Background: The proposal that MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry could be used as a direct, rapid and affordable diagnostic tool in clinical laboratory medicine has moved from a theoretical possibility to a reality for Microbiology. Several studies have proposed the application of this technology in obstetric and gynaecological evaluation of patients. In particular, we have proposed that the adoption of MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry in examination of maternal pregnancy urine samples for the detection of Downs syndrome.
Methods: A retrospective collection of 20 Down Syndrome and 100 non-aneuploid pregnancy urines at 12 to 14 weeks gestation, collected in 2007-2008 from high risk pregnancy cohorts, were examined by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry in the mass/charge range between 1000 and 100000 m/z. Normalisation of spectral data was defined using mass bins of 100 m/z expressed as a percentage of the total ion count of the mass spectra from 2000 to 11000 m/z. Of the ninety 100 m/z bins, forty-six were identified as m/z bins at which statistically significant differences in spectra occurred between Downs and control/non-aneuploid samples. Based on the differences and variance, for values at these bins, weighted scores of the probability of being Downs were assigned. Comparative algorithms consisting of various mass bins were tested for ability to distinguish Down syndrome from non-aneuploid pregnancy.
Results: Although various algorithms could distinguish Downs from non-aneuploid controls, it was found that gestational age was a confounding factor and that if separated into gestational age matched cohorts the ability to distinguish the groups improved dramatically e.g. whilst a 19 bins algorithm separated 100% of Downs from non-aneuploid pregnancies for a 9% false positive rate in the mixed gestational ages group; a two bin algorithm distinguished 100% of Downs for a 6% false positive rate for the 12 weeks gestational age pregnancies.
Conclusion: Normalised MALDI-ToF mass spectra, at 2000 to 11000 m/z, of maternal urine gives rise to gestational age specific screening tests algorithms for Downs’s syndrome.
Carbon Nano fibers (CNFs) have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their widespread range of technological applications attributed to their unique physical and chemical properties, such as, small size, high strength, high adsorption linked with their large specific surface area, high temperature tolerance and corrosion resistance. CNFs have been used in energy conversion and storage, reinforcement of composites and self-sensing devices. The complete removal of entrapped metallic impurities and amorphous carbon incorporated with CNFs has been a long-standing issue. We have developed a new approach for preparing graphitic CNFs and its activation of surface area by purification. This approach entails Thermal Decomposition (TD) based synthesis of CNFs from organic solid waste, such as, stems of rice plants. CNFs are synthesized from organic waste precursor (Rice Stems) at 900 oC under inert atmosphere. The active surface area was measured using a Surface Area Analyzer. Morphology of CNFs was studied with using SEM and XRD. The SEM image shows that the synthesized CNFs have diameter ranging within 45-60 nm.
The main disturbing situation faced by any individual is obesity nowadays. Obesity occurs because of overweight and this has several reasons to gain weight like hereditary, diabetes, diet, aging, PCOS in women, stress, and tiredness. It is a major, sustaining, worsening condition of energy regulation with severe hereditary and early life natural causes. However, there are ways that we can treat obesity, but the complication emerges with the side effects. One way of treating obese by using lifestyle intervention involving exercise, maintaining a proper diet, and pharmacotherapy. Following this method does not affect much as mostly it includes lifestyle intervention. However, by using lifestyle intervention we could reduce weight to a certain extent only.
Background: Disabling hearing loss is a prevalent public health issue, with significant impact on patients’ communication. The disability associated with hearing loss depends on the severity of the hearing loss. There are limited rehabilitative measures in resource challenged environment. This study assesses the incidence, the factors for hearing impairment and the management outcome.
Methods: A descriptive three-year chart review of patients managed for hearing loss in a tertiary health center in a developing country. The data collected include demographic data, clinical presentation and risk factors for hearing loss, audiometric reports, rehabilitative measures and management outcome.
Results: The patients with ear symptoms managed within the study period were 1350, of whom 498 (36.8%) had hearing loss of varying degrees. These included 145 (29.1%) males and 353 (70.9%) females with male to female ratio of 1:2.4. The age ranged from 8 to 80 years (median age of 35.7). Disabling hearing loss in the better-hearing ear occurred in 216 (43.4%) of cases. Increasing age and chronic supportive otitis media were associated with disabling hearing loss. The hearing thresholds improved with hearing aids and ear surgical procedures; nonetheless the patients’ rehabilitation was impaired by limited resources.
