Prolonged inflammation reactions lead to chronic diseases. Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in inflammatory disorders. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the transfer of methyl groups to their substrates in cellular methylation reactions. PRMTs are emerging as targets for drug discovery because PRMTs are implicated in normal physiology and human diseases. Adenosine dialdehyde (AdOx), a broad-spectrum methyltransferase inhibitor, inhibited lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (LPS/IFNγ)-stimulated NO production and iNOS mRNA and protein expression in MES-13 cells. AdOx blocked nuclear factor- κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation but showed no effect on signal transducer and activator of transcription-1α (STAT-1α) signaling pathway in MES-13 cells. Asymmetrical dimethylation of NF-κB identified by immunoprecipation with ASYM24 antibody was blocked by AMI-1, a specific arginine methyltransferase inhibitor. Moreover, AMI-1 and specific knockdown of protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed an inhibitory effect on LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated NO and iNOS protein expression in MES-13 cells. Our data suggest asymmetric arginine dimethylation of NF-κB may be implicated in inflammatory disorders though controlling the synthesis of NO, a key mediator in immune activation. The exploration of specific PRMTs, such as PRMT4, involved in iNOS-derived NO synthesis might provide therapeutic applications in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Md. Shahadat Hossain, Ausraful Islam, Sharmin Shahid Labony, Md. Mokbul Hossain, Md. Abdul Alim and Anisuz Zaman*
Published on: 15th November, 2021
Background: Dipylidium caninum, a zoonotic cyclophyllidean tapeworm, mainly infects dogs, cats, and occasionally humans as well. Here, we present D. caninum infection in a domestic cat. A cat of about one year of age with a history of intermittent diarrhea and shedding stool containing whitish cooked rice like soft particles. Methods: The case was identified by thorough clinical, coprological, and parasitological examinations, and treated accordingly.Results: During the physical examination, the cat was found to be infested with flea, and coprological investigation revealed the presence of gravid segments of cestodes. By preparing a permanent slide, we conducted a microscopic examination, and the cestode was confirmed as D. caninum. The cat was treated with albendazole and levamisole, which were ineffective; additionally, levamisole showed toxicity. Then, we administered niclosamide which completely cured the animal. On re-examination after a week, feces were found negative for eggs/gravid segments of any cestode. Conclusion: Niclosamide was found effective against dipylidiasis and can be treated similar infections in pets.
Progeria syndromes are very rare genetic diseases characterized by premature aging changes. There are several phenotypes and variables noted in literature in some cases difficult to specifically classify a specific syndrome. It occurs due to mutation in DNA repair genes. The most common ocular findings are loss of eyebrow and eyelashes, brow ptosis, lid margin changes, entropion, Meibomian gland dysfunction, severe dry eye, corneal opacity, cataract, poor mydriasis, and rod-cone dystrophy. We report this case with all the above ocular manifestations in 19year old teenager with additional finding being retinal detachment.
Video objective: To demonstrate that surgical technique of vaginal cervicoisthmic cerclage must be performed in women with history of cervical incompetence with more than two late miscarriages before 24 weeks or premature deliveries before 28 weeks and after prior failure of preventive Mc Donald cerclage. In this video, the authors describe the complete procedure in 8 steps to standardize and facilitate the procedure in a simple and safe way during pregnancy. Design: Step-by-step video demonstration of the surgical technique.Setting: Tertiary Center for University Hospital.
Valentina Monti*, Fabio Serpenti, Lucia Farina, Maria Luisa Moiraghi, Maria Adele Testi and Giancarlo Pruneri
Published on: 10th November, 2021
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a common clonal neoplasm of small, mature B-lymphocytes. CLL is a heterogeneous disease with different clinical presentation, response to treatment and survival. This heterogeneity could be explained by the different genetic aberrations in CLL . The most important chromosomal defects correlated to a poor prognosis are 17p13.1 deletion (loss of TP53) or 11q22.3 deletion (loss of ATM) [1,2]. In the era of new drugs in CLL it is mandatory to perform the interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test in order to assess these aberrations, before starting any lines of therapy . Moreover, recent evidence suggests that complex karyotype (CK) with structural chromosomal aberrations identified by using chromosome-banding analysis may be relevant to better define CLL prognosis. It is known that 80% of CLL patients harbor at cytogenetic aberrations .
