All Articles in membership, 2021

Maximal stability limits in adolescents with Tourette syndrome

Published on: 30th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8984615786

We explored if adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) had functional postural control impairments and how these deficits are linked to a disturbance in the processing and integration of sensory information. We evaluated the displacements of the center of pressure (COP) during maximal leaning in four directions (forward, backward, rightward, leftward) and under three sensory conditions (eyes open, eyes closed, eyes closed standing on foam). GTS adolescents showed deficits in postural stability and in lateral postural adjustments but they had similar maximal COP excursion than the control group. The postural performance of the GTS group was poorer in the eyes open condition (time to phase 1 onset, max-mean COP). Moreover, they displayed a poorer ability to maintain the maximum leaning position under the eyes open condition during mediolateral leaning tasks. By contrast, during forward leaning, they showed larger min-max ranges than control subjects while standing on the foam with the eyes closed. Together, these findings support the idea that GTS produces subclinical postural control deficits. Importantly, our results suggest that postural control disorders in GTS are highly sensitive to voluntary postural leaning tasks which have high demand for multimodal sensory integration.
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Illness of great dictators - mosaic psychopatia

Published on: 29th January, 2021

Psychopatia is a borderline between mental diseases and good health. One of its versions is mosaic psychopatia. For certain everyone knows, that the mosaic represents. These are the parts of diverse elements collected together. And so this disease is named after the patient shows signs of several types of psychopatia at once. It is known that Historic figures such as Ivan Grozny, Hitler, Stalin, Putin and other dictators have suffered from this disease.
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Differences between anorexia patients and participants of the Minnesota hunger experiment: Consequences for treatment

Published on: 29th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8915412109

The hunger experiment was carried out in 1944 by Anselm Keys and others in the American city of Minnesota. The aim was to investigate the consequences of starvation in order to be able to restore the health of hunger victims of the Second World War. How could they be treated in the best possible way to regain a healthy weight? For this purpose 36 physical and psychosocial healthy young men were selected from a large group of men who refused to serve in the American Army. They were examined very carefully in the period before the hunger experiment which lasted 6 months. In this period they received only two mails a day with half of the number of calories they were used to eat. This period of malinutrition was followed by 3 months of refeeding. Not only their weight recovered quite well, but also the psychosocial consequences of starvation disappeared completely [1]. 
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Induction therapy with Erlotinib (E) and Gemcitabine/Platinum (GP) in stage III NSCLC

Published on: 28th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8913463613

Background: In 2004 we started a phase II trial in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC), stage III, with erlotinib followed by a combination with a platinum-based doublet in unselected patients to identify molecular subgroups benefitting from an EGFR targeting approach. Patients and methods: Induction with erlotinib (E, 150 mg, d1-42) was followed by three cycles of gemcitabine (G, 1250 mg/m², d1+d8, q3w) and cisplatin (P, 80 mg/m², d1, q3w). Patients with at least stable disease after E were treated with a GP + E combination. Induction was followed by surgery and radiation. The trial was conducted as a prospective, multi-center, open label, exploratory phase II study to determine pathological response rate (pRR), as well as secondary endpoints disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Of 38 prescreened patients 16 were included in the main study. Due to slow recruitment the study had to be terminated early. Combination of E and GP was well tolerated, surgery was feasible after induction therapy in 12 of 16 patients, 7/12 (58%) patients had a major pathological response (MPR). Median overall survival for patients with MPR was 57.7 months (confidence interval (CI), 37.4 to 78.0; n = 7) and for patients without MPR 11.9 months (CI, 6.4 to 17.4; n = 5). 2/16 patients had an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Conclusion: Before discovery of distinct molecular mechanisms in NSCLC our study was an attempt to identify clinical and pathological subgroups that would benefit from E induction. Two patients with an EGFR mutation were identified. MPR was a predictor of long term disease free and overall survival.
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Exploring COVID-19: Relating the spike protein to infectivity, pathogenicity and Immunogenicity

Published on: 27th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8906007931