Conclusion: There is poor rehabilitation of people with hearing loss, though management outcome is commendable in a few of them. Health education will reduce the risk factors for disabling hearing loss and improved rehabilitative measures are needed for these individuals.
Parry-Romberg syndrome is an uncommon condition, self-limiting with slow progressive hemifacial atrophy. This syndrome can lead to several progressive congenital and developmental deformities. It can cause severe facial asymmetry and subsequently lead to esthetic and psychological problems and adversely affect patient’s quality of life, so its treatment holds great importance. Still, there is no exact treatment protocol for this disease, treatment approaches are bounded and patient’s response to the treatment is imponderable. However, most of the patients can benefit from conservative treatments. In this paper, we have reported a moderate case of Parry-Romberg syndrome, with no familial history of any syndromes. We also have discussed about present anomalies and the steps of exerted conservative treatments.
Mahmoud Shawky Abdelmoneum, Neama Ali Elmeligy, Elsayed Abdelkhalek Eldarky and Mohamad Mahmoud Mohamad*
Published on: 30th December, 2019
Purpose: This was a prospective study conducted at Benha University hospital and National Heart Institute on one hundred patients undwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to evaluate the effect of CABG on the right ventricular (RV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE).
Methods: All cases were subjected to detailed medical history, full physical examination, 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG), routine laboratory tests including (complete blood picture, liver functions, renal functions and lipid profile) and echocardiography either conventional echocardiography or STE, all parameters obtained before and within 2 weeks after surgery.
Results: By conventional echocardiography there was statistically significant decrease in peak right ventricle systolic velociy (RVS) from (12.76 ± 1.72) to (7.33 ± 1.71) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) from (22.8 ± 3.99) to (13.77 ± 4.63) among the studied patients after CABG. While there was significant increase in right ventricle fractional area change (RVFAC) from (44.69 ± 3.25) to (49.01 ± 3.36). On the other hand, there was non-significant change in right ventricle end diastolic diameter (RVEDD) at mid-cavity from (26.37 ± 2.72) to (26.53 ± 2.72) and basal segment from (36.05 ± 2.98) to (36.29 ± 3.04), right ventricle stroke volume (RVSV) from (65.44 ± 7.02) to (65.85 ± 6.86) and right myocardial performance index (RMPI) from (0.491 ± 0.088) to (0.498 ± 0.086).
By STE There was statistically significant decrease in right ventricle global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) from (-20.63 to -14.1) after CABG. There was statistically significant decrease in right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain [apical decreased from (-23.73 to -13.7), mid-cavity decreased from (-25.76 to -11.53), basal decreased from (-20.39 to -10.13) and lateral wall declined from (-23.01 to -9.13)]. There was statistically significant decrease in interventricular septum longitudinal strain [apical decreased from (-19.77 to -10.06), mid-cavity decreased from (-17.81 to -10.87) and basal decreased from (-15.89 to -11.13)]. There was statistically significant increase in RV circumferential strain of lateral free wall from (-12.04 to -16.21), while there was non-significant change in RV circumferential strain of septum from (-19.77 ± 4.86) to (-20.37 ± 5.14).
Conclusion: Distorted RV geometry after CABG can lead to altered deformation parameters, in other words longitudinal functional parameters may underestimate RV function and the decrease in RVGLS was compensated by increase in circumferential strain of lateral free wall of RV without change in RVSV or RMPI. Therefor changes in deformation parameters should always be interpreted in relation to change in geometry.
The potential of spent compost of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated on rice (MCR) or wheat straws (MCW) was evaluated against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants under field conditions during two successive seasons (2016 and 2017). The field trial was carried out in a clay loam soil naturally infested with M. incognita at a private farm, Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. Results revealed that all the tested treatments greatly suppressed final populations (Pf), numbers of galls and egg masses of M. incognita during both seasons as compared to the untreated treatment. The highest percentages of Pf reductions (81.1 - 87%) and (80.2 - 86.2%) were achieved with the chemical nematicide, Vydate® 10 G and treatments of (MCR and MCW) at application rate of 1200 g/m2 in the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively. Moreover, the fruit yield during both seasons was increased significantly with all the applied treatments, especially treatment of MCW at application rate of 1200 g/m2. Additionally, chemical fruit properties were markedly improved with MCR and MCW treatments. Also, treatments of MCR and MCW achieved the highest percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Generally, the results indicated that spent compost obtained after cultivation of P. sajor-caju has a nematicidal potential against M. incognita, also improved nutritional status and increased tomato yield.
