Nutrition

Perception of Nutrition and Exercise as a Tool in Controlling Cardiovascular Diseases among the Elderly in Anambra State

Published on: 3rd November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286355386

The research investigated the perception of nutrition and exercise as a tool in controlling Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) among elderly civil servants in Anambra State of Nigeria. A total of 250 respondents comprising 150 elderly academic staff Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka and 100 senior civil servants in the Anambra state civil service, who willingly, volunteered to participate in the study. Their ages ranged between 55-65 years purposively selected. The instrument for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire, with a reliability value of 0.73 using the test retest method. All data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and chi square tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study showed that nutrition (diet) and exercise have significant effect in the prevention/control of (CVDs) among the elderly. It is therefore recommended that at the civil service secretariats, universities and other establishments/parastatals, should establish high standard eateries (restaurants) where qualified caterers, would regularly provide nutritious diet, at subsidized rate for workers in this category. In order to enable these class of workers have at least one good meal per day, in addition to a mandatory one- work-free afternoon (2.00pm-4.00pm) for routine/regular physical exercises for these class of workers.
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The body composition analysis: Differences between students and the trend of their change

Published on: 22nd March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7493653979

Anthropometric characteristics, represent one of the most important subsystems within the “system” of man, and which can be in affected by physical exercises in the direction of the desired transformation. Very often the anthropometric parameters (height and weight) are used in the assessment of the morphological status of an individual, and on the basis of the results of Body Mass Index (BMI) bring certain estimates and conclusions. BMI as a statistical measures, is used in many public health campaigns as an approximate measure of the ideal body mass and the degree of nutrition of a population. The main goal of the research was to determine and analyze differences in BMI parameters between male and female students, aged 18±0.5 years, and determine the trend of changes. Using the T-test module, the obtained results confirmed that there are statistically significant differences in body height (t=8,17; p<0.001) and body weight (t=5,29; p<0.001), while in BMI values there are not statistically significant differences (t=-0.68, p>0.001). Based on BMI values, a positive trend of somatic changes of both poles is evident.
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A comparison of complications associated with nutrition between the patients receiving enteral or parenteral in the intensive care unit

Published on: 29th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872656709

The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the complications including infection and mortality associated with enteral and parenteral nutrition on patients in the ICU of a university hospital. In this study, a total of 100 patients who were under follow-up in the ICU for two years were examined. In our study, demographic characteristics, the reason for admission, comorbidity, initial ICU laboratory values, morbidity and mortality during the follow-up period of the patients who only received enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) were evaluated, and the results between two were compared as well as evaluating the complications within the groups. The comparison of the reason for admission between the EN and PN groups showed that surgical reasons were significantly higher in the PN group. Nosocomial infections, the presence of infection and the development of sepsis were significantly higher in the EN group. The 28-day mortality rate was higher in the PN group compared to the EN group. The length of stay in the ICU and on mechanical ventilation was longer in the EN group. There was no significant difference in the 28-day mortality, readmission to the ICU and repeated endotracheal intubation between the two groups. Because there is no statistical difference between EN and PN groups in point of infection and mortality, we conclude that the length of stay in the ICU and reason for admission play a more crucial role in the development of infection and on mortality rather than enteral or parenteral nutrition route.
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Anti-nutrient and mineral properties of Complementry Food produced from Malted Red Sorgum and Defatted Soybean Flour Blend

Published on: 31st August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286350489

This study was aimed at producing a high nutritious food that will meet the nutritional requirements of consumers. Blends of malted red sorghum and defatted soybeans flour were processed and the resulting flours were formulated at ratios of 100:00; 95:5; 90:10 and 80:20 (malted red sorghum: defatted soybeans flour). The resulting products were subjected to antinutrients and minerals properties determination. The results obtained showed that the antinutrients decreased linearly with increase in the mineral elements. Antinutrients in the blends decreased from 2.25-1.80mg/g (oxalate); 2.45-2.16mg/g (phytate); 14.16-9.26g/100g (Alkaloids); 2.12-1.69/100g (saponin) and 0.18-0.13mg/g (Tannin). A percentage increase of 12.6% (sodium); 10.8% (calcium); 9.5% (potassium); 3.7% (magnesium) and 14.1% (Iron) was recorded as the quantity of defatted soybeans flour increased in the blends. The low levels of antinutrients in the blends produced make them safe and suitable for human consumption. Substitution of malted red sorghum with 20% defatted soybean flour showed a remarkable improvement in the mineral contents of the diets
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Assessment of Complementary Feeding Practice of infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Gode Town, Somali Regional State of Ethiopia