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 life cycle: The disease which reportedly began in Chinese city Wuhan in November-December 2019 manifesting as severe respiratory illness, soon spread to various parts of the world, and was named COVID-19, and declared a pandemic by WHO. The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 begins with membrane fusion mediated by Spike (S) protein binding to the ACE2 receptors. Following viral entry and release of genome into the host cell cytoplasm there occurs replication and transcription to generate viral structural and non-structural proteins. Finally, VLPs are produced and the mature virions are released from the host cell. Immunogenicity of the spike protein: The S protein is considered the main antigenic component among structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and responsible for inducing the host immune response. The neutralising antibodies (nAbs) targeting the S protein are produced and may confer a protective immunity against the viral infection. Further, the role of the S protein in infectivity also makes it an important tool for diagnostic antigen-based testing and vaccine development. The S-specific antibodies, memory B and circulating TFH cells are consistently elicited following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccine shots in clinical trials. The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants: The early genomic variations in SARS-CoV-2 have gone almost unnoticed having lacked an impact on disease transmission or its clinical course. Some of the recently discovered mutations, however, have impact on transmissibility, infectivity, or immune response. One such mutation is the D614G variant, which has increased in prevalence to currently become the dominant variant world-over. Another, relatively new variant, named VUI-202012/01 or B.1.1.7 has acquired 17 genomic alterations and carries the risk of enhanced infectivity. Further, its potential impact on vaccine efficacy is a worrisome issue. Conclusion: THE UNMET CHALLENGES: COVID-19 as a disease and SARS-CoV-2 as its causative organism, continue to remain an enigma. While we continue to explore the agent factors, disease transmission dynamics, pathogenesis and clinical spectrum of the disease, and therapeutic modalities, the grievous nature of the disease has led to emergency authorizations for COVID-19 vaccines in various countries. Further, the virus may continue to persist and afflict for years to come, as future course of the disease is linked to certain unknown factors like effects of seasonality on virus transmission and unpredictable nature of immune response to the disease.
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Physical activity can change the physiological and psychological circumstances during COVID-19 pandemic: A narrative review

Published on: 26th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8906001902

Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity. Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise. Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine. Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
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After human: The world of brain-net on earth

Published on: 25th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899339296

“The mind of man is capable of anything….because everything in in it, all the past as well as all the future [Joseph Conrad]”. Why I am using above quote and what is the relation to what point I am coining you will understand its relevant your own as you moving line by line of this write-up. This topic though complex to some people to get understand, but those has strong or at least average background of Space, Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Neuroscience and theory of evolution definitely acquire it. Near distance and physical face to face communication started with the evolution of humankind and changes in each evolution in DNA structure caused to changes in communication patterns from different phonetics to gestures, gestures to voice and voice to voice with different languages.
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Climate and garbage

Published on: 21st January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9031343389

Humanity has destroyed 70% of the land by arable land, reservoirs, asphalt, concrete, garbage and ore landfills. Each of us sends 400-500 kg of garbage to the landfill per year. If from the garbage that the inhabitants of Russia throw out in a year, they built a tower with an area of ​​one meter by one meter, then it would be possible to get to the Moon through it: https://greenpeace.ru/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/report-RUSSIA -GARBAGE.pdf The area of ​​the world’s landfill on land is the size of Mexico, and it is growing.
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Hyperacute fatal course in a hypercalcemic crisis

