial orbital dermoid tumors usually occur in the area of the lateral brow adjacent to the frontozygomatic suture. Infrequently a tumor may be encountered in the medial canthal area [1], which is the second most common site of orbital dermoids. We report a case where a swelling presented in the medial canthal area without involving the lacrimal system. Case report: A 43 year old lady presented with complaint of swelling near the (RE; Right eye) since 2 years duration. She presented with a solitary 1.5 cm x 1 cm ovoid, non-tender, non-pulsatile, firm, non-compressible mobile swelling with smooth surface over the medial canthus of right eye. (MRI; Magnetic Resonance Imaging) brain and orbit showed right periorbital extraconal lesion and the (FNAC; Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) suggested of Dermoid Cyst. RE canthal dermoid cyst excision was done under Local Anasthesia. Conclusion: Complete surgical excision in to be treatment of choice for dermoids. Since medial canthal mass can involve the lacrimal system, it becomes necessary to perform preoperative assessments using (CT; Computed Tomography), MRI or dacryocystography while planning the surgical approach. Silicone intubation at the beginning of the surgery is an easy and effective way of identifying canaliculi and of preventing canalicular laceration during dermoid excision if the lacrimal system is found to be involved.
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Strobilurins: New group of fungicides

Published on: 10th August, 2021

Strobilurin is a group of natural products and their synthetic analogs have been widely used to control and prevent fungal diseases. Strobilurins were firstly isolated in 1977 from the mycelium of Strobilurus tenacellus, a saprobic Basidiomycete fungus causing wood-rotting on forest trees. This group of pesticides was designed to manage fungal pathogens classes such as Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Oomycetes. Also, Strobilurin commercialized included derivatives such as are azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin, oryzastrobin, dimoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. This group is a part of the larger group of QoI inhibitors, which act to inhibit the respiratory chain at the level of Complex III. Strobilurins group control an unusually wide array of fungal diseases, included water molds, downy mildews, powdery mildews, leaf spotting and rusts. This group are used on cereals, field crops, fruits, tree nuts, vegetables, turfgrasses and ornamentals. Also, Strobilurins found to enhance the plant growth in some cases.
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SARS-CoV-2 Infection, COVID-19, and long covid: Saga of erratic immune response, waning immunity, and immune system failure

Published on: 9th August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9157821475

Introduction - evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants: With the unrestrained pandemic for over last one-and-half year, SARS-CoV-2 seems to have adapted to its habitat, the human host, through mutations that facilitate its replication and transmission. The G variant incorporating D614G mutation, potently more transmissible than the ancestral virus arose during January 2020 and spread widely. Since then, various SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) with higher infectivity or virulence or both, have evolved on the background of G variant, and spread widely. SARS-CoV-2 infection and the immunodynamics: As the virus becomes more transmissible, its lethality may drop. Apart from the humoral immunity, T-cell recognition from a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination may modify the disease transmission correlates and its clinical manifestations. On the other hand, the immunity generated may reduce probability of re-infection as well as limit evolution of adaptive mutations, and emergence of highly infectious and immune-escape variants. There are complex issues related to the SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary dynamics and host’s immunodynamics. Trending etiopathoimmunological correlates: The evolution potential of SARS-CoV-2 is limited because of proofreading function of nsp14. The S protein mutations affect transmissibility, virulence, and vaccine efficacy. The D614G mutation in G variant with higher infectivity has turned the Chinese epidemic into a pandemic. Other SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta seem to have evolved as result of adaptation to selective pressures during periods of prolonged infections and subsequent transmission. Further, there is issue of convergent association of mutations. Basics of immunity and immune system failure: The nature of the immune response after natural SARS-CoV-2 infection is variable and diverse. There are pre-existing neutralizing antibodies and sensitized T cells elicited during previous infection with seasonal CoVs influencing the disease susceptibility and course. The virus has evolved adaptive mechanisms to reduce its exposure to IFN-I and there are issues related to erratic and overactive immune response. The altered neutralizing epitopes in the S protein in SARS-CoV-2 variants modify the immune landscapes and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: current scenarios and prospects: Presently, the SARS-CoV-2 infection is widespread with multiple evolving infectious variants. There is probability of its transition from epidemic to endemic phase in due course manifesting as a mild disease especially in the younger population. Conversely, the pandemic may continue with enhanced disease severity due to evolving variants, expanded infection pool, and changing immunity landscape. There is need to plan for the transition and continued circulation of the virus during the endemic phase or continuing pandemic for indefinite period.
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MALDI-MSI method for the detection of large biomolecules in plant leaf tissue