Bariatric Surgery (BS) from the Greek bari = weight and iatrein = cure) treats obesity and began in Spain in 1973. Its greatest development occurs after the founding of SECO (Spanish Society of Obesity Surgery) in 1997. The purpose of this work is to reflect the changes that have occurred in these 22 years.
Obesity is a multifactorial epidemic ailment of environmental origin, affecting subjects from all countries, and whose origins are not in the stomach or intestine. It represents a unique case of surgery to operate healthy organs, which are not the cause of the disease and do not improve after the operation.
Henryson  initiated Obesity Surgery (OS) in 1952. Kremen & Linner  and Varco & Buchwald in Minneapolis, MN teams began the malabsorptive intestinal diversion (ID) in 1954. Payne  and Scott  developed these ID techniques in the 1960s leaving only 14-4 inches (35-10 cm) as an absorptive zone and those were abandoned in the 1970s because of their serious metabolic (malnutrition) and hepatic (liver failure) complications.
Buchwald  initiated the ID of the last third of the intestine for hypercholesterinemia (POSCH) and showed its protective role at 25 years in the development of atherosclerosis. Now it has also been abandoned, not because of lack of effectiveness, but because of the development of nystatin in the medical control of cholesterol. Dr. Henry Buchwald remains active 67 years later, and in 2012 Barcelona was appointed as Honorary Member of the Spanish Society of Obesity Surgery (SECO) and he will participate in Madrid-IFSO 2019. Baltasar  published in 1991 the only three ID in Spain for hypercholesterinemia.
First spanish experienceProf. Sebastián García Díaz of Seville carried out the 1st Scott-type Jejune-ileal diversion (JID) in the Virgen Macarena Hospital on 11.19.1973. He began bariatric surgery in Spain with 12 cases [7-10] and then published 20 more, the 1st work in English by a Spanish author  in the World Journal of Surgery in 1981. For this 2nd work he received the award by the Seville Hospital of the Five Sores in 1979 (Figure 1). His work went unnoticed for 40 years until we rescued them in 2013 .
Five experimental feeding trials were conducted to investigate the performance of Heterobranchus Bidorsalis fingerlings to graded levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) of Sphenostylis Stenocarpa seed meal diets. Complete randomized design with triplicate groups of fingerlings was used for the study for ten weeks. The proximate, anti-nutritional factor and amino acid profile of the S. stenocarpa was analysed. The study showed that treatment C with 50% inclusion of Sphenostylis Stenocarpa meal was significantly different (p < 0.05) and performed best among other treatments in terms of the net weight gain, standard growth rate, and survival. The feed conversion ratio was best in treatment C but not significantly different (p > 0.05) to other treatments.
The present study examined the effect of the European-Based ‘Alive and Kicking’ exercise program on the health-related physical fitness of individuals with (Experimental Group: EG) and without (Control Group: CG) (Intellectual Disability: ID). The Self-Determination Theory: SDT, guided both the 6-month preparatory phase and the 9-month exercise program, which was conducted in five separate European countries (Cyprus, France, Greece, Portugal and Spain). The total sample (n = 200, 54% males and 46% females) comprised of 168 individuals with ID (age: 26.54 years, + 7.78) and 32 individuals without ID (age: 25.81 years, + 8.73) respectively. The statistical analyses revealed that the ID group’s performance (EG) improved significantly in a range of health-related physical fitness variables (sit & reach, pushups, sit ups, long jump, ½ mile walk/ run). In turn, the participants from the CG improved mainly in muscular endurance (sit ups and pushups). The results are discussed in accordance with SDT and the dairies kept from the staff involved (coaches and psychologists) during the 9–month intervention. The present findings, although subjective to certain limitations, are encouraging, given the large-scale, real-world nature of the research design, and provide evidence supporting the integration of theoretical strategies enhancing motivation into traditional coaching programs for individuals with ID.
Objective: Pregnancy after age 40 remains a concern as it exposes to particular obstetrical complications. Our study aims to determine the risks of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth of women aged 40 and over.
Study design: We carried out a cross-sectional analytical study of a historical cohort comparing the progress and the outcome of pregnancy in women 40 years of age and over to those aged 20 and 35 who gave birth at the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Befelatanana, from 1st January 2010 to 31 December 2013.
