All Articles in July, 2021

Myxedema coma in COVID-19

Published on: 31st July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9146322981

SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with thyroid disorders. It has been reported that myxedema coma (MC) can be complicated with COVID-19. COVID-19-related thyroid disorders consist of a broad spectrum of thyroid dysfunction, from thyrotoxicosis to decompensated hypothyroidism. It is possible that both primary and central thyroid disorders are induced by COVID-19 due to systemic inflammatory and immune responses. We experienced two cases in which patients with COVID-19 developed MC with central hypothyroidism. It is likely that MC affected the severity of COVID-19. It is necessary to consider the existence of MC during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We propose the potential mechanisms.
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A retrospective review of the factors that negatively influenced the eradication of polio in South-South, Nigeria

Published on: 30th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186964198

Background: The endemic nature of poliomyelitis in Nigeria was a source of concern to many given the global efforts aimed at eradicating the scourge. In this study, the factors that influenced the eradication of this malady in South-South Nigeria (Akwa Ibom and Cross River State) were investigated. Four null hypotheses, drawn on these factors (including culture belief, religious difference, language and the prevalence of ethnic conflict) guided the investigation. The main thrust of this study was to examine how socio-cultural factors negatively influenced the eradication of polio in the study area. Methods: Through stratified random and purposive sampling techniques, 600 adult men and women who had children were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire constructed by the researcher was used in data collection. Data analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA and independent t-test statistical tools. Results: The findings were that cultural belief and religious affiliation exerted significant influence on the people’s effort towards polio eradication. Conclusion: The study indicated that the low use of health services by the people was brought about by variation in these variables. Among other things, it was suggested that continuous awareness campaigns be carried out to educate the people on the need for immunization anchored in science and technology.
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A Case series on Asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is independent from other chronic obstructive diseases (COPD and Asthma)

Published on: 30th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9157820954

As we know that, Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are well characterized diseases, they can co-exist as asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). The co-existence of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is often unrecognized. In patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD or Asthma, the identification of ACO has got implication for better prognosis and treatment. Such patients experience frequent exacerbations, poor quality of life, rapid decline in lung function and high mortality than COPD or Asthma alone. Inhalational steroids provide significant alleviation of symptoms in such patients and some studies suggest that the most severe patients may respond to biological agents indicated for severe asthma. Patients who have asthma with a COPD component tend to present with severe hypoxia because of Irreversible/fixed airway obstruction and impairment of the alveolar diffusion capacity by emphysematous changes. In contrast, patients with COPD who have an asthma component not only have exertional dyspnoea but also develop paroxysmal wheezing or dyspnoea at night or in the early morning. The criteria to diagnose asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) include positive bronchodilator response, sputum eosinophilia or previous diagnosis of asthma, high IgE and/or history of atopy. There is scarcity of literature available in country like India. We highlight the importance of identification of Asthma COPD overlap as different phenotype from COPD or asthma alone as it is challenging to diagnose ACO in India. We report 3 cases having both the features of asthma and COPD, later diagnosed with Asthma-COPD overlap.
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Pulmonary mucormycosis in post-pulmonary tuberculosis as an emerging risk factor: A rare case report

Published on: 30th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272372142

Pulmonary mucormycosis is an uncommon pulmonary fungal disease, which is commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by fungi of class Zygomycetes. It constitutes the third most common invasive fungal infection following aspergillosis and candidiasis. Risk factors include patients with hematological malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and immunocompromised states. It is difficult to diagnose early due to non-specific clinical presentation and delay in treatment associated with greater mortality. As we know that Tuberculosis and HIV are highly prevalent in country like India. Post pulmonary tuberculosis is emerging as a risk factor for Pulmonary mucormycosis in the developing countries like India. Patients with non-resolving pneumonia are generally misdiagnosed as Pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of Pulmonary Mucormycosis is based upon demonstration of fungal hyphae in the clinical specimen. We highlight the importance of clinical suspicion in these cases for early diagnosis and early treatment initiation can reverse morbidity and mortality associated with Pulmonary Mucormycosis. We report 2 cases of Pulmonary mucormycosis present in post-pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
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Blunt abdominal trauma with duodenal dissection: A case report