Objective: To verify whether preterm premature rupture of membranes has effect on neurodevelopmental outcome of Infant among preterm infants born at Hawassa Comprehensive Specialized Hospital of Sidama region, Ethiopia, 2022.Methods and materials: A prospective cohort study design will be conducted for 2 years and 6 months from March 1/2022 to August 30/2024. A total of 12 Midwives. 6 supervisors and 1 pediatric neurologist or psychiatrist will be involved in the data collection process. All preterm infants will be recruited consecutively from preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit from March 1/2022 to August 30/2022. The preterm infants will be categorized into Exposed group (preterm infants born after preterm PROM) and non-exposed group (preterm infants born after spontaneous preterm labour) and followed until 2 years of age to assess neurodevelopmental outcome of infants The data will be entered into Epidata software and exported to SPSS software for windows version 23. For analysis. Descriptive statistics will be computed. One-way Anova and post hoc comparisons with Scheffe’s procedure will be used X2 test or Fisher’s exact test will be used to compare categorical variables.
Nese Gadzama*, Irfan Ahmed, Sundus Khursheed, Niazy AL-Assaf and Rizwan Khan
Published on: 9th November, 2021
Background: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) which may result in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) affects four million neonates worldwide and accounts for the death of one million of affected babies. The science of metabolomics has become an area of growing interest in neonatal research, with a potential role in identifying useful biomarkers that can accurately predict injury severity in perinatal asphyxia and HIE.The aim of this review is to look at the evidence of the usefulness of urine metabolomics in predicting outcome in PA/HIE. Methods: The key words used in the advanced search ‘urine metabolomics’ AND ‘perinatal asphyxia’ OR ‘hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy’, yielded 13 articles. Results: Of the selected thirteen studies, 38% (n = 5) were human studies, 31% (n = 4) were animal studies and 31% (n = 4) were review articles. The studies confirmed the involvement of known pathways in the development of PA/HIE, primarily the Krebs cycle evidenced by accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates (citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate) and anaerobic pathways indicated by increased lactate. Other pathways involved include amino acid and carbohydrate pathways. Conclusion: Metabolomic studies so far are promising in highlighting potential biomarker profiles in PA/HIE. Further research is necessary to further clarify the role of identified metabolites in predicting outcome and prognosis in neonates affected by PA/HIE.
SARS-CoV-2 a virulent disease that established the entire wide world due to its severity. Its 1st case was rumored in Wuhan, China within the year 2019 and it had been the beginning of this pandemic. This virus killed virtually a complete of 4,465,683 folks round the globe until date. Despite the fact that viral co-infections have the ability to alter the host’s illness pattern, few research have looked at the disease outcomes in patients who are infected with HIV and hCoVs. Despite the fact that HIV-positive people can be infected with hCoVs, researchers are now revealing that their chances of acquiring serious CoV-related disorders are typically similar to what is seen in the general population. The relation between SARS-CoV-2 and HBV was summarized rather HBV effects the severity of COVID patient or not. SARS-CoV-2 could be a severe acute metabolic process syndrome. Scientists found ways in which to treat this virus, some were useful and alternative weren’t that a lot of effective. Immunizing agent was one among the most important considerations for the entire world. This virus conjointly fashioned an entry for alternative co-infections too. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus, both causes respiratory diseases which confer as an extensive array of illness from asymptomatic or benign to critical disease and death. Also the mode of transmission and symptoms of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are same. Viral and bacterial rate is higher in SARS-CoV-2 negative patient but are comparable. Serologies facts confirmed that patients with effective results for dengue virus (DENV) NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM were also attentive to COVID-19 speedy antibody tests, suggesting dengue COVID-19 co-infection. Mixed infection of dengue and COVID-19 needs unique interest from all dengue-common nations in Asia, especially the ones with limited resources. To our knowledge, this is the primary showed case of co-infection of dengue and COVID-19 in Indonesia. During patient’s TB course, COVID-19 can occur at any time with worse consequences for the patients who are affected by active pulmonary disease.