Published on: 9th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286424898

Malnutrition is the largest risk factor caused by inadequate nutrition that leads to childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as inadequate growth and development. Infants are at increased risk of malnutrition by six months, when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet their nutritional requirements. However the factors associated with nutritional status of infants after 6 months of age have received little attention in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the complementary foods of infants and young children (6-23 months) in Gode town of Kebele 01. The prevalences of wasting, stunting and underweight among infants and young children were 6.1%, 56.1%, 10.0% reespectively. Undernutrition is a public health problem among infants and young children in Gode town of Kebele 01. Breastfeeding was slightly positive associated with lower chances of wasting at r=0.61, p= 0.01 and underweight at r=0.331, p=0.01. While diarrheal disease was associated with higher chances of wasting and underweight. Initiation of complementary food was slightly positive association with wasting at r=0.179, p=0.05.
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Nutritional and structural evaluation of selected Black gram varieties for preparation of Fermented Thick Pancake (Dosa)

Published on: 12th March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7379425837

The quality characteristics of selected black gram varieties viz., VBN 5, VBN 7, ADT 3, T9 and CO 6 and were evaluated for their suitability for the preparation of thick pancake. The foaming stability and foaming capacity were found to be maximum in VBN 5, CO 6 and T9. Maximum rise in volume was recorded in CO 6 (149 ml) followed by VBN 5 (148 ml) and T9 (147 ml) which is an indication good quality of thick pancake. Thick pancake prepared using 5 black gram varieties were analyzed for the physicochemical and microbial load. The texture profile viz., springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess was evaluated for VBN 5, CO 6, T9 and VBN 7 respectively. The protein content was higher in thick pancake prepared from VBN 5 (25.47/100 g) compared to CO 6 (24.66 g/100g). Among the selected varieties, CO 6, T9 and VBN 5 had good batter content, texture, and microstructure and were found to be most suitable for thick pancake preparation.
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Micronutrient deficiency, a novel nutritional risk factor for insulin resistance and Syndrom X

Published on: 30th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8465489491

Emerging evidence indicates that micronutrient deficiency could play a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of many chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, kidney disease, cancer, anemia and other cardio-metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases through the induction of Insulin resistance (IR). However, there are still gaps in our scientific knowledge regarding the links between micronutrient deficiencies, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. This review provides current information on recent advances and a global perspective regarding the relationship between micronutrient deficiency, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. Empirical evidence indicates that deficiencies in either micronutrients associated with insulin activity (such as Chromium, manganese, magnesium, and iron) or antioxidant enzyme cofactors (such as vitamin A, copper, zinc, and manganese) could impact several physiological processes leading to a cascade of metabolic and biochemical derangements such as B-cell apoptosis, loss of islet cell mass, defective tyrosine kinase activity, oxidative stress, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, reduction in lean body mass, defective insulin signaling mechanism, elevated protein kinase C activity, and excess intracellular calcium. Collaboratively, these states of metabolic malfunctioning are associated with IR, which triggers the onset of many cardio metabolic diseases. Undoubtedly, the prevention of micronutrient deficiency may indeed ameliorate the incidence of IR and cardio-metabolic disorders in those at risk and in the general population.
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Recent findings related to Nutrition and Diabetes Mellitus

Published on: 18th February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964755229