Published on: 28th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272396153

We describe a new case of duodenal wound with complete transection in a 22-year-old patient following a motorcycle accident. He presented to the emergency room of the rural Regional Hospital of Edéa in Cameroon with a clinical picture of acute abdomen and post-trauma hemodynamic instability. A peritoneal puncture brought back an incoagulable blood. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large hemoperitoneum mixed with food debris. A tear of the omentum and transverse mesocolon and a complete section of the third duodenum at the beginning of its free portion were observed. The surgeon performed emergency closure of both duodenal stumps and performed an isoperistaltic lateral gastrojejunal bypass. A transfer to a specialized center for a more anatomical continuity was considered, but the imminence of a humanitarian mission in the hospital prompted the surgeon to seize the opportunity of this mission for the reoperation. This surgical revision was performed on the fifth postoperative day. A resection of the distal duodenal stump and the adjacent jejunal segment including the anastomosis was performed. Continuity was restored by a mechanical duodenal-jejunal anastomosis. The patient was discharged on the 18th postoperative day. This type of lesion is difficult to manage in an emergency situation in a structure with limited technical resources. Unfortunately, surgeons treating polytraumatized civilians are encountering an increasing number of blunt duodenal wounds requiring laborious management.
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Cannabinoids as a yield modifier in physical activit: A systematic review characters

Published on: 28th July, 2021

Marijuana is considered illicit in much of the world, and is classified as a drug for recreational use, in recent decades the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa L. has grown and diversified, being considered the only therapeutic alternative in the control of serious and incurable diseases such as syndrome of Dravet. The world panorama has shown a more liberal position, since in several countries such as the United States of America, Holland, Australia, Italy, and more recently in Canada, the use of medications, or even the recreational use of this plant, have been regulated. In this context, the investigation of the modifying effects on physical activity of empirically used cannabinoids is fundamental nowadays, mainly due to the regulatory recognition of Cannabis sativa L. as a medicinal plant in a large part of the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to verify the evidence related to the effect of cannabis on physical performance and to identify and highlight the challenges in the interpretation of information regarding the performance of practitioners of physical activity, as well as athletes, presenting new trends in this area of research to be addressed. To carry out the systematic review, a bibliographic survey of case reports was obtained through Pubmed, Science Direct and Google Academic databases. The following keywords were used to perform the research: cannabis, performance, pain, competition. The following filters were used as inclusion criteria a languages used english; species: humans; types of articles: original articles and reviews and period of publication of articles: 1981 to 2021.
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Current challenges in plant breeding to achieve zero hunger and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses induced by the global climate changes: A review

Published on: 28th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9204610537

According Sustainable Development goals until 2030 we should have zero hunger and undernourished people in the world. But to achieve this goal plant breeders must improve plants in order to produce at least the double than is produced now. This is not a easy pathway because we have only few years, but considering that plant breeding programs normally take several years to produce improved genotypes, also the further improved plants should face with pest, disease and other abiotic factors that are increasing with the current climate changes. In this review we will discuss the situation of hunger in the world and the remaining available land to increase food production, point out effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the food production and present some ways that can be used to fastening plant breeding.
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Five-year follow up on the single level corpectomy

Published on: 27th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9147510496

Single-level Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion (ACDF) was initially performed using Iliac Crest Bone Graft (ICBG) [1]. Fusion rates improved when a surgical technique change, the addition of anterior plate fixation, was incorporated decades later [2,3]. Single level ACDFs with a machined allograft and plate fixation technique eventually became the industry standard as it demonstrated equivalent fusion rates with fewer complications than single level ACDFs with ICBG. This surgical technique was extended for use in patients with contiguous disk herniations. Multilevel ACDFs performed with machined allografts or interbody spacers and a two-level plate offered shorter operative times, less blood loss, better restoration of lordosis, and less immediate pain [4]. Successful multi-level ACDFs were strongly influenced by the bone graft source [5], the smoking addiction [6], and the construct stability [7]. Placement of two additional fixation screws in the central vertebral body, another improvement in the surgical technique, increased the construct strength compared to constructs with screws only placed into the end vertebral bodies [8]. Using allografts for multilevel ACDFs was a device disadvantage as they often resulted in high non-union rates [9,10].
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The continued relevance of Deep Brain Stimulation for chronic pain

Published on: 27th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9198815506