Laura Silva Fernandes, Ygor Ferreira Garcia da Costa, Martha Eunice de Bessa, Adriana Lucia Pires Ferreira, José Otávio do Amaral Corrêa, Glauciemar Del-Vechio Vieira, Orlando Vieira de Sousa, Ana Lúcia Santos de Matos Araújo, Paula C Castilho* and Maria Silvana Alves*
Published on: 3rd November, 2021
Morbidity and mortality of the infected patients by multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased, emphasizing the urgency of fight for the discovery of new innovative antibiotics. In this sense, natural products emerge as valuable sources of bioactive compounds. Among the biodiversity, Eryngium pristis Cham. & Schltdl. (Apiaceae Lindl.) is traditionally used to treat thrush and ulcers of throat and mouth, as diuretic and emmenagogue, but scarcely known as an antimicrobial agent. With this context in mind, the goals of this study were to investigate the metabolic profile and the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract (EE-Ep) and hexane (HF-Ep), dichloromethane (DF-Ep), ethyl acetate (EAF-Ep) and butanol (BF-Ep) fractions from E. pristis leaves. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed to stablish the metabolic profile and revealed the presence of 12 and 14 compounds in EAF-Ep and HF-Ep, respectively. β-selinene, spathulenol, globulol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and lupeol derivative were some of phytochemicals identified. The antibacterial activity was determined by Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the broth micro-dilution against eight ATCC® and five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical strains. HF-Ep was the most effective (MIC ≤ 5,000 µg/µL), being active against the largest part of tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, including MRSA, with exception of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and (ATCC 27853). These results suggest that E. pristis is a natural source of bioactive compounds for the search of new antibiotics which can be an interesting therapeutic approach to recover patients mainly infected by MRSA strains.
Dube Gemeda Tuke, Legesse Tadesse Wodajo* and Hiwot Zelalem
Published on: 29th October, 2021
Background: Early-initiation of breastfeeding is putting the newborns to the breast within the first hour of life. It is the first critical time they contact their mother outside of the womb. The current study aimed to assess the early initiation of breastfeeding in the study setting. Objectives: To assess the level of early initiation of breastfeeding and its associated factors among mothers who had a baby of less than the age of 24 months in Jeju Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2019.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted involving 487 mothers from September 18 to October 09, 2019. A multistage sampling technique was employed. First, the setting stratification done in urban and rural settings. Second, ten kebeles selected from both strata. The study participants identified by systematic random sampling technique using kebele log-books registration list as a scheme. The collected data were entered into Epi Info version 126.96.36.199 and exported to SPSS version 188.8.131.52 to analyze. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression used to determine relations between independent factors and early initiation of breastfeeding. Nine variables became eligible for multivariate analysis at a p - value less than 0.05 in bivariate. The final analyses done the significance of association decided using AOR with its 95% CI, and p - value at less than 0.05. Results: A 97% response rate achieved in this study. The prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was 74.5%. In multivariate analysis variables namely, mothers whose age category was 35 years and above (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI: (1.07, 5.11)), Pre-lacteal feeding (AOR = 0.37 95% CI (0.17, 0.79)), postpartum advice (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI (1.01, 2.95)) had a significant association. Conclusion and recommendations: The prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was (74.5%). The finding was low compared to the world health organization recommendation. A working towards discouraging pre-lacteal feeding and strengthening postnatal advice and focusing on ways to better reach young mothers were the recommendations to bring the prevalence in the study area to the recommended level.
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