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899339891

A 39-year-old woman, with a not significant past medical history, entered the Emergency Department complaining about nausea, vomiting, constipation, anorexia, deep asthenia, and diffuse muscle aches with cramps. She referred sporadic diarrhea (one episode) the day before and a worsening headache in the past three days; she also complained about polyuria and polydipsia not investigated for one year. The clinical examination was not significant, apart from the evidence of skin and mucosal dryness, tachycardia, and diffuse abdominal pain. The laboratory tests revealed hypokalemia and elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) plasma levels. An ultrasound abdominal imaging was consistent with kidney lithiasis. Suspecting a hyperemesis gravidarum in a patient with kidney lithiasis, a rehydrating therapy was administered as long as potassium reintegration. During the hospital stay, the patient became drowsy. A haemogasanalysis revealed very high calcium values: 3,379 mmol/L (n.v. 1,120-1,320 mmol/L). Lab tests confirmed very high levels of calcium 21,1 mg/dL (n.v. 9-10,5 mg/dL), as long as increased parathormone (PTH) > 3000 pg/mL (normal values 14-65 pg/mL), and hypokalemia (3,2 mEq/L n.v. 3,50 – 4,50). Ultrasound exam of the neck revealed the presence of a left parathyroid nodule measuring 2,5 x 1,6 cm. Before having time to start an appropriate therapy, the patient died.
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The clinicopathological correlates of Cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent, immunocompromised and HIV-infected/AIDS patients, but neglected in SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 patients?

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897954051

Cystoisosporiasis (formerly isosporiasis) is caused by Cystoisospora belli (erstwhile named Isospora belli) is encountered globally, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Cystoisosporiasis is a human intestinal disease whose etiology is the parasite Cystoisospora belli with infection frequent in immunocompromised subjects, principally HIV-infected and AIDS patients. This coccidium parasite infects the epithelial cells and lining of the villi of the small and large intestines. C. belli is the least frequent of the three intestinal coccidia, viz: Cryptosporidium, microsporidium and C. belli which perturb humans. The clinical presentation of cystoisosporiasis gives a semblance of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as other gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, vomiting and diarhoea found in COVID-19, AIDS and HIV-infected patients. Research has not presented comorbid features of COVID-19 and cystoisosporiasis. The oocytes of C. belli are visualizable microscopically on wet mounts via bright-field, differential interference contrast (DIC) and epifluorescence. Trimethoprin sulfamethoxazole constitute the normal treatment of choice. C. belli,HIV-infected/AIDS and COVID-19 patients have clinicopathological correlates necessary to elucidate comorbidities and mechanisms of the diseases.
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Chemical constituents and biological activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus lam (Jackfruit): A review

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8987258409

Artocarpus (Moraceae) is a deciduous tree with appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit and is widely used in folk medicines. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus heterophyllus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds. This review indents to compile various studies on A. heterophyllus and critically evaluates its ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological properties. Several pharmacological studies from A. heterophyllus have conclusively established their mode of action in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Based on the available data, it is concluded that Artocarpus as a promising source of useful products and opens up new avenues for novel therapeutics.
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The coral crunch: Amyloidoma

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8895645427

Amyloidoma is an exceptional, progressive disorder demonstrating a characteristic accumulation of significant quantities of amyloid within soft tissues. Amyloidoma is additionally nomenclated as tumoural amyloidosis, nodular amyloid or localized amyloidosis. Furthermore, insulin-derived amyloidoma is referred to as insulin ball. Amyloid is a protein polymer configured of identical monomeric protein units wherein pathological variety is articulated from misfolded proteins. In excess > of twenty three subtypes of proteins can configure amyloid fibres in vivo. Extra-cellular or intra-cellular deposition of amyloid can modify normal organ function [1]. Amyloidosis is categorized into systemic and localized subtypes. Localized amyloidosis displays a localized mass effect and demonstrates a superior prognosis. Insulin-derived amyloidosis was initially documented by Storkel, et al. in 1983 who recognized accumulated insulin- amyloid fibrils in diabetic individuals subjected to continuous infusion of porcine insulin over a period of 5 weeks or more [1,2]. Amyloid nodules may be associated with systemic amyloidosis.
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Epidemiologic aspects and risk factors associated with infertility in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) in north of Iran