For the millions of patients experiencing chronic pain despite pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides a beacon of hope. Over the past decade the field has shifted away from DBS towards other forms of neuromodulation, particularly spinal cord stimulation (SCS). DBS for pain is still performed, albeit off-label in US and UK, and experiences variable success rates. SCS is an extremely useful tool for the modulation of pain but is limited in its application to specific pain aetiologies. We advocate use of DBS for pain, for patients for whom pharmacology has failed and for whom spinal cord stimulation is inadequate. DBS for chronic pain is at risk of premature neglect. Here we outline how this has come to pass, and in the process argue for the untapped potential for this procedure.
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Malignancy induced haemophagocytosis of leukaemic blasts by macrophages and transformation into a multinucleated giant cells

Published on: 27th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9150235492

Haemophagocytosis is a dysregulated immune condition characterised by both inflammation and uncontrolled activation of macrophages and T-cells, which causes aberrant cytokine release, leading to cytokine storm [1] it can be primary or secondary, depending upon the etiology. 
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Practice patterns and outcomes of repository corticotropin injection (Acthar® Gel) use in childhood nephrotic syndrome: A study of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and collaborative studies and the Pediatric Nephrology Research Consortium

Published on: 23rd July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9140608009

Objective: We set up a U.S. registry to examine prescription patterns and patient outcomes of repository corticotropin injection (Acthar® Gel) for childhood nephrotic syndrome. Methods: 18 participating U.S. pediatric centers performed retrospective review and prospective observation of patients < 21 years old with nephrotic syndrome treated with Acthar Gel. We captured baseline characteristics, drug regimen and duration, and disease response following treatment. Results: 46 patients, enrolled from 2015 to 2020 were included. 27 (58.7%) were male. 18 patients (39.1%) had a diagnosis of minimal change followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 16 patients (34.7%). Median age at start of treatment was 12.5 years (IQR 8.5-17.4) compared to 5.3 years at diagnosis (IQR 2.7-10.5 years). 52% were resistant to corticosteroids. The most common Acthar Gel regimen was 80IU twice a week with a median duration of 199 days (IQR 88-365). Among 37 patients with active disease, 18 (49%) were able to achieve partial or complete remission, though all patients that had a positive response were on other immunosuppressants concomitantly. Conclusion: We report the findings of the largest registry cohort of pediatric patients in the U.S. treated with Acthar Gel for clinically challenging cases of nephrotic syndrome. Acthar Gel was successful in inducing remission in approximately half of the patients with active disease at time of treatment. No predictors of response with respect to demographic data, age at start of Acthar Gel therapy, etiology of nephrotic syndrome, presence or absence of comorbidities, or steroid responsiveness was noted.
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Multifrecuency bioimpedance phase angle as a tool to predict maturation failure of native fistulae for hemodialysis

Published on: 21st July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9198828640

Background and objectives: An arteriovenous fistula is considered to be an ideal vascular access for patients receiving hemodialysis, its main limitation is its high failure rate to achieve maturation and long-term functionality loss. Multiple strategies have attempted to identify patients at risk. Bioelectrical impedance has shown to be a valuable resource in the determination of the hydration status, and the measurement of the phase angle through this method has demonstrated to be a good indicator of the nutritional state and its related as a general marker of survival. The objective of this study is to analyze the role of plasma albumin and phase angle measured through bioelectrical impedance as tools useful for predicting failure of arteriovenous fistulas. Materials and methods: prospective observational study, including 104 patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis who underwent a native arteriovenous fistula during a period of 24 months. Analyzing its clinical characteristics, laboratory and phase angle through electrical bioimpedance, both univariate and multivariate analysis was performed both with logistic regression, furthermore calculation of coordinates and ROC curve to establish a better cut-off point. Results: of the variables that were analyzed only the phase angle measurement showed statistical significance OR 2.61 (1.6 – 4.4) p - value 0.001 for predicting arteriovenous fistula failure. In female patients with a phase angle value of 3.25 had a 90% sensibility and 53% specificity for male patients a value of 3.58 showed a sensibility of 84% and a specificity of 52% with ROC curve of 0.78. Conclusion: phase angle through bioimpedance is a useful parameter, helpful in predicting failure of native arteriovenous fistula, it is also an important tool for identifying patients at risk, in early stages prior to the construction of a vascular access. 
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Atypical cutaneous relapse of multiple myeloma

Published on: 21st July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9150239751

A 66-year-old patient, diagnosed κ light chains MM with t(11;14), presented before second cycle with bendamustine-dexamethasone. A complete remission was initially obtained with bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone and autologous HSCT. After relapse, he was successively treated with bortezomib-dexamethasone, carfilzomib-dexamethasone, daratumumab-dexamethasone and benda-mustine-dexamethasone.
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Usefulness of foot-to-foot bioimpedance analysis for assessing volume status in chronic hemodialysis patients at the Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital (Senegal)

