The outbreaks and resurgence: The disease which reportedly began in the Chinese city Wuhan in November-December 2019, soon spread to various parts of the world, and was named and declared a pandemic disease by WHO. While the European countries were recovering from the epidemic, the disease took hold in the USA, the South American countries, Arabian countries, and South Asian countries, predominantly affecting Brazil, Peru, Iran, and India. Presently, many European countries are witnessing a resurgence and recurrent outbreaks of COVID-19.
Spread and evolving new insights: Whereas there is workplace-related infection rise as people are returning to their offices, in other places the outbreaks are related to the people crowding and meeting care-freely and trying to resort back to their earlier way of life. The reopening of the educational facilities across the continents may make matters worse.
Impact on health and healthcare: Most cases of COVID-19 infections go unnoticed and are followed by self-recovery. But what may appear good from the clinical perspective, appears to complicate epidemiological efforts to contain the outbreak. With the evolving information about the disease, there seem to be certain possible outcomes such as control and containment, or the persistence of the disease as global endemic accompanied with outbreaks and resurgent episodes.
Gnetic factors linked to disease severity: With the COVID-19 pandemic, not all infected patients develop a severe respiratory illness. Further, there is a large variation in disease severity, which may be due to the genetic factors underlying the variable response to the virus. It is becoming clear that apart from the advanced age and pre-existing conditions, certain genetic constituent factors render some patients more vulnerable to the more severe forms of the diseases.
Integration of virus into human genome: A significant part of the human genome is derived from viruses especially the RNA viruses. In fact, about 8 percent of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are viral gene sequences that have become a permanent part of the human lineage after they infected our ancient ancestors. With this background, a novel concept emerging that if COVID-19 persists for several generations, its genetic material is projected to be integrated or assimilated into human genome. The involved mechanisms are conceptualized through the transposons or transposable elements of the SARS-CoV-2.
Background: A Grey 12-year-old Arabian endurance horse gelding was referred to the SHS Veterinary Center for anorexia, mild colic of 5 days duration, and melena of 1 day duration. The owner reported recurring colic, 12 episodes of mild colic in the previous year.
Methods: On admission, vital signs were within normal limits and body condition score was estimated to be 3/9.
Results: Packed cell volume (PCV) was 28% [reference range (RR): 31% to 47%] and plasma total protein was 58 g/L (RR: 60 to 80 g/L). Hematochezia was observed. Abdominal ultrasound examination detected no abnormalities. Over the next 12 h, the horse experienced hematochezia and several mild episodes of colic and death. A necropsy was performed. A mass arising from the right dorsal ascending colon near the base of the cecum and extending transmurally from the colonic mucosa into the mesocolon was a 8 cm × 5 cm × 8 cm firm, homogenous, tan mass. The portion of the mass that extended into the colonic lumen was pedunculated, with an ulcerated surface. The adjacent segments of colon were markedly reddened and edematous. Histologically, the mass was comprised of large interweaving sheets of small, spindle cells with ill-defined cell borders embedded in abundant myxomatous matrix. Tumor cells contained scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and oval to elongate nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Mitotic figures were rare (1/10) high power fields. Tumor infiltrated between the muscularis interna and the muscularis externa at the myenteric plexi.
Conclusion: Gross and histologic appearance, were consistent with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Alembante Fikadu Lemma*, Urban Robert and Lajtai Laszlo
Published on: 6th January, 2022
Khat is a huge green plant that thrives at high elevations throughout the region ranging from southern to eastern Africa, and in the Arabian Peninsula. However, chewing Khat became common among the young (youth). The objectives of this study were to investigate the khat use behavior, users’ self-understanding, and their readiness of stopping using khat among street people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A Semi-structured interview was used to collect information from street people in Addis Ababa. 15 participants were individually interviewed and 11 of them were males and the rest 4 were female participants. The data acquired from the interview was analyzed using descriptive and thematic analysis. Chewing Khat was identified as a common activity among the youth living in the streets of Addis Ababa. Most of the participants have an awareness of the use of khat and its effects on their health but they are still struggling to stop it. While the readiness to stop using khat was investigated and the addiction behavior and the lifestyle of the participants were affecting them from stooping chewing Khat.
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Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
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Ido-Ekiti/Afe Babalola University, Nigeria
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Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
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