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass surgery is superior to medical treatment for short- to medium-term remission of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) [1]. Recent research indicates that the improvements in insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery are associated with elevated circulating bile acid concentration and remodeling of gut microbiota [2]. Gut microbiome can be considered as a target of dietary interventions or medicines to prevention/treatment of hyperglycemia in T2DM. Since, the glucose-lowering effects of metformin are mediated by changes in the composition and function of gut microbiota [3,4].
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Lemongrass tea consumption and changes in Acid-Base Balance and Electrolyte homeostasis

Published on: 31st December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7991709231

The consumption of dietary herbs and supplements may be associated with several physiological consequences including, but not limited to disturbances of acid-base homeostasis, minerals and electrolytes wasting, gastrointestinal disturbances as well as hemodynamic changes. Plants food based nutritional studies are important for assessing the effect of plants on human health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in acid-base status and electrolyte homeostasis following the consumption of lemongrass tea. The acute and sub-chronic effects of infusions prepared from 2, 4, and 8g lemongrass leaf powder on serum and urinary pH, and electrolytes levels were assessed in 105 subjects using an interventional study design. The results post-treatment were compared with baseline values. Plasma pH decreased from baseline value of 7.37 ± 0.02 to 7.20 ± 0.03, and 7.30 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively for participants treated with infusion prepared from 2g of lemongrass leaf powder. For those treated with infusion prepared from 4g of lemongrass leaf powder, plasma pH decreased from baseline value of 7.35 ± 0.02 to 7.22 ± 0.02 and 7.29 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively. Treatment with infusion prepared from 8g of lemongrass leaf powder caused a decrease in plasma pH from baseline value of 7.38 ± 0.02 to 7.15 ± 0.02 and 7.18 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively. Corresponding changes in urinary pH were also observed. Furthermore, at days 10 and 30, plasma protein concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.05) in subjects treated with infusion prepared from 8g lemongrass leaf extract. There were also significant increases (p < 0.05) in urinary volume, urination frequency, and urinary electrolytes levels within the same period. The consumption of lemongrass tea may be associated with changes in acid-base balance and electrolyte homeostasis due to its varied biological constituents and their activities
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Nutritional analysis of Sphenostylis Stenocarpa seeds partially included with soya bean meal in Heterobranchus Bidorsalis fingerling diet

Published on: 27th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8506033891

Five experimental feeding trials were conducted to investigate the performance of Heterobranchus Bidorsalis fingerlings to graded levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) of Sphenostylis Stenocarpa seed meal diets. Complete randomized design with triplicate groups of fingerlings was used for the study for ten weeks. The proximate, anti-nutritional factor and amino acid profile of the S. stenocarpa was analysed. The study showed that treatment C with 50% inclusion of Sphenostylis Stenocarpa meal was significantly different (p < 0.05) and performed best among other treatments in terms of the net weight gain, standard growth rate, and survival. The feed conversion ratio was best in treatment C but not significantly different (p > 0.05) to other treatments.
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Quality Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor Stem Sheath Enriched with Spondias mombin Extract

Published on: 3rd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628641937

The nutritional compositions of sorghum stem sheath-Spondias mombin extract were evaluated. The enriched stem sheath extract were obtained by mixing sorghum stem sheath and Spondias mombin (iyeye) extract in varied proportions at 100:0; 0:100; 95:5; 90:10 and 85:15. The five samples were subjected to analysis: proximate, mineral, vitamin C, antinutrient composition. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that observable increases were noticed in proximate, vitamin C and mineral composition from 5% inclusion of Spondias mombin extract in sorghum stem sheath drinks. The anti-nutrient compositions: tannin, oxalate and saponin, ranged from (0.144 to 0.442, 0.303 to 0.385, 0.070 to 0.198) mg/100 ml, respectively for sorghum stem sheath- Spondias mombin extract which were within consumable safe limits. The study concluded that nutritious enriched drinks could be produced from sorghum stem sheath and Spondias mombin extract at ambient temperature.
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Eating habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 lockdown: A comparative study (before and during isolation) on the 9 de Julio city (Buenos Aires, Argentina) population

Published on: 16th November, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872698108