Published on: 20th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9198815507

Introduction: Determination of dry weight is one of the daily goals to achieve in hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to validate the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in estimation of dry weight in a population of Senegalese chronic hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: A 9-week cross-sectional study was carried out at the hemodialysis unit of Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital. Adult patients with no previous hospital history were included. The total body water (TBW) was measured with a single frequency bioelectric impedance foot-to-foot analyzer, before and after six successive hemodialysis sessions. These results were compared with those from clinical measurements with the Watson equation using a Student’s t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: 264 measurements were made in 22 patients (46.6 years, 54.5% men, 92.3 months on dialysis, 62.7 kg mean dry weight). A significant reduction in weight (ΔWeight = 2.0 ± 1.1 kg; p < 0.0001) and in TBW measured by the BIA (ΔTBWBIA = 3.3 ± 1.0 liters; p < 0.0001)) or calculated by Watson’s equation (ΔTBWWatson = 0.5 ± 0.2 liter; p = 0.0001) was observed. There was a strong linear correlation and agreement between the 2 TBW measurements in pre-dialysis. In post-dialysis the concordance diagram indicated a bias = –2.2 and wide agreement limits. Conclusion: The BIA allows reproducible and reliable measurements and a fair estimate of the TBW in pre-dialysis.
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The SARS CoV-2 spike domain, RGD and integrin binding effect-relationship for vaccine design strategy

Published on: 20th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9244748101

Related the need to search new strategy in vaccine design in order to reduce also some rare effect like trombosys for some registered products it is interesting the role played by the SPIKE RGD domain. The binding with molecules like Fibronectin is a process that must to be deeply investigated. A better understanding in this process can be used to improve safety of the new generation of COVID vaccine. The rare effect like thrombosis recognized by regulatory agency produced a modification of technical data sheet of some vaccine so the phenomena Is interesting to be more investigated. Spike protein and its domains are involved in producing pathological effect of the COVID-19 disease. What it is interesting is that some pathological effect of this pathology are similar to some rare side effect produced by some COVID-19 vaccine classes. After a review of interesting literature related this topics is submitted an experimental projects able to verify in vitro the spike procoaugulant property.
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Sleep quality and associated factors among patients with chronic illness at South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia

Published on: 20th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186943722

Background: Pathological and nighttime sleep deprivations have substantial adverse effects on regulation of weight, sugar and blood pressure because of endothelial dysfunction, sympathetic nervous system stimulation, regulation and activation of systemic inflammation. Thus, this study was aimed to assess quality of sleep among patients with chronic illness and its associated factors at South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted at South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia from February 15 2019 till April 15 2019. Institutional based cross sectional study design was employed. All patients with chronic illness who are on follow up in South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals were sources of population. Sample size was calculated by using EPI info version 7 and the total sample size was 344. The study employed stratified random sampling technique and study participants were selected by systematic sampling. After taking ethical approval from College of Medicine and Health Sciences Ethical Approval Committee, permission from selected Hospitals and informed verbal consent from patients, the data were collected by a tool which has 3 parts: Sociodemographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and factors affecting sleep quality. Data were entered in to Epi data version 4.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Service Product 25 for analysis. Different data presentation tools and binary logistic regression were enrolled by considering 95% confidence level and p value of 0.05. Result: Among the total study participants, near to one third (31.7%) of them got sleep after 30 minutes. More than one fourth of them slept for less than 7 hours. Less than half of the study participants had habitual sleep efficiency of more than 85% however 296(86%) of them did not face day time dysfunction Conclusion and recommendations: more than one third of patients with chronic illness had poor sleep quality. One third of study participants had sleep duration of less than the recommendations(less than 7 hours). Age, educational status, residence, and perception of prognosis of disease were factors that have associations with poor sleep quality among patients with chronic illness. Health care providers who are doing in chronic illness follow up clinic should be initiated to assess and screen those patients with poor sleep quality.
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COVID-19 Associated acute limb ischemia

Published on: 20th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9137583846

