In this work an efficient method developed for the synthesis of 125I-benzofuran-2-yl) pyridin-2-amine (125IBPA), followed by radioiodination with 125I by using Chloramine-T at pH 8. The reaction proceeds within 10 min at room temperature (20-25°C). The radiochemical yield determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) using hexane:ethyl acetate (1:6 v/v) and the purity analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase RP18column and acetonitrile:0.1 M ammonium bicarbonate (pH 7.5) (1:1) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml×min−1. The radiochemical yield using aH2O2 oxidant found equal to 96.5% with a radiochemical purity of 125I-BPA of over 96.5%. The biodistribution data in normal mice indicated a high initial uptake of 6.54±0.10 (% ID/g±SD) in the brain within 30 min post-injection. These results promote a further the use of 125I-BPA as a novel agent for brain imaging.
Background and Purpose: Injuries for the pre-adolescent female Irish Dancer (FID) are not well recognized. The purpose of this case study is to report imaging assisted diagnosis and management of atypical medial and plantar foot pain (MPFP) in an 8-year-old FID.
Description: The patient presented with chief complaint of diffuse left MPFP. The patient was initially evaluated by a Physical Therapist for persistent foot pain. The patient experienced minimal pain in non-weightbearing (NWB). Pain intensified in weightbearing (WB) escalating with a heel raise. The patient experienced pain with resistance testing, ankle passive range of motion (PROM) and first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) PROM. Diffuse tenderness with palpation over the medial column of the left foot was noted. The patient was unable to complete single leg dynamic activity on the left foot. There was suspicion for a metatarsal stress fracture (MSF). Radiographs were ordered and read as negative. The patient was treated with immobilization in a walking boot, WB as tolerated and relative rest including cessation of dance. The patient returned for re-evaluation 2 weeks after reporting no change in symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was then ordered.
Outcome: Results of the MRI identified 2 stress fractures in the first metatarsal. The treatment plan changed to NWB status with immobilization for an additional 6 weeks. The patient returned to full WB status and participated in all dance activity 15 weeks after the initial presentation to the Physician and 27 weeks after the initial onset of MPFP.
Discussion/Conclusion: In this pre-adolescent FID, the presentation of MPFP can be misinterpreted as a soft tissue injury. It is important to consider the diagnosis of first MSF in a pre-adolescent FID to allow appropriate management.
Flexible magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) has outstanding diagnostic correctness for gastrointestinal metaplsia and is hope for to be highly useful for imaging stage cervixcal metaplsia beginning by imaging the first stage of metaplasia by imaging single layer of subcolmnar reserve cells reserve cells hyperplasia, the reserve cells are round to cuboid with large oval or round nuclei, seen below the surface columnar cells and the columnar
This literature review is concerning with liquid chromatography specifically high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), chromatography theory, chromatographic parameters, monolithic columns, principles of green chemistry and its application ingreen chromatography.
Fascioliasis is a one of the most important serious parasitic zoonotic disease which caused by trematode giant liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica among cattle’s and humans. The infection of Fasciola can be control by the use of phytochemicals as anthelmintic components. The anthelmintic activities of dried root powder of medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens and their different preparations (organic extracts and column purified fraction) are uses in vitro against liver fluke F. gigantica. The dried root powder, different organic extract, and column fractions were time and concentration-dependent. Among all the organic extracts, ethanol extract was high toxic than other organic extracts. The toxic effect of ethanolic extract of P. fulgens after 2h exposure the LC50 value is 5.22 mg/ml against F. gigantica. The column purified fraction of dried root powder of P. fulgens shows more toxicity. The 2h LC50 of column purified fraction was 3.25 mg/ml whereas in 8h exposure the LC50 is 1.24 mg/ml. The phytochemicals of the P. fulgens may be used as anthelmintic components against liver fluke F. gigantica.
Aim: Study the monitoring method of separation of Salvianolate through macroporous resin chromatographic column using UV spectral data.
Method: HPLC was used to determine the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column. The UV spectrum of the eluent liquid was measured using portable UV spectrometer. Stepwise regression was used to develop the model to predict the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column using the UV spectral data.
Result: Stepwise regression model was developed to predict the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column. RMSE was 0.3263, MAP was 0.2323 and CV was 0.1796.
Conclusion: Stepwise regression model could be used to predict the concentration of Salviol B in the eluent liquid of macroporous resin chromatographic column using UV spectral data
Introduction: The tendency to impulsive behaviors and/or violence is exacerbated after alcohol consumption. Still, the relation between alcohol/violent deaths reported in the literature is not accurate, and in general, alcohol is only seen as a trigger to aggressive actions. The relationship of the victims with their blood alcohol is less studied. They were especially concerned about the role of alcohol as a risk factor for victims of unnatural death. Thus, our goal is to check the influence of alcohol in victims of violent deaths as homicides, suicides, and accidents.
Materials and methods: Retrospectively the medical records of 805 autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine (IML) of Franco da Rocha, in the period 2001 to 2017 were reviewed. The variables studied were sex, age, types of violent death rates, and alcohol - these were considered positive when above 0.3 mg/ml.