Following the COVID-19 proliferation beyond China’s borders at the beginning of 2020, containment measures have been taken by different countries around the globe. Citizens were forced to stay at home. Specifically, on March 19th, the Argentine Government decided to implement the “Social, preventive and mandatory isolation”, strategy that unfortunately impacts on the lifestyle, the practise of physical activity and on the nutritional aspect of the population. The aim of this study was analize eating habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 lockdown on the 9 de Julio city, Bs. As., Argentina. The survey was conducted using Google Form. The questionnaire was divided into different sections: sociodemographic data, eating habits, physical activity and concepts and emotions associated with isolation. The research reached 287 responses with a medium socioeconomic level. During isolation, the frequency of purchases decreased. It was observed an increase in the consumption of pasta, bread and cakes. Concerning the physical activity, approximately 70% declared to train before the COVID-19 lockdown, decreased by 13% during the lockdown. Other activities conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown; the most mentioned were cleaning the house, cooking, watching television, series and movies. A percentage greater than 50% of the surveyed population associated the situation of lockdown with positive emotions (share with my family, stay at home); while only 24% associate it with negative emotions (anxiety, anguish, fear). It is expected that most habits will return to normal, however, it would be interesting to know which of those developed, adopted and implemented during lockdown will remain in the new normality.
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Mild to moderate iodine deficiency in pregnancy: A matter of debate

Published on: 12th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8980359493

During the last few decades painstaking efforts have been made to eliminate iodine deficiency through the world. Nowadays in regions where dietary iodine intake is adequate or borderline, the main focus is increasing dietary iodine supply in the target population during pregnancy and the first years of life. Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases the risk of irreversible brain damage, intellectual disability, neurologic abnormalities, stunted growth, increased pregnancy loss, infant mortality, impairments in child development and cretinism. The potential effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are debated. Results from animal studies and observational human studies indicate that maternal mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency disturbs thyroid function in pregnancy and it also may affects fetal neurodevelopment. The effect of supplementation of iodine on thyroid function of pregnant women and their newborn, neurodevelopment of infants and cognitive performance of children have been investigated using iodine nutrition in pregnancy, based on median urinary iodine concentration. However they have found conflicting results regarding the benefits or harms of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Although many epidemiological, interventional and clinical studies have supported the association between thyroid function in pregnant women and later psychomotor and mental development of their children, the effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on neurodevelopment of children is inconclusive. Even in areas with well-established universal salt iodization program, pregnancy could be at risk of having iodine deficiency and despite WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation which believe that dietary iodine fortification during pregnancy depends primarily on the extent of pre-existing iodine deprivation, systematic dietary fortification needs to be implemented in this vulnerable group. However, iodine supplementation of mildly iodine deficient pregnant women may not have beneficial effects in their thyroid function or neurodevelopment of their children.
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Nicotinamide as a treatment option of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Published on: 21st September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653751

Age related macular degeneration is a severe disease of mainly elderly people and leads to central vision loss because of the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium [1]. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the accumulation of extracellular material and deposit formation near the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, which leads to loss of photoreceptors and induction of chronic inflammation. The deposits are composed of lipids and proteins including many complement proteins, indicating the involvement of the complement system in the degenerative process and chronic inflammation [2]. So far there is no treatment for the dry form of AMD, except nutritional supplementation with antioxidants and vitamins [3]. Combined with a prolonged lifetime expectation in developed countries, AMD is developing to a social and economic burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a treatment of AMD that can delay disease manifestation and progression for several years. 
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A Gateway to Metal Resistance: Bacterial Response to Heavy Metal Toxicity in the Biological Environment

Published on: 3rd September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7893781761