A 78-year-old man, known case of, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension presented with fever, dry cough and dyspnea of five-day duration. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and was admitted to the intensive care unit as a case of severe COVID -19 pneumonia. Evaluation revealed raised inflammatory markers CRP: 92.2 mg/ml, LDH: 556 IU/L, Ferritin: 286 ng/ml, D-dimer: 3716 ng/ml. On day 9 of illness, he developed numbness, pain and discoloration of right hand.
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Management outcome of intestinal obstruction done by integrated emergency surgical officers and its associated factors in selected district hospitals of South Wollo Zone, North East Ethiopia in 2019 G.C

Published on: 16th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9206124375

Background: Intestinal obstruction (IO) is defined as a partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of intestinal contents to pass through. It is a common cause of emergency surgical problems. IO has been the leading cause of acute abdomen in several African countries. Objective: To assess surgical management outcome of intestinal obstruction by IESO professionals and its associated factors of intestinal obstruction in surgically treated patients at South Wollo zone. Method: A cross-sectional study was done on 216 patients ‘the data was collected from medical cards of the patient by using a pretested data abstraction format. Three nurses were involved in the process of data collection. The collected data was cleaned, coded and analyzed by SPSS version 23 statistical package. First descriptive statics was done for categorical and analyzed using frequencies and percentage. Multivariable logistic regression models was used to determine the association factors on the management outcome of intestinal obstruction when p - value < 0.05 and the strength of statistical association was measured by adjusting odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance was taken at p - value < 0.05. Results: From all study participants about 177 (82%) of them had good surgical outcome. Study participants who were managed by 1-3 years of work experience of IESO {(p = 0.004, AOR (95% CI) = 7.2[1.89, 27.68]}, preoperatively diagnosed as small bowel obstruction {(p = 0.001, AOR (95% CI) = 4.5[1.91, 10.40], Surgery conducted at day time {(p = 0.03, AOR (95% CI) = 2.8[1.06, 7.16]} had shown positive association with management outcome of intestinal obstruction conducted by IESO professionals. Conclusion and recommendation: Majority patients with intestinal obstruction had good surgical outcome done by IESO professionals. Year of experience of IESO Workers, preoperative diagnosis and time of surgery of the respondents had shown positive association for the occurrence of chronic liver disease whereas. In this study we can conclude that surgeries of intestinal obstruction conducted by IESO professionals are as good as intestinal obstruction surgeries conducted by physicians so there is a need to train more IESO professionals to deliver decentralized surgical service for rural areas.
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Gallstone Ileus with associated perforated small bowel diverticulitis

Published on: 16th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186922658

Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis and a type of mechanical obstruction involving impaction of a gallstone within the intestinal tract [1,2]. This entity occurs in 0.15% - 1.5% of cholelithiasis cases and < 0.1% of ileus cases overall [1]. Gallstone ileus is more common in the elderly and up to 80% - 90% of affected patients have medical comorbidities [2]. The ratio of occurrence in females to males is 3.5:1 [3]. The following report presents a case of gallstone ileus with associated perforated small bowel diverticulitis, demonstrating the importance of considering this condition as a differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen.
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Comparative efficacy of inspiratory, expiratory and combined respiratory muscle training on the pulmonary functions and chest expansion in acute stroke survivors

Published on: 16th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9137661170

Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be reduced in patients diagnosed with stroke, which reasonably justifies the use of respiratory muscle training in this population. This study determines the comparative efficacy of inspiratory, expiratory, and combined respiratory muscle training on the pulmonary functions and chest expansion in acute stroke survivors. Method: Forty-five acute stroke survivors (15 in each group) completed all protocols of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to any one of three groups. In addition to the conventional exercise therapy, participants received any one of the three respiratory muscle training protocols (inspiratory muscle training, expiratory muscle training or combined respiratory muscle training). Chest expansion was assessed using tape measure and pulmonary function parameters were assessed using a spirometer. Results: Paired t-test analysis showed significant improvements in the chest expansion and the pulmonary function parameters following training in each group. One-way ANOVA showed significant improvements in the pulmonary function parameters across the three groups but not in the chest expansion with p - value = 0.405. Least significant difference (LSD), post-hoc analysis shows that the significant difference for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC lies between inspiratory muscle training group and expiratory muscle training group. Conclusion: When the three training methods were compared, it was found that expiratory muscle training was the most beneficial in improving the pulmonary functions and chest expansion in acute stroke survivors.
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Facial-onset sensory-motor neuronopathy, a rare variant of Huntington’s disease or chance association?