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897953759

Objective: This study aimed to investigating of the epidemiological aspects of infertility and related risk factors in infertile women. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study, carried out on 330 infertile women referred to two infertility treatment center of Imam Khomeini Hospital and Mother center in Sari, Iran, from April 2015 to March 2017. Results: 54.5% of these women were in the age of 30-39 years, infertility duration in 55.2% was 1-5 years, Body mass index (BMI) in 44.5% of samples was 26-30 kg/m2, 54.5% had diploma and associate degree. 63.6% lived in urban areas. 74.5 % of patients reported primary infertility. History of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOs) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and poor ovarian reserve were the most common causes and risk factors for the infertility with prevalence 19.42%, 16.81% and 13.91%, respectively. Most underlying disease was thyroid disorders (54.5%). There was found statistically significant relationship between residents of urban areas and infertility duration, endometriosis and educational levels, miscarriage with thyroid. Data analysis performed using IBM SPSS 21 software and Chi-Square test (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that women with infertility in north of Iran were more likely to be older, less educated, and also had overweight. They are more possible to have ovarian disorders. In these area, thyroid disease more common like Iodine deficient regions. Future research should be focused on the reasons why majority of women don’t seek treatment for the underline significant diseases that may be effects on ovarian function and fertility.
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Association between obesity profile and non-alcoholic fatty liver by race/ethnicity

Published on: 19th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897963456

NAFLD is characterized by accumulation of fat in the liver that can lead to health complications. Previous studies have found the obesity phenotype and its components to be risk factors for the development of NAFLD. This study aims to examine the relationship between the obesity phenotype and NAFLD among each racial-ethnic group. We analyzed data from the NHANES III survey (1988-1994). The obesity phenotype was defined based on BMI and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD was defined by abdominal ultrasounds among non-alcoholics with no infection or taking drugs affecting the liver. A higher prevalence of NAFLD was found among the metabolically unhealthy obese group (43.1%) and the metabolically unhealthy overweight (29.4%) than the metabolically unhealthy normal weight (11.8%). Mexicans-Americans had higher odds of NAFLD relative to whites (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.9, p = 0.04). The metabolically healthy obese phenotype was associated with NAFLD (p > 0.05) in the overall sample and in Whites. The metabolically healthy overweight was associated with NAFLD only among Mexican-American (p < 0.05). Metabolically unhealthy overweight or obese had higher odds of NAFLD relative to the metabolically healthy normal weight and this relation is consistent in all the racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.05). Metabolically healthy overweight and obese individuals had a high chance of NAFLD and it varied by race/ethnicity. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to care for those who are part of the metabolically healthy overweight or obese group especially among the Mexican-American population.
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The review of the relationship between UCP2 and obesity: Focusing on inflammatory-obesity

Published on: 19th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8895645747

Understanding the obesity-related genes may provide future therapeutic strategies to modulate disease progression. UCP2 separates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) from ATP production in the inner mitochondria. Figure 1 shows the differences among UCP1, 2, 3. The main role of UCP2 is controlling the metabolism of energy in the cells [1-3]. Besides that, the expression of UCP2 is associated with chronic inflammation due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this regard, in injured cells and tissues, ROS could be decreased by reducing the proton motor force by the anti-inflammatory effect of UCP2 [4].
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Suicidal behaviors as a risk factor among heroin addicts with comorbid depression: A comparative study

Published on: 19th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026724523

The main purpose of the present study was to find out the differences on suicidal ideation, hostility, hopelessness and negative self-evaluation among heroin addicts with comorbid depression. After reviewing the literature, it was hypothesized that heroin addicts with high depression may have high scores on variable of suicidal ideation, hostility, hopelessness, and negative self-evaluation as compared to those with low depression. The sample was consisted of 60 males from Low-socioeconomic status (SES) (34 of them were screened as having high scores on the variable of depression and 26 were screened as low scorers). Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (Siddiqui & Shah, 1997) and Urdu version of Suicide Probability Scale (Cull & Gill, 1982) was administered. To compare heroin addicts with high and low depression on various variables, t - test was applied. The research findings showed that heroin addicts with mean age of 30 years (range 20 to 40) having the mean duration of heroin dependence of 10 years with high depression were significantly high on the variable of suicidal ideation, hostility and hopelessness ((p < .05) as compared to those with low depression. And there was no significant difference on the variable of negative self-evaluation for both groups (p > .05). So it was concluded that services for patients with Heroin addiction should include periodic screening for suicidal behavior along with psychiatric treatment and psychosocial support.
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A rare case of giant ovarian serous cystadenoma presenting as psuedo-meigs syndrome