Heavy metals and metalloids are dangerous because they have the tendency to bioaccumulate in biological organisms over a period of time. However, it is conceived that a number of phytochemical agents as well microorganism can act as heavy metal removing agent both from human beings and the environment surrounding. For instance, microbes are used for the removal of heavy metals from the water bodies including bacteria, fungi, algae and yeast. This review shows that bacteria can play an important role in understanding the uptake and potential removal behaviour of heavy metal ions. The bacteria are chosen based on their resistance to heavy metals (incl. their toxicities) and capacity of adsorbing them. Due to specific resistance transfer factors, cell impermeability is drastically inhibited by several ion (i.e. mercury, cadmium, cobalt, copper, arsenic) forms. Between these elements, free-ion cadmium and copper concentrations in the biological medium provide more accurate determination of metal concentrations that affect the bacteria, than with most of the other existing media. Metal toxicity is usually assessed by using appropriate metal ion chelators and adjusting pH factor. Bacteria and metals in the ecosystem can form synergistic or antagonistic relationships, supplying each other with nutrients or energy sources, or producing toxins to reduce growth and competition for limiting nutritional elements. Thus, this relation may present a more sustainable approach for the restoration of contaminated sources.
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A case report of Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitic syndrome presenting with Renal failure

Published on: 12th September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7856112439

We present a case of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitic syndrome (HUVS) who developed severe renal failure requiring ICU-level care. Our patient is a 66-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, rash, confusion, oliguria, and shortness of breath. He was found to be in acute renal failure with leukocytosis and elevated lactate. Work-up for infectious, autoimmune, and hematologic malignant diseases was negative. The presence of chronic urticaria, abdominal pain, hypocomplementemia, and leukocytoclastic vasculitis on skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of HUVS. He required hemodialysis for renal failure as well as gastrostomy tube placement for nutritional support secondary to the development of mucosal ulcers, a rare finding in HUVS. He recovered with several months of high-dose steroids and hemodialysis. This case highlights the effectiveness of steroids for initial treatment of HUVS, and the relapsing and remitting nature of the disease. Providers should also be aware of the broad range of presenting symptoms such as mucosal lesions that may require nutritional support. Interestingly, unlike many previously reported cases of HUVS, our patient had not yet developed signs and symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus, which often overlaps with HUVS.
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Differences between anorexia patients and participants of the Minnesota hunger experiment: Consequences for treatment

Published on: 29th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8915412109

The hunger experiment was carried out in 1944 by Anselm Keys and others in the American city of Minnesota. The aim was to investigate the consequences of starvation in order to be able to restore the health of hunger victims of the Second World War. How could they be treated in the best possible way to regain a healthy weight? For this purpose 36 physical and psychosocial healthy young men were selected from a large group of men who refused to serve in the American Army. They were examined very carefully in the period before the hunger experiment which lasted 6 months. In this period they received only two mails a day with half of the number of calories they were used to eat. This period of malinutrition was followed by 3 months of refeeding. Not only their weight recovered quite well, but also the psychosocial consequences of starvation disappeared completely [1]. 
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Impact of Diabetes on the Nutritional Status of CKD Patients

Published on: 9th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317654942

Background: Prevalence of malnutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients is due to their lower appetite level. Diabetic patients experience polyphagia. Hence it is necessary to understand the impact of diabetes on the nutritional status of CKD patient. Aim: To compare the nutritious status between the CKD patients with and without diabetes. Objectives: To find out the impact of diabetes on the nutritional status of CKD patients. Method and Materials: A prospective random sampling method was adopted to select the subjects. Eighty CKD patients were divided equally into two groups. Tool which has been used to collect the data was SOAP format. Results: While comparing BMI between group 1(CKD without diabetes) and group 2(CKD with diabetes) it was noticed that the percentage of normal nourished subjects in group 2 were greater than that of group1. About 63% and 25% of subjects with CKD in group1 had normal BMI and grade 1 undernourished respectively. In group 2, about 75% and 10% of patients had normal BMI and grade 1 over nourished respectively. About 80% of subjects in group 2 were on insulin treatment. About 88% of subjects in group1 were anorexic and about 55% and 25% of subjects in group 2 had polyphagia and normal appetite respectively. The difference in the energy and protein intake between the two groups was statistically significant at p<0.01 level. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the above study that a better nutritional status was found in the CKD patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) than the CKD patients without DM which may be due to their normal appetite/ polyphagia, hence allowing a better food intake among group2 subjects. Weight gain in CKD with DM patients may be due to increase in fat mass which is subsequent to lipogenic effect of insulin.
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Role of community health fairs in providing health services, improving health of rural residents