Results: The prevalence of childbirth among 40 years old and over was 0.61%. They were multiparous and large multiparous in 88% of the cases. The analysis showed that parturients aged 40 years and older were at significant risk for caesarean section, with three times the risk of emergency caesarean section. The frequency of this emergency caesarean section increased with parity ((RR = 3.04 [2.15-4.30], p = 10-10). Among their neonates, 23.42% were hypotrophic, 22.86% premature, 12% asphyxiated at birth, 13.14% admitted to neonatal resuscitation and 5.71% died in utero, but without significant difference with the group unexposed. Perinatal death was 7.43% in women aged 40 and over vs. 4% in 20 to 35 year olds ((RR = 1.85 [0,89-3,86]; p 0.052).
Conclusion: We found that pregnancies after 40 years were not exposed to pregnancy-related pathologies or specific fetal complications. The use of an emergency cesarean is, however, frequent.
Background: We report our experience with management and treatment of pregnant women who were admitted at our institution for snake envenomation.
Methosd: We reviewed the charts and recorded the management, treatment, and outcome of 51 pregnant women admitted to our high-risk obstetric service with a diagnosis of snakebite.
Results: One patient experienced spontaneous abortion, 2 had intrauterine fetal death due to placental abruption, 2 delivered malformed babies, 1 had premature birth of twins with low birthweight. There were no maternal deaths.
Conclusion: Snake-venom poisoning in pregnancy is a complex medical emergency that involves complications at the site of the bite and may also involve dysfunction of multiple organ systems in both mother and fetus.
Attila Pajor*, Semmelweis University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Budapest, Hungary, Márton Vezér, Henriette Pusztafalvi, Bianka Pencz, Semmelweis University II. Department of Pathology, Budapest and Hungary
Sexual activity during healthy pregnancy is safe. There are little data on how coital activity affects outcome of the high-risk pregnancies. Hereby we report a case demonstrating that orgasmic coitus triggered placental abruption resulting in preterm stillbirth.
A 38-year-old 8-para, 12-gravida woman lived unmarriedly with a constant partner in low socioeconomic conditions. Her previous pregnancies included 7 deliveries without complication, two early miscarriages and two pregnancy terminations. Her present pregnancy was complicated with gestational hypertension successfully treated with nifedipine. She had coitus 2 to 4 times a month, mostly without orgasm. The last coitus which happened in side-by-side position was accompanied by orgasm which continued in uterine hypertonicity and massive vaginal bleeding at 29 weeks gestation. Two hours subsequently, on admission to hospital, placental abruption and fetal demise were diagnosed. At the emergency cesarean section, a dead female infant weighing 1,510 g was born. Fetal pathology was not discovered. Placental histopathology showed retroplacental hematoma, intervillous and decidual hemorrhages, focal distal villous hypoplasia and avascular villuses. Patient’s recovery rapidly occurred after intensive care.
Placental abruption complicates 0.4% - 1.0% of deliveries. It is known that most cases of abruption cannot be predicted and prevented. Our report suggests that orgasmic coitus may be a trigger for placental abruption in those women who have gestational hypertension and multiple risks for placental abruption. We infer from the above case that sexual intercourse is advised to avoid during pregnancy of such women in order to prevent placental abruption.
Laccase catalyzes oxidation of lignin and aromatic compound with similar structure to this one. Their low substrate specificity results on degradation of similar phenolic compounds. In this context, Molecular Docking was performed with different ligands suggesting potential bio-degradation. Binding active-sites prediction of fungal laccase (access number uniprotkb: A0A166P2X0), from Ganoderma weberianum was performed using machine learning algorithm based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DeepSite-CNNs chemoinformatic tool). Herein, ligands like 2,4 - dichlorophenol, benzidine, sulfisoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracycline were analyzed and two additional reference controls which were 2,2 – azinobis 3 – ethylbenzothiazoline – 6 - sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,6 - dimetoxyphenol (2,6 DMP) were used in comparison with the other former mentioned ligands based on high laccase affinity. The five ligands were carried out because their potential biotechnological interest: the antibiotics sulfisoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracycline, and xenobiotics 2,4 - dichlorophenol and benzidine. Molecular docking experiments returned Gibbs free energy of binding (FEB or affinity) for laccase-ligand complexes. The best docking binding-interaction from each laccase-ligand conformation complexes suggest great ability of these ligands to interact with the laccase active-binding site. Herein, FEB values (kcal/mol) were obtained with higher affinity values for reference controls like 2,6 - dimethoxyphenol with -4.8 Kcal/mol and ABTS with -7.1 Kcal/mol. Furthermore, the FEB values were -4.7, -6.5, -6.8, -5.2 and -6.5 Kcal/mol, for 2,4 - dichlorophenol, benzidine, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim respectively with high prevalence of hydrophobic interaction with functional laccase binding residues. Lastly, this study presents for first time at the bioinformatics field a molecular docking approach for the prediction of potential substrate of laccase from Ganoderma weberianum towards biotechnological application.