Published on: 6th August, 2021

In this study we describe a method for the detection of biomolecules (in the polypeptide m/z range) directly from the surface of plant leaves by using Mass Spectrometry Imaging. The plant-pathogen interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was analyzed by comparing infected and non-infected leaf discs submitted to mass spectrometry. The total surface area of ion distribution was calculated for both samples, revealing 23 ions, out of which 3 showed statistical significance. Although these ions were not identified, the results showed that this approach can be successfully applied for the detection of potential polypeptide biomarkers directly on leaf tissue, which is a major challenge in MALDI-Imaging studies.
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A comparative study of post-operative astigmatism in superior versus superotemporal scleral incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery in a tertiary care hospital

Published on: 5th August, 2021

Background: In developing countries, manual small incision cataract surgery is a better alternative and less expensive in comparison to phacoemulsification and thus the incision is an important factor causing high rates of postoperative astigmatism resulting into poor visual outcome. Thus, modifications to the site of the incision is needed to reduce the pre-existing astigmatism and also to prevent postoperative astigmatism. Modification to superotemporal incision relieves pre-existing astigmatism majorly due to its characteristic of neutralizing against-the-rule astigmatism, which is more prevalent among elderly population and thus improves the visual outcome.Aims: To study the incidence, amount and type of surgically induced astigmatism in superior and superotemporal scleral incision in manual SICS.Methodology: It is a randomized, comparative clinical study done on 100 patients attending the OPD of Ophthalmology at a tertiary care hospital, with senile cataract within a period of one year and underwent manual SICS. 50 of them chosen randomly for superior incision and rest 50 with superotemporal incision. MSICS with PCIOL implantation were performed through unsutured 6.5 mm scleral incision in all. Patients were examined post-operatively on 1st day, 7th day, 2nd week and 4th week and astigmatism was evaluated and compared in both groups.Results: It is seen that on postoperative follow up on 4th week, 77.78% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent superior incision had increased astigmatism whereas, only 13.63% of the patients with ATR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism but 81.82% had decreased ATR astigmatism. However, 77.78% of the patients with preoperative WTR astigmatism who underwent supero-temporal incision, had increased astigmatism, whereas 44.45% of the patients with WTR astigmatism preoperatively, had increased astigmatism in contrast to 50% had decreased amount of astigmatism. It is also seen that the supero-temporal incision group had more number of patients (78%) with visual acuity better than 6/9 at 4th postoperative week than superior incision group (42%).Conclusion: This study concludes that superior incision cause more ATR astigmatism postoperatively whereas superotemporal incision causes lower magnitude of WTR astigmatism, which is advantageous for the elderly. Besides superotemporal incision provides better and early visual acuity postoperatively.
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“Fatty Lungs”: An uncommon case of Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

Published on: 5th August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9157841457

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by excessive accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in alveoli and terminal airways. It is caused by impaired GM-CSF signaling [1]. Surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II epithelial cells, and removed by uptake and catabolism by these cells, and the alveolar macrophages. Patients with PAP usually describe gradual onset of progressive exertional dyspnea and non-productive cough. However, an asymptomatic presentation is observed in up to 25% of cases, even in the presence of diffuse radiographic changes. Three recognized subtypes exist. Autoimmune PAP is associated with neutralizing GM-CSF autoantibodies and accounts about 90% of cases. Secondary PAP may occur in the context of any disease that reduces the abundance or functionality of alveolar macrophages, resulting in impaired surfactant clearance. Congenital PAP is the result of genetic mutations that disrupt GM-CSF signaling, including mutations in the α- or β-chains of the GM-CSF receptor [1-3].
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Non-smoking woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung, IV stage with ROS1 mutation and acquired thrombophilia

Published on: 4th August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272371189