Published on: 11th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272371549

Introduction: Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg m-2) is epidemic globally and is associated with increased risk for a wide range of physical and mental health comorbidities. This is a particular concern for rural residents who have a greater rate of obesity than urban residents, but are disadvantaged in obtaining care because of a shortage of health care professionals. Community health fairs provide an opportunity for rural residents to receive health care services and education at reduced or no cost. Therefore, this study explored the role of community health fairs for providing health services and improving the health of residents in a rural community where obesity is a serious health concern. Methods: This study involved a retrospective longitudinal analysis of data collected during community health fairs conducted in a rural western Nebraska, USA community during 2014, 2015, and 2016 (n = 83). The Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH) framework was used to target health education in this rural community. This approach involved 1. Mobilizing the community (via health fairs), 2. Collecting and organizing data (from consented attendees), 3. Selecting health priorities (obesity), 4. Developing a comprehensive intervention (nutrition and physical activity education), and 5. Evaluating the effectiveness of the framework (declines in measures of obesity over time). Analyses characterized BMI, percent body fat, visceral fat, and BP and explored differences between genders. The sample was recruited by advertising with flyers for health fairs at the College of Nursing. Most booths provided printouts of results for participants in order for them to keep and track their health information. Once potential participants arrived at the health fair site, there were asked if they would like to participate in the study via an invitation letter. They could then decline or sign the consent. Results: Percent body fat and visceral fat level differed between genders (p = < .001 and .001, respectively). Mean body fat levels (women 39.4%, men 28.8%) were unhealthy. Mean visceral fat level was unhealthy in men (16), but healthy in women (10). BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between genders. Mean BMI was 31 kg m-2; 33% of participants were overweight, 44% were obese. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 134 and 78 mg Hg, respectively. Most participants were hypertensive (systolic: men 57%, women 32%; diastolic: men 24%, women 7%) or prehypertensive (systolic: men 21%, women 39%; diastolic: men and women 36%). Conclusion: Obesity and high BP were common in this rural population, supporting the need for effective education and intervention efforts to address these health issues. Health fairs provide a manner in which to reach community persons needing referrals to local clinics, mental health providers and physicians. Education provided at such events is valuable as well and may in fact be the only health care contact they receive. Though community health fairs provide an economical way for individuals to receive screenings and health information, few men participated and few individuals attended in multiple years. The lack of repeat attendees prevented assessment of the efficacy of the education intervention. Means of enhancing participation, particularly by men and previous attendees, need to be explored. Repeatedly attending health fairs enables participants to monitor their progress, seek physical and mental health screenings and discuss any health concerns and helps researchers assess the efficacy of interventions. 
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Retinopathy of prematurity - Intersibling divergence of risk factors among twins

Published on: 19th February, 2020

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a consequence of an arrest in normal retinal neural and vascular development, which determines the aberrant retinal regeneration [1,2]. ROP is a disease process mostly reported in preterm neonates ranging from mild, transient changes in the retina with regression to severe progressive vasoproliferation, scarring, detachment of retina and blindness and it is common blinding disease in children and a major cause of vision loss among preterm infants [3]. Today it is well known that oxygen therapy is not the single causative factor, but many other risk factors play a causative role in the pathogenesis of ROP [4,5]. The risk factors for ROP include oxygen administration, hypoxia, hypercapnia, blood transfusion exchange transfusion, apnea,sepsis and total parenteral nutrition. The incidence of ROP has been reported to be similar in multiple and singleton births [6-8]. Twin studies show that from 70% to 80% of the susceptibility to ROP is conditioned by genetic factors [9,10]. Hence this study is to find out the incidence of ROP in twins in a tertiary care centre in a developing country. It also attempts to identify the difference in risk factors among twins which predispose to ROP in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
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