The dosage of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was performed using samples of 10 ml of blood collected at necropsy, is preferably taken from the cardiac chambers or of the right femoral vein. Dosages of alcohol in blood samples were done in the Forensic Toxicology Center of the IML by gas chromatography, using the technique of separation “headspace” and double column.
Results: Drug testing for alcohol was available for 488 (79.1%) of 617 necropsies. Of the 617 subjects studied, 532 (85.7%) were male, and 85 (13.8%) were females (with high rates of adolescents). The vast majority (n = 230) were killed, and 40.5% of victims had BAC above 0.3 mg/ml of blood. Traffic accidents came next, accounting for 181 deaths, with 41% of victims presenting positive BAC.
Discussion: High blood alcohol levels of the victims were associated mainly with the genesis of accidents (drowning, falls, traffic, aspiration/ smothering) and murder (with impaired ability to resist or by causing the release of impulses to engage in violent situations), about 40% of cases.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that alcohol abuse is a risk factor for victims of violent death. In these cases, alcohol has two types of action. Direct: contributes to accidents of various kinds - from traffic by decreasing powers of concentration, attention, and loss of reflexes, to other types of accidents such as drowning, falls, swallowing disorders causing airway obstruction, and mechanical asphyxia. And they were indirect, making it easier for individuals to engage in conflict (and thus become victims of crimes).
Today HPLC is widely applied for separations and purifications in a variety of areas including pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, environmental, polymer and food industries. It is accomplished by injection of a small amount of liquid sample into a moving stream of liquid (called the mobile phase) that passes through a column packed with particles of the stationary phase. The separation of a mixture into its components depends on different degrees of retention of each component in the column. HPLC is just one type of liquid chromatography, meaning the mobile phase is a liquid. Reversed-phase HPLC is the most common type of HPLC. The reversed-phase means the mobile phase is relatively polar, and the stationary phase is relatively non-polar. HPLC instrumentation includes a Solvent reservoir, pump, injector, column, detector, and integrator or acquisition and display system. The heart of the system is the column where separation occurs. The information that can be obtained using HPLC includes identification, quantification, and resolution of a compound. The major applications are in the area of Pharmaceuticals, food, research, manufacturing, forensics, and bio-monitoring of pollutants.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which in recent years received huge attention due to their extreme stability, high potential toxicity and bioaccumulation in food chains. The main source of human exposure to these compounds is discovered in foods of animal origin, especially foods rich in fat. The target of the present study was to set up an analytical method for the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCB in vegetable oils, sunflower meals, sunflower seeds, rapeseeds and milk powder. The first step consisted of a semi-automatic Soxhlet extraction for 3 hours, by using a mixture of Hexane: Acetone – 80:20, followed by acid digestion with 55% acid silica and filtration. After concentration, the extract is purified on a multilayer column (silica gel, silica-KOH, silica-H2SO4 anhydrous Na2SO4) followed by an alumina column separation in two fractions (first fraction containing PCDDs/PCDFs and second containing only PCBs). The purified extract was then analyzed by GC/MS/MS. The newly developed approach in our lab was capable to reduce the overall time of sample preparation to seven hours/ per sample. Since the method shows good mean recoveries for all labeled congeners spiked in the samples (for PCDDs/PCDFs – 80% - 110%, for DL-PCBs – 70% - 85%), we assumed the absence of overestimation or underestimation in the analyzed samples.
Bhagat Singh*, Satish R Nailkar, Chetansen A Bhadkambekar, Suneel Prajapati and Sukhminder Kaur
Published on: 28th March, 2023
Prescriptions for psychoactive substances such as Pregabalin, Methamphetamine, Caffeine, Clonazepam and Mirtazapine (PM-CCM) are common in the treatment of a variety of disorders. Indeed, the PM-CCM has been used in different therapeutic areas, including insomnia, anxiety, seizure disorders, etc. Unfortunately, these psychoactive substances are present in the illegal street market, leading to a lot of drug abuse among some addicted users, road insecurity and suicide. Hence, it has become essential to validate and develop a rapid and effective method to analyze the PM-CCM, a modified illicit drug, for drug abuse in the forensic sciences. A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry(GC-MS) method has been developed for the identification of Pregabalin, Methamphetamine, Caffeine, Clonazepam and Mirtazapine (PM-CCM) in forensic exhibits. At room temperature, the sample was ultrasonicated for 5 minutes before being extracted with methanol. A highly precise auto-injector is used to inject a very small quantity of samples for analysis. Helium is used as a carrier gas with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The separation of PM-CCM was performed on SH-RXi-5 MS, ID.25 mm, film thickness. 25 µm, length of 30 m column. The constituents of PM-CCM were identified by the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z ratio) of fragments of the parent compound by comparing them with the NIST-17 MS Library. Separation and identification of PM-CCM were achieved within a 15-minute run. The proposed method has been successfully used for the routine analysis of PM-CCM in complex illicit drug preparations and in forensic exhibits as well. The application of above discussed qualitative analysis method and screening of PM-CCM, modified illicit drug samples demonstrates the potential and applicability of the technique to the fast chemical profiling of illicit samples.
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Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
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