Despite the fact, that lung cancer is more common among older smoking men, however it may also develop among young women without a smoking anamnesis. We report here a history of a non-smoking woman, 40 years old, with a diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma at IV stage. Despite the fact, the woman received three lines of palliative chemotherapy, the disease progressed. After the sample of the tumor was tested by genetic approach, ROS1 mutation was detected, and the patient was treated with a ROS1 inhibitor, Crizotinib. Sharp improvement was observed already after the first week of treatment. After one-month adenocarcinoma shrink, and specific supraclavicular lymph nodes disappeared. Unfortunately, due to problems with financing the treatment was stopped, after what the disease began to progress rapidly, and the patient died after a month due to brain metastasis. This case is noteworthy also because the patient was first diagnosed a thrombophilia with thrombi present in deep calf veins, left heart ventricle and lungs Adenocarcinoma was discovered occasionally when during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery biopsy specimen was taken from suspicious mass in the lower lobe of the right lung. This story reminds us that lung carcinoma may start with a paraneoplastic syndrome, like thrombophilia as in this case and finding of adenocarcinoma of the lung in young, non-smoking persons is indicative for possible ROS1 gene mutation. In such cases early treatment with ROS1 protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors should be started as soon as possible.
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“Vanishing” breast implant – when a breast prosthesis is moving into the pleural cavity

Published on: 4th August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186946574

This case shown here represents a rare situation where the breast implant is spontaneously and inadvertently migrated from its submammary position via the thoracic wall into the ipsilateral pleural cavity after performing an ipsilateral thoracotomy due to atypical wedge resection of the right upper lobe four months ago. Intraoperatively, the implant has been neither dislodged nor manipulated in any way. In the literature, there are some sparse case descriptions where such breast implant migrations are encountered after VATS procedure (video-assisted thoracoscopy) [2] and open thoracotomy surgery [3]. Interestingly, our case report is quite similar to those which was published by Dutch colleagues in 2014 [4]. Considering the etiology and pathomechanism of such an implant migration as shown here, there is a common agreement that both a leakage of the implant´s fibrous capsule and an operative transection of the intercostal thoracic wall are prerequisite to create a potential migrating pathway to allow implants moving towards the pleural cavity [5]. Additionally, it is believed that the negative pressure within the pleural cavity also alleviates the unidirectional herniation by “sucking in the implant” into the interpleural space [6]. Sometimes, external repetitive pressures such as stretching massages may cause or trigger such an implant dislocation. Furthermore, there are cases described in which, seemingly, implant migration does occur without known preceding thoracic surgery [7]. Eventually, there are cases published in the literature with intrapleural spreading of disrupted breast implant debris [8]. With our patient, thanks to the absence of any discomfort or pain, it was concluded after agreed statement of an interdisciplinary round table discussion not to remove the dislocated implant surgically because of potential intercostal tissue damage and subsequent pain to await. More astonishing, the clinicians involved in this case wondered the fact that the missed implant of her right breast remained either unnoticed or has been completely neglected by the female patient. In this short communication, we present a rare and unusual case of an obviously vanishing breast implant which is found to be inadvertently migrated into the adjacent pleural space after undergoing thoracic surgery. According to common legal policy at our institution, an approval for case reports is generally provided as it was obtained in this particular case.
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Associations of adverse social determinants of health with missed well-child visits and the role of caregiver social support

Published on: 2nd August, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9157822217

Objective: To examine the association between adverse social determinants of health (SDH) and missed well-child visits and the interaction with the level of caregiver social support. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of data collected from a SDH screening program conducted during well-child visits with referral, navigation and follow-up services for patients. We included 573 adult caregivers who accompanied patients aged 0-5 years to well-child visits and completed the screening from August 2017 to May 2018. The caregivers reported financial hardship, food insecurity, housing challenges, childcare difficulty, transportation issues, insurance difficulty, job difficulty, and education needs. Our primary outcome was a no-show (i.e., missed) to a well-child visit. Social support was dichotomized as low or high. Results: Among 573 patients who completed the screening, 335 patients (76.4%) had at least one social need. Financial hardship (p = 0.006), housing instability (p = 0.002), and no/poor childcare (p = 0.03) were associated with missed well-child visits. In multivariable regression analysis, having Medicaid (aOR = 1.91 [1.17-3.10]) and unstable housing (aOR = 6.79 [1.35-34.70]) were both associated with missed well-child visits. However, when social support was added to the multivariable logistic model, both Medicaid and unstable housing were no longer associated with missed well-child visits. Conclusion: Adverse SDH such as financial hardship, housing instability, and childcare difficulty were associated with missed well-child visits. However, with the addition of social support, this association was no longer significant. This study supports the hypothesis that high social support may mitigate the association between well-child visits among families experiencing adverse SDH.
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