In recent years, stem cells technology have been used widely in basic and clinical science researches LIPUS (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound) is another technique commonly used in conjunction with stem cells that can have complications after applications. One of the important issues in using this modern technique is the occurrence of opportunistic infections and inflammatory reactions in the rejection or destruction of these cells and in turn making ineffective of its applications, which have been reviewed in the following.
The role of human papillomavirus infection as etiological factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer is well established. However, the presence of this virus is not sufficient condition for developing of cervical cancer. Currently, the contribution of other viral, environmental and host cofactors in triggering of this neoplasm is being investigated. Some metabolic risk factors have been associated with the development of several gynecological cancers such as endometrium, ovary and cervix. However, the mechanisms through which these factors contribute to carcinogenesis are complex and not fully elucidated. Few interventions regarding host metabolic factors have been performed on women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Some specific treatments and or changes in lifestyles could be carried out to avoid or delay progression to this kind of cancer. This paper aims to enlarge and update this topic based on the article ¨Association between components of the metabolic syndrome and degree of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Cuban women¨, with emphasis on possible mechanisms that explain the link between central adiposity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with risk of premalignant lesions and cervical cancer.
Background: Pre-eclampsia is a frequent and serious pregnancy complication contributing for the increasing maternal morbi-mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy, on the incidence of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among primigravid women.
Method: In a hospital-based, opened, randomized and controlled clinical trial carried out in the city of Yaounde, 70 women were randomized to either 1.5 g daily calcium supplements (n = 35) or vitamins at the same time (n = 35) from 20 weeks gestation till delivery. Were included all singleton healthy, primigravid women who offered their signed inform consent and were excluded, all women with any chronic condition. Primary outcomes were pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
Results: No significant difference was observed between the two study groups with respect to the baseline characteristics obtained at enrollment. We recorded a sevenfold decrease in the incidence of preeclampsia in the calcium group (RR = 0.26, CI 0.06 – 0.44, p = 0.024). The onset of pre-eclampsia was delayed 3 weeks in the calcium group. Meanwhile the mean diastolic blood pressure at delivery was of no significant difference (p = 0.126), the mean systolic blood pressure at delivery however, presented a significant difference between both groups (p = 0.009).
Conclusion: A 1.5 g daily calcium supplementation of healthy normotensive primigravid women during pregnancy seems to be effective in reducing the incidence of pre-eclampsia.
A 61-year-old Brazilian black woman consulted with a nephrologist due to proteinuria identified on a routine urine test. She has a personal history of thymoma resection five years ago, followed by multiple episodes of pulmonary infections including mycobacteriosis, recurrent mucocutaneous candidiasis, and paraneoplastic pemphigus. Physical examination showed no edema or hypertension and laboratory tests identified proteinuria of 2.43 g/day without hematuria, serum creatinine of 0.69 mg/dl, urea 34 mg/dl, serum albumin of 2.4 g/dl, hemoglobin 10.9 g/dl, platelets 292,000/mm3, leukocytes 4950/mm3, lymphocytes 594/mm3 and neutrophils 3910/mm3. The hemolysis tests were negative and serum iron was low. Analysis of glicemia and serum lipids levels were normal as well as serum complement and imunoglobulins, except for an IgM level of 283 mg/dl (normal values 40 to 230 mg/dl) and undetectable IgE. Serologies for Syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, C and antibodies for autoimmune diseases were negative.