Published on: 15th July, 2021

Objectives: To describe a patient with facial-onset sensory-motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) that later developed Huntington’s disease (HD). Case report: A 62-year-old woman complained of progressive dysphagia 8 years before referral. At initial evaluation, there was excessive salivation, dysphagia, and sensory-motor trigeminal impairment. Denervation was noted on the upper limbs and the tongue. Blink reflexes were abolished. Genetic study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes was normal. She was diagnosed with FOSMN syndrome. Her clinical state progressively worsened with corneal anesthesia, severe denutrition, right arm and axial weakness. Seven years after referral, she was unable walk and developed generalized chorea. Abnormal huntingtin gene repeat expansion confirmed the diagnosis of HD. She died 16 years after onset of dysphagia. Conclusion: Cases with both HD and ALS have already been reported but not FOSMN and HD, to our knowledge. Some FOSMN cases have been linked to ALS-related gene mutations and HD phenocopies have been associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. Recently, huntingtin repeat expansions were described in the ALS population. Although a chance association cannot be excluded, data from the literature are in favor of a pathogenic relationship between FOSMN and HD in this particular case. We suggest that huntingtin gene be more systematically studied in patients with FOSMN.
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Multimodal treatment strategies in Huntington’s disease

Published on: 15th July, 2021

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease that causes involuntary movements, emotional lability, and cognitive dysfunction. HD symptoms usually develop between ages 30 and 50, but can appear as early as 2 or as late as 80 years. Currently no neuroprotective and neurorestorative interventions are available. Early multimodal intervention in HD is only possible if the genetic diagnosis is made early. Early intervention in HD is only possible if genetic diagnosis is made at the disease onset or when mild symptoms manifest. Growing evidence and understanding of HD pathomechanism has led researchers to new therapeutic targets. Here, in this article we will talk about the multimodal treatment strategies and recent advances made in this field which can be used to target the HD pathogenesis at its most proximal level.
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Hypertension: A global health crisis

Published on: 14th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9138596883

Objective: This study discusses strategies to overcome hypertension patient compliance to manage self-care. The purpose of the study is to provide a summary of the importance of attention to managing hypertension. Method: a review of literature relevant to hypertension, policies, and management, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, through cross-programs or sectors. Result: This study found that the ministry of health had compiled various policies to reduce the prevalence of hypertension, including technical guidelines for its implementation, but the strategy has not yet fully reached the minimum service standard, which is because it has not fully involved the relevant cross sectors. Conclusion: Improve the coordination system by “Joint Decree” between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Villages, PDT and Transmigration, the Ministry of Social Affairs, Indonesian National Army, police, and NGOs to carry out activities simultaneously to the community.
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Acute Kidney Injury due to spontaneous Atheroembolic disease, superimposed on diabetic nephropathy, with no recent vascular or cardiac intervention, presented as Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (RPGN)

Published on: 14th July, 2021

Atheroembolic disease (AED), or Cholesterol Crystals Embolism, is a systemic disease presented as a complication of severe atherosclerosis [1], where older age, male sex, diabetes hypercholesterolemia, smoking and hypertension [2], are the main risk factors for the development of Atherosclerosis, it is known that spontaneous atherosclerotic renal disease is rare in the absence of any vascular intervention [3], and in the absence of anticoagulant [4], or the absence of calcified aorta, with the most common presentation of the disease is subacute kidney injury progress into renal dysfunction occurs in like a staircase pattern and the renal dysfunction is usually observed several weeks after a possible intervention, caused by dislodging the micro cholesterol plaques from a major artery, and start showering multiple organs causing micro and macro embolic phenomena. In our case, we report acute kidney injury on a previously stable kidney disease in a female with diabetes mellitus type 2 presented with severe anemia, dyspnea, massive fluid overload with bilateral pleural effusion, patient had a history of multiple IV contrast exposures, with peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD), required amputation of right below the knee amputation, presented during the COVID-19 pandemic, found with nephrotic syndrome, a kidney biopsy has shown cholesterol crystal embolization compatible with Athero-embolic Disease with severe Diabetic Nephropathy.
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Revisiting childhood pneumonia in low-recourse setting hospitals

Published on: 12th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9137597336