Published on: 18th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897949620

Meigs’ syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the presence of a benign fibroma of the ovary, ascites and pleural effusion. Other benign cysts of the ovary (such as struma ovarii, mucinous cystadenoma, serous cystadenoma and teratomas), leiomyoma of the uterus, and secondary metastatic tumours to ovary if associated with hydro thorax and ascites are referred to as ‘Pseudo-Meigs” syndrome. It very uncommon and diagnosis is made difficult by symptoms that usually mimic disseminated malignancy or tuberculosis. The gold standard treatment is laparotomy and, by definition of the syndrome, after tumor removal, the symptoms resolves and the patients become asymptomatic. We presented an 18 years old girl with giant ovarian serous cystadenoma with associated pseudo-meigs syndrome, successfully managed in a low resources setting.
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Evaluation of influence of IL-6 C-572G gene polymorphism and clinical factors on positive platelet antibody test

Published on: 15th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899339688

Background: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promotes antibody production. The objective of this study was to investigate whether IL-6 C-572G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and clinical factors are associated with positive platelet antibody test. Materials and methods: Thirty platelet recipients with platelet antibodies (responders) and 20 platelet recipients without platelet antibodies (non-responders) were randomly selected. The -572 C>G (rs 1800796) SNPs in the promoter region of IL-6 gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Solid phase red cell adherence assay (SPRCA) was used for platelet antibody detection. Results: Age, sex, percentage patients with benign diseases, and percentage of patients with homozygotes for the C allele at position -572 of the IL-6 gene were similar between responders and non-responders. Although the amounts of platelets pheresis transfused to patients with hematologic diseases were higher than those of non-hematologic diseases (47.2 ± 54.2 vs. 17.4 ± 13.8 units, p = 0.019), detection rate of platelet antibodies was lower in patients with hematologic diseases than that in patients with non-hematologic diseases (42.3% vs. 79.2%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: There was no association between IL-6 C-572G gene polymorphism and positive reactivity in solid phase platelet antibody detection method in platelet recipients.
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Pig raising practices by unprivileged, ethnic people in Bangladesh

Published on: 15th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899339111

We interviewed 207 pig raisers from seven different districts of Bangladesh to explore their practices related to their pig farming. We used structured questionnaires to interview the pig raisers and used descriptive statistics for analysis. Most of the pig raisers (54%) were illiterate. 50% (104) of them had a monthly income of less than 10000 BDT and 60% (124) were landless. Most of the pig raisers (92%, 191) were rearing local breed and 67% of them were practicing semi-scavenging system. As feed source 55% (114) pig owners used kitchen waste and 54% (111) used rice husk. The pig raisers mentioned different types of challenges such as social problem (16%), disease (50%), less profitable (20%) and unavailability of feed (19%). In our study, we found that 31% respondents visited veterinarians, 28% visited quack and 21% do not take any action when their pigs were sick. Only 16% pig raisers used vaccines against different infectious diseases and 36% used anthelmintics against parasitic diseases. Awareness buildup of the pig raisers may help them raising pigs in a better way which will improve the farming system and reduce the probability of disease transmission.
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New insights from cardiac muscle applied to skeletal muscle

Published on: 15th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897946095

I have recently described the origin of the second Ca2+ binding in the triggering of contractile activity in cardiac myofibrils that is the origin of the Ca2+ Hill coefficient of 2 for the ATPase. This site is not a simple protein binding site and cannot be measured by 45Ca2+ binding. The myofibril protein unit requirements are described by me and so are the consequences of disruption of the function of these units and the related medical outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the topic and extend the reasoning to the function of skeletal muscle and cite the literature that supports this.
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Three visionaries for HRT