Andreas Suhartoyo Winarno*, Lukas Schloesser, Frederic Dietzel, Percy Balan, Thomas Hoehn, Monika Hampl and Tanja Natascha Fehm
Published on: 16th December, 2019
Deliveries prior to 28 weeks’ gestation (extreme preterm birth) pose a global health concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Extreme preterm birth is associated with several complications in the newborn and management in neonatal intensive care unit would incur high expenses. In parallel, advancements in in vitro fertilization will give an opportunity for women to conceive in cases of ovarian failure. At the same time, health providers also encourage patients to receive more than one embryo simultaneously during an embryo transfer. Here we report a case of a patient in coma condition of triplet pregnancy, post ovum donation with three-embryo transfer. Following stabilization, cranial computed tomography (CCT) was performed. The result showed bleeding in the brainstem and into intraventricular spaces at 25+4 gestation weeks. Furthermore, ICH during pregnancy is considered as a rare case in obstetrical field, especially involving the brainstem. This could lead to life-threatening conditions and serious disability in the future. On the fifth day of hospitalization, she suffered from pneumonia and pulmonary edema. On the eight day (26+5 gestations weeks), an emergency caesarean section was performed due to fully dilated of the cervix with breech presentation of all fetuses. Mother and the children survived with some non-life-threatening disabilities.
This is the very first case reported of intracerebral hemorrhage in the brainstem in triplet pregnancy after receiving ovum donation. Heterologous conception could be an iceberg phenomenon of gestational complications among the population. Reproductive tourism could still become greater in the future.
A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of right-sided thoracic pain. The ECG showed inferior ST segment elevations. He has been treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin and tenecteplase, and his symptoms resolved after 30 minutes. About half an hour later, the patient developed again left-sided thoracic pain and the signs of an anterior myocardial ST-segment elevation infarction. 90 minutes after receiving the initial medications, the performed coronary angiography revealed a long dissection of a large ramus circumflexus. Furthermore, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded at about the mid-level. The left ventriculography showed a reduced ventricular function and a Stanford type A aortic dissection. Immediate patient transfer for emergency surgical intervention was arranged. However, ventricular fibrillation occurred during transport and he required endotracheal intubation and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Unfortunately, he died during further transport.
In a patient with massive thoracic pain of initially uncommon localization in combination with fluctuation of ST-segment elevations, aortic dissection should be seriously taken into the differential diagnosis as well as into therapeutic management decisions (in particular antiplatelet and thrombolytic therapy).
Introduction: Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) is the therapeutic tool implemented in the treatment of dry eye, characterized by the emission of waves of 500-1200nm in the region of the upper and lower eyelids. Dry eye is a recurring complaint in ophthalmology offices and has an impact on the patient’s quality of life. It results from dysfunction of the meibomian glands, duct obstruction, and quantitative and qualitative changes in glandular secretion. It is manifested by dryness and irritation, foreign body sensation, burning, tearing, and eye fatigue. The available treatments are short term palliative with unsatisfactory results.
Objective: The importance of understanding the perceptions of medical students to their training environment cannot be overemphasized. The study evaluated the wet lab training organized for Senior Registrars in the Neurosurgery, Division of the University College Hospital, Ibadan.
Aim: The purpose of this study is to assess the experiences of postgraduate students during wet-lab training with the aim of improving the course content and introducing evidence-based and student-centered changes.
Methodology: The study made use of a cross-sectional design and data were collected using the qualitative research approach. Information was elicited from all the Senior Registrars who participated in the training through in-depth interviews.
Result: All the postgraduate students who participated in the training were satisfied with the course content and the method of delivery appropriated during the training. They also found it relevant to their practice. However, certain shortcomings were observed such as high cost of training, poor standard of equipment/tools, tight work schedule and short training duration.
Conclusion: Hands-on training plays an important role in enhancing the quality of care and high performance in health-care service delivery. The shortcomings and suggestions for improving future trainings as reported by the residents should be addressed in order to maximize the gains of the hands-on training experience
Septic Iliac vein thrombophlebitis with associated psoas abscess is a rare and severe entity, which diagnosis is challenging when no risk factor is clearly present. We are presenting a case of severe septic cavitary pulmonary emboli complicated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) that evolved rapidly to respiratory distress and multi organ failure.