Introduction: Pneumonia, defined as infection of lung parenchyma, is associated with severe complications especially in the very young and old patients. It is the world’s leading cause of childhood mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification and guidelines are commonly used in Sudan in the diagnosis and management of pneumonia patients. This review was the outcome of some researches done in Sudan by the author and his colleagues. Management Systems were evaluated to give complete end to end solutions for serving patients along with their records in hospitals and clinics in Sudan. The objective of the study was: To reflect author experience in management of childhood pneumonia in Sudan and to determine feasible, affordable approach to pneumonia in Sudan. Methodology: Searching through PubMed for the author publication and review of publication by author in Sudan regarding management of pneumonia. Conclusion: Simple tests like chest X-ray, high WBC high-reactive protein, together with high temperature can predict the need for urgent blood culture. Antibiotic treatment for childhood pneumonia weather that recommended by WHO, b-lactam inhibitors or 3rd generation cephalosporin has the same outcome.
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AsdamarinTM relieves functional dyspepsia in healthy adults in only 7 days: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

Published on: 9th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9206105427

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a prevalent global health concern increasing with years. Inspired by the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) liver-stomach disharmony syndrome in order to find a quick natural alternative treatment, a Ferula asafoetida-Silybum marianum (Asdamarin™) combined extract has been developed and proved its rapid efficiency and its safety with a 7-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study (CTRI/2018/05/013993 dated 21/05/2018) conducted on 70 healthy human volunteers (aged 18–60 years) supplemented with 250 mg / twice a day of either a placebo or Asdamarin™. Subjects were evaluated from baseline to the end of the study (EOS) through changes in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), changes in Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score (GDSS) and changes in the short form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI-SF) for Quality of Life. Compared to the baseline a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of GDSS questionnaire score was noted in the Asdamarin™ group (from 5.66 ± 3.1 at baseline to 5.09 ± 2.8 at the End Of Study (EOS)) compared to placebo group (from 2.77 ± 1.3 baseline to 2.69 ± 1.3 EOS), a significant decrease (p < 0.001) of GSRS score noted in the Asdamarin™ group (from 32.11 ± 8.6 baseline to 19.11 ± 5.4 EOS) compared to the placebo group (from 25.23 ± 3.6 baseline to 23.2 ± 4.9 EOS), and a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of NDI-SF scoring was noted in the Asdamarin™ group (from 15.74 ± 4.1 baseline to 11.54 ± 2.1 EOS) compared to placebo group (from 12.54 ± 3.2 baseline to 11.63 ± 2.6 EOS). Asdamarin™ has been found safe and very well tolerated during the study.
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Open heart surgery in Nigerian children the need for international and regional collaboration: The Bayelsa and Enugu experience

Published on: 9th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124692893

Background: Children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) often require palliative or definitive surgical heart interventions to restore cardiopulmonary function. Lack of early cardiac intervention contributes to large numbers of potentially preventable deaths and sufferings among children with such conditions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to highlight our experience and the importance of international and regional collaboration for open heart surgery in children with CHD and capacity building of local cardiac teams in Bayelsa and Enugu States. Methodology: In November 2016, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed by the managements of FMC, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, UNTH, Enugu and an Italian-based NGO- Pobic Open Heart International for collaboration in the area of free open heart surgery for children with CHDs and training of local cardiac teams from both institutions either in Nigeria or in Italy. Patients for the program were recruited from Bayelsa and Enugu States with referrals from all over the country with combined screening and selection done in UNTH. Selected patients were operated on and funded free of charge by the Italian NGO. Hands on training of the local cardiac teams and cardiac intervention was done twice yearly in Nigeria. Result: From inception of the program in November, 2016 to May, 2019 a total of 47 children (21 Males, 26 Females; age range 6 months to 14 years) with various types of congenital heart defects had free open heart surgery from the program with 41 surgeries done in UNTH & 6 in Italy (complex pathologies). Also, home cardiac teams from UNTH and FMC, Yenagoa gained from on-site capacity training & retraining from the Italian cardiac team both in Nigeria and in Italy. The Success rate was 95.7% (44) and Case Fatality rate was 4.3% (2). Conclusion: There is a great efficacy in early cardiac intervention. This is with respect to a high success rate and minimal Case Fatality seen in this study. This was achieved through Regional and international collaboration.
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Epidemiological profile of the homeless population assisted by voluntary initiative and the social impact on access to healthcare: an investigative study in Curitiba, Brazil