Published on: 15th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897954469

When a woman consults a doctor about Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), the first concern is that there is an increased risk of breast cancer with HRT. And this sole reason might be the reason for refusing the offer of HRT. However, this practice has minimal basis and evidence to support it. Although HRT is an umbrella term, women who have no uterus receive oestrogen-only HRT or Estrogen Replacement therapy (ERT). No valid study has linked ERT with an increased risk of breast cancer [1,2].
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C3D data based on 2-dimensional images from video camera

Published on: 13th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899341920

The Human three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model is based on motion analysis methods and can be obtained by particular motion capture systems that export 3D data with coordinate 3D (C3D) format. Unique cameras and specific software are essential for analyzing the data. This equipment is quite expensive, and using them is time-consuming. This research intends to use ordinary video cameras and open source systems to get 3D data and create a C3D format due to these problems. By capturing movements with two video cameras, marker coordination is obtainable using Skill-Spector. To create C3D data from 3D coordinates of the body points, MATLAB functions were used. The subject was captured simultaneously with both the Cortex system and two video cameras during each validation test. The mean correlation coefficient of datasets is 0.7. This method can be used as an alternative method for motion analysis due to a more detailed comparison. The C3D data collection, which we presented in this research, is more accessible and cost-efficient than other systems. In this method, only two cameras have been used.
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Soliter fibrous tumor of diaphragm in a patient with larynx cancer: Case report

Published on: 13th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899350266

Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumor is a neoplasm of mesenchymal origin with benign and malignant forms. We aimed to present a case of solitary fibrous tumor which developed in a patient operated for laryngeal cancer and originated from diaphragm in the light of the literature. Case report: A 61-year-old male patient with tracheostomy with an undiagnosed lesion that appears to be almost 10 cm was referred to our clinic. Since it was a large volume mass, we chose to perform a thoracotomy over thorachoscopic approach. Discussion: Although solitary fibrous tumors most commonly occur in the pleura but may also originated from diaphragm, and our case is valuable that originates from diaphragmatic since there are less than 5 reported cases in literature for past two decades. Conclusion: Even in the case of recurrence, the main treatment remains as total surgical excision. Solitary fibrous tumors are usually detected because of compression symptoms. That is the main reason why we chose thoracotomy.
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Hypertensive toxicity of thyrosine kinase inhibitors; Friend or Foe?

Published on: 12th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899339890

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are widely used in Oncology practice. Hypertension may develop during cancer treatment and TKIs are well known drugs that are associated with drug related hypertensive toxicity. TKI related hypertensive toxicity is not always the indicator of worse clinical outcomes and it may be the sign of treatment efficacy.
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Glomerular hyperfiltration in Yemeni children with sickle cell disease

Published on: 12th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899350598

Background: Glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) is a common feature of sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) starting at infancy and represents an early marker of incipient glomerular injury and renal dysfunction. Methods: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of GH among children (≤ 16 years) with sickle cell disease (SCD) at their steady state, recruited over 6 months at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic in Al-Sadaqa General Teaching Hospital, Aden, Yemen. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Schwartz formula. Data on clinical history, anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and laboratory investigations were collected. Results: Of 101 children (mean age 7.2 ± 3.9 years), 65 (64.4%) were males. The prevalence of GH was observed in 36 (35.6%) children, who were significantly older (10.7 ± 3.2 vs. 5.2 ± 2.7 years, p < 0.001) and had a lower fetal Hb level (5 ± 3.3 vs. 9 ± 7.1, p = 0.02). All children were normotensive, but hyperfiltrating children showed significantly higher systolic (97.2 ± 7.3 vs. 89.7 ± 5.2 mmHg) and diastolic pressure (55.1 ± 5.0 vs. 49 ± 4.3 mmHg) (all p < 0.001). Among evaluated children, 25.7% had hyperfiltration alone, whereas 9.9% had an associated microalbuminuria (MA), and no significant difference in eGFR between those with and without MA (158.4 ± 33.7 vs. 160.7 ± 29.8 ml/min/173m2, p = 0.84). Conclusion: This study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of GH in Yemeni children with SCD that increased with age. Recognition of hyperfiltration and other early markers of nephropathy in this population could help to develop renal protective strategies to prevent progressive loss of kidney function.
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PET/MRI, aiming to improve the target for Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy (FSRT) in recurrence of resected skull base meningioma after 2 years: Case report

Published on: 12th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899343514

The increasing use of highly conformal radiation deliberates a higher accurate targeting. Contouring and clinical judgment are presumably the crucial point, thus positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging PET/MRI with somatostatin analogs appears to be useful in radiotherapy target definition. A case report of a 43-year-old woman presented with a recurrence of a meningioma (World Health Organization group I classification) in skull base, 2 years after resection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left sided skull base mass on sphenoid wing, anterior clinoid and with a soft tissue component in the lateral portion of the orbit. Contrast-enhanced MRI and a computed tomography (CT) dedicated were used to the radiotherapy planning. Aiming an improvement on target volume delineation, 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/MRI was also performed due the difficult localization of the tumor in skull base. Was treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to a total dose of 54 Gy in 28 fractions. It was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV), defined based of both imaging modalities. In our case PET/MRI helped to define the target, which volume becomes bigger than that based exclusively on MRI and CT.
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An audit on outpatient hysteroscopy – cervical dilatation, failure rates and patient satisfaction

Published on: 12th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8885999148

Aims: To audit the use of cervical dilators, local anaesthetic, and failure rates in outpatient hysteroscopy over a two-year period in University Hospital Kerry. To review the experiences of women attending the outpatient hysteroscopy clinic (OHC) over a two-year period in University Hospital Kerry. Methods: Retrospective data review was carried out. Green-top Guideline No. 59: Best Practice in Outpatient Hysteroscopy, published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), was the standard used for comparison. Results: Two hundred and twenty women were seen over a two-year period. The average age was forty-eight. The most common complaint being of menorrhagia/irregular bleeding per vaginum (PV). Local anaesthetic was used in just under one third of cases of which half required cervical dilatation. Most women reported experiencing mild to moderate levels of discomfort however most would opt for an outpatient hysteroscopic procedure again if required. Discussion/Conclusion: Outpatient hysteroscopy is a well-tolerated and safe procedure. Suitability for outpatient hysteroscopy is not predictable based on parity of menopausal status. Women would elect to undergo outpatient hysteroscopy again if required and this is likely due to several reasons including convenience and lack of requirement for general anaesthetic.
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Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS): A case with adverse reaction to three drugs alternately administered

Published on: 11th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899339225

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a severe multiorgan hypersensitivity reaction mostly caused by several eliciting drugs in patients with a genetic predisposition. Incidence of DRESS in children is very variable, frome 1:1000 to 1:10.000, and the mortality rate seems to be lower than 10%. Anti-convulsants are the main drugs involved both in adults and in children. The treatment of choice is the prompt withdrawn of the offending drug and using intravenous immunoglobulins and corticosteroids used in synergy. In recent years, emerging studies have outlined the disease more clearly. We present a pediatric case in which the patient developed DRESS syndrome as a result of exposure to lamotrigine before and carbamazepine after and a relapse after exposure to omeprazole. Starting from this case report we provide an overview on DRESS Syndrome.
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Stem cell therapy in children with acute liver failure: The dream could come true

Published on: 11th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899340842

Acute liver failure (ALF) in children is a severe disease with a high mortality rate. The current treatment strategies are still defective, with many cases die when liver transplantation is unavailable. The current protocol of steroids therapy improved the survival rate of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-related ALF. However, there is still a high mortality for non-HAV cases. Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been tried in experimental animals with ALF and in few adult studies with acute-on-chronic liver failure. No previous trials of SCT have been tested in children with ALF. The absence of SCT application in ALF in children could be due to some issues. These could be related to safety, sources, administration route, optimum dosage, efficacy, and survival. It is proposed that could be the future therapy if these obstacles have been well studied and solved.
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The use of the scientific method as dogma can be an obstacle in times of pandemic

Published on: 8th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899350137

Science is not inherently dogmatic. On the contrary, in our opinion and according to Bachelard, it often breaks with certain dogmas [1]. That is why it must have the necessary flexibility to be able to analyze and incorporate exceptional situations. In this regard, the current Coronavirus pandemic is an exceptional situation causing several thousand deaths a day.
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Acute urinary retention and hyponatremia from central hypothyroidism

Published on: 8th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8899349889

A mass arising from the pituitary gland commonly damages cells of the anterior pituitary gland and affects the secretion of gonadotropins and growth hormone. However, central hypothyroidism and secondary adrenal insufficiency from such damage is a rare phenomenon. Acute urinary retention as the main symptom of central hypothyroidism is also an unusual initial presentation. We report a male patient who comes with frequent urinary retention and hyponatremia at our hospital.
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Evidence of woven bone formation in carotid artery plaques

Published on: 5th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8877223434

Objective: Plaque morphology plays an important prognostic role in the occurrence of cerebrovascular events. Echolucent and heterogeneous plaques, in particular, carry an increased risk of subsequent stroke. Depending on the quality of the plaque echogenicity based on B-mode ultrasound examination, carotid plaques divide into a soft lipid-rich plaque and a hard plaque with calcification. The aim of this study was to investigate structural changes in the basement membrane of different carotid artery plaque types. Patients and methods: Biopsies were taken from 10 male patients (average age; 75 + 1 years) and 7 females (68 + 3 years). The study population included patients suffering from a filiform stenosis of the carotid artery, 8 patients with acute cerebrovascular events and 9 with asymptomatic stenosis. Scanning electron and polarised light microscopic investigations were carried out on explanted plaques to determine the morphology of calcified areas in vascular lesions. Results: By means of scanning electron microscopy, multiple foci of local calcification were identified. The endothelial layer was partially desquamated from the basement membrane and showed island-like formations. Polarised light microscopy allows us to distinguish between soft plaques with transparent structure and hard plaques with woven bone formation. Conclusion: The major finding of our study is the presence of woven bone tissue in hard plaques of carotid arteries, which may result from pathological strains or mechanical overloading of the collagen fibers. These data suggest a certain parallel with sclerosis of human aortic valves due to their similar morphological characteristics.
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The effect of NLP-based approach to teaching surgical procedures to senior OBGYN residents

Published on: 4th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8886000867

Each individual has a unique way of learning which is based on personal background [1]. Neuro Linguistic Programming is an ideology of communicating with an individual. It can be applied in social relations like teaching fields [2]. Each medical student deals with a set of new information in his unique way. For example with regard to the following text on vacuum extraction, one learner focuses on definition, while the other focuses on spelling, and the third one just on shapes [3] (Figures 1-3).
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Fears of health catastrophe as Nepal reports increasing deaths from COVID-19

Published on: 1st January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873854252

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had affected both developed and developing countries too. The first case in Nepal was confirmed on 23 January 2020. It was also the first recorded case of COVID-19 in South Asia. Nepal reported its first COVID-19 death on May 16. At the end of October, the number of death stood 937 and 1126 on 9 November. In September and October, deaths doubled, and with winter setting in, fatalities may skyrocket. Among the total CP cases in Nepal nearly 50% are from the Capital Kathmandu. So, Kathmandy is the new epicenter of COVID-19 in Nepal. There are no proper community-based isolation centres and ICU beds are also still limited. Due to increasing trend of COVID-19 cases and death people have fear of psychological stress. A study shows at least one symptom of psychological distress whereas 32% suffered from two or more symptoms of psychological distress such as restlessness, fearfulness, anxiety and worry and sadness. Despite limited resources, the government’s major challenges are early diagnosis, management of confirmed cases, contact tracing, and implementing some public health measures to reduce the infection’s transmissibility.
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