A 61-year-old Hispanic male, had multiple emergency department visits due to back pain, being most of them intramuscular pain medications and steroids. In the history, he had back pain that worsened accompanied by poor mobility, generalized malaise, fever and chills. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a paravertebral psoas abscess with L5 - S1 diskitis/spondylitis inflammatory changes, which was then later evidenced by a gallium study. Further imaging studies were done, showed bilateral cavitary lung lesions, consistent with septic emboli. Subsequent blood cultures were positive for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), for which a successful combined therapeutic regimen was used. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram were not suggestive of endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteremia is one of the most common serious bacterial infections with a high risk of metastatic complications, which makes this pathogen a unique one. The combination of factors iliac vein thrombophlebitis, psoas muscle abscess, diskitis/spondylitis with ARDS makes cavitary pulmonary disease a challenging perspective. After a 6-week antimicrobial treatment, full anticoagulation, his clinical condition and image findings improved, and he was recently admitted for physical rehabilitation. Major vessels thrombophlebitis should always be considered, when primary source of septic pulmonary emboli is not clear. This case illustrates the complexity of illness and complications that may arise from a source of infection as the one in this patient. Further therapeutic strategies were tailored accordingly.
The nematicidal efficacy of abamectin, boron, chitosan, hydrogen peroxide, Bacillus thuringiensis and oxamyl 24% SL against citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans were examined on Valencia orange trees under field condition for two successive seasons (2017 and 2018). The experiment was conducted in a Valencia orange orchard infested with citrus nematode at Nubaria, El-Behera governorate, Egypt. The obtained results showed that all the tested treatments reduced nematode final population ((Pf) and reproduction factor (Rf) compared with that obtained from the untreated trees. The highest percentages of Pf reductions (74.5-83.4 %) and (70%-82%) were recorded with oxamyl, boron, abamectin, chitosan and H2O2 in the 1st and the 2nd tested seasons, respectively. Whereas, B. thuringiensis had the least nematode Pf reduction with 60.7 and 55.8% in the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively. Additionally, all treatments significantly improved orange yield (30.9-83.2% increase), physical fruit parameters and orange juice properties. The highest orange yield increase (83.2%) was recorded with boron treatment followed by oxamyl (70.3%). Also, boron increased total soluble solids (TSS) by 13.6%, volume of orange juice (36.4%) and vitamin C (19.7%) and decreased juice acidity (A) by (16.7%). It is concluded that abamectin, boron and the other tested compounds have potential as non-chemical control strategy tools in managing the citrus nematode. These bioagents reduced the amount of traditional chemical nematicides and are considered to be environmentally safe.
Background: Combination of extracts from multiple plants are typically used in ethnomedicine to putatively offer more potent chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects than that of individual extracts from single plants. Aqueous extracts from two multipurpose plants Strophanthus hispidus (roots) and Aframomum meleguta (seeds) are topically co-administered in the nasal cavities for the ethnomedicinal management of chronic sinusitis.
Aim: This study assessed the potential phytochemical synergy between constituent extracts of Strophanthus hispidus (roots) and Aframomum meleguta (seeds) in its anti-inflammation, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects.
Methods and Materials: Broth dilution assay assessed anti-microbial activities. DPPH radical scavenging assay examined the scope of anti-oxidant activities and inhibition of carrageenan-induced 7-day old chick feet oedema revealed anti-inflammatory activities.
Results: Anti-microbial activities of individual plant extracts in broth dilution assay showed comparable potency to that of the co-extract mixture. Similarly, individual extracts showed levels of DPPH radical scavenging activities in anti-oxidant assay that was comparable to those found for the co-extract mixture. In contrast to these two effects, inhibition of carrageenan-induced 7-day old chick feet oedema revealed an anti-inflammatory activity evoked by co-extract mixtures that was greater than the sum of the individual potencies of the two extracts.
Conclusion: The potential phytochemical synergy of the two plants extracts in its anti-inflammatory response largely validates ethnomedicinal practice and generally confirms growing literature reports that ascribe the net pharmacological activities of herbal extracts to the combined multi-activities of unique phytochemical entities at multiple target sites.
Drug addiction is one of the burning problems in the modern society. Annually there is a steady increase in the level of drug abuse. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime publishes “World Drugs Report 2018”, where it was reported that about 275 million people (almost 5.6% of the world population) aged 15-64 used drugs at least once in their lives, and opium production increased by 65% in 2016-2017 [1-3]. Therefore, the question of studying the influence of drugs on the structural organization of organs remains open and relevant [4,5].
Objective: The liver is the second most common site of distant metastases from breast cancer. We investigated the risk factor liver metastasis in patients with breast cancer.