Published on: 7th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9137583522

Objective: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of the homeless population and report the social impact on healthcare services provided by a voluntary initiative during one-year of follow-up. Method: This is an investigational study, carried out in an important capital-city of southern Brazil, which included 509 individuals in 2019. Findings were divided into three segments: sociodemographic, substance use/abuse and impact on healthcare. Results: The sociodemographic profile found was predominantly male, white, single, heterosexual, educated in elementary or high school, in regular use of legal and/or illegal substances, and living as homeless for less than a year. The impact of assistance provided on the perception of individuals who returned in subsequent actions was evident. Conclusion: The significant increase in the number of homeless people in large urban centers can benefit from the support of non-profit organizations to address the deficiencies faced in accessing basic health services. Based on this, we seek to advance in the development of new policies that improve local healthcare for the vulnerable population, to be more assertive to their needs.
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Role of neuron specific enolase as a biomarker in Parkinson’s disease

Published on: 6th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9137583301

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is thought to be the most common neurodegenerative disease with movement disorder. The key motor symptoms are rigidity, tremor, akinesis/hypokinesia/bradykinesia, and postural instability. However, in our day-to-day clinical practice we tend to see several other symptoms which may be motor or non-motor. Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are quite common and debilitating. The pathological hallmarks of PD are loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPc) and accumulation of unfolded or misfolded alpha-synuclein. Diagnosis of PD is difficult in the pre-motor stage. Late diagnosis renders a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNPc and spread of disease in other parts of the brain. This may manifest as either full blown symptoms requiring multiple medications or may even lead to life threatening condition due to lack of early diagnostic tools and techniques. Biomarkers are required to diagnose PD at a very early stage when prevention is possible. Hence, we see a lot of interest among researchers involved in finding a biomarker specific to the disease. Biomarkers may be clinical, image based, genetic, and biochemical. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum markers which may correlate with disease pathophysiology are of great significance. One such molecule which recently gained a lot of attention is neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The main aim of this paper is to highlight the role of NSE in predicting neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation ultimately reflecting damage of brain cells in PD.
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Nurses' knowledge and practice in assessment and management of neonatal pain at Governmental Hospitals in Gaza Strip: A cross sectional study

Published on: 6th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186947792

Objective: The study aimed to investigate neonatal nurses' knowledge and practices related to pain assessment and management that may contribute to improve the quality of pain management by nurses at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) of governmental hospitals in Gaza Strip. Design: The study design was quantitative, descriptive cross sectional, conducted at the NICUs affiliated to the governmental hospitals "Al Shifa Hospital - Al Nasser Pediatric Hospital - European Gaza Hospital". Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of all nurses working in NICUs. The total number of nurses was 102. The data were collected from study participants by using a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 100%. The data collected were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical tests with level of statistical significance at p < 0.5. Results: The results showed that nurses had very low of knowledge level with mean percentages (59.42%) and very low of practice level with mean percentages (58.33%). Conclusion: Therefore, the study recommended to developing course or educational program related to assessment and management of neonatal pain to promote their integrated pain management care for neonates.
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Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): An extensive study on evolution, global health, drug targets and vaccines

Published on: 5th July, 2021

The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has become a worldwide pandemic and the scientific communities are struggling to find out the ultimate treatment strategies against this lethal virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2). Presently, there is no potential chemically proven antiviral therapy available in the market which can effectively combat the infection caused by this deadly virus. Few vaccines are already developed but it is not clear to the scientific community how much efficient they are to combat SARS-CoV-2. Mode of transmission and symptoms of the disease are two important factors in this regard. Rapid diagnosis of the COVID-19 is very much important to stop its spreading. In this scenario, a complete study starting from symptoms of the disease to vaccine development including various SARS-CoV-2 detection techniques is very much required. In this review article, we have made a partial analysis on the origin, virology, global health, detection techniques, replication pathways, doses, mode of actions of probable drugs, and vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2.
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OPEN and CLOSED state of SPIKE SARS-COV-2: relationship with some integrin binding. A biological molecular approach to better understand the coagulant effect

Published on: 2nd July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272357651

Related the physio-pathological process of COVID-19 disease it is interesting to focus to the aspect. Played by interaction of Sars-Cov-2 protein with integrins of human epithelial pulmonary cell. A bio molecular approach help in to deeply verify the involved factors and the results of this Activation RGD mediated. Of Great interest also the relationship with some vaccine strategy followed by the various pharmaceutical industry. The results of this work will be useful to think modification in some vaccine increasing the global safety and related some rare ADR.
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