Methods: We studied Age, Menopausal status, Histologic Type, Tumor size, Number of cancerous axillary lymph nodes, in two groups with liver metastases with logistic regression to identify independent liver metastasis risk factors in breast cancer patients.
Results: Age, menopausal status, number of cancerous axillary lymph nodes and tumor size are the independent risk factors liver metastases in patients with breast cancer.
Conclusion: The increase number of cancerous axillary lymph nodes and tumor size may be diagnostic markers for liver metastases from breast cancer.
Actinic keratosis (AK) are scaly lesions caused by chronic ultraviolet-induced damage to the epidermis which are a proxy for excessive sun-exposure  that may evolve into squamous cell carcinoma [2-7]. Therefore, there is a need or continuous surveillance of such patients along with adapted information for an effective photo-protection, practical couselling on photoprotection towards the defined population, i.e. elderly with actinic keratosis. Thus, patient observance and adhesion to the dermatologist recommendations become a real public health issue. In this context, we aimed to evaluate through a non-interventional, real-life observational study, the impact of photoprotection counseling by the dermatologist on patients attitude towards sun exposure
Background: Although illegal, Ghana has a long history of cannabis use. With changing perceptions, advocacy for legalization has increased globally. This study exams pharmacological evidence on the prospects and challenges of decriminalization and /or legalization of cannabis in Ghana.
Results: Cannabis and cannabinoids are a “pharmacological enigma” with unique ability to activate at least 3 of the 4 drug receptor super families. This include; inotropic Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), metabotropic Cannabinoid Receptors (CB) and nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptors (PPAR). Cannabinoid receptors also dimerize with other receptors creating distinctly new signaling pathways. Cannabis and cannabinoids show good anti- nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant anti-emetogenic activity and variable anticonvulsant activity. It can play important role in palliative care, some rare intractable epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cachexia and Opioid Use Disorder. Cannabis precipitates psychosis in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. Chronic cannabis use alter the neurobiology of adolescent brain, predisposing them to amotivational syndrome characterized by depersonalization and inhibited motivation for goal directed behavior. Cannabis is also a “gateway drug”; ushering users to “harder” substances of abuse and reinstating extinguished drug seeking behaviours. The recent tramadol abuse in Ghana may have been precipitated by previous and concurrent cannabis use. Furthermore, Ghana’s cannabis may have a higher propensity to induce detrimental effects because of preferential accumulation the psychotropic delta-9-Tetrathydrocannabinol as a result of the high tropical temperature and humidity.
Conclusion: There is not sufficient pharmacological evidence supporting criminalization of medical cannabis in Ghana. However, the same evidence does not support legalization of recreational cannabis.
In this article different numerical techniques for solving optimal control problems is introduced, the aim of this paper is to achieve the best accuracy for the Optimal Control Problem (OCP) which has the objective of minimizing the size of tumor cells by the end of the treatment. An important aspect is considered, which is, the optimal concentrations of drugs that not affect the patient’s health significantly. To study the behavior of tumor growth, a mathematical model is used to simulate the dynamic behavior of tumors since it is difficult to prototype dynamic behavior of the tumor. A tumor-immune model with four components, namely, tumor cells, active cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs), helper T-cells, and a chemotherapeutic drug is used. Two general categories of optimal control methods which are indirect methods and direct ones based on nonlinear programming solvers and interior point algorithms are compared. Within the direct optimal control techniques, we review three different solutions techniques namely (i) multiple shooting methods, (ii) trapezoidal direct collocation method, (iii) Hermit- Simpson’s collocation method and within the indirect methods we review the Pontryagin’s Maximum principle with both collocation method and the backward forward sweep method. Results show that the direct methods achieved better control than indirect methods.
Natural killer cells represent the first line of defense against infections and tumors and can be derived from various sources including: bone marrow, peripheral blood, specific types of human stem cells, and certain cell lines. The functions of natural killer cells are influenced by: several cytokines, activating and inhibitory receptors, as well as other immune cells such as dendritic cells and mesenchymal stem cells.
Natural killer cells are attractive candidates for adoptive cellular therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in addition to recipients of various forms of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as they enhance antitumor effects without causing graft versus host disease. Several clinical trials have shown safety and efficacy of natural killer cell products obtained from autologous as well as allogeneic sources and used in conjunction with cytotoxic chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies and novel agents.
The following review, which includes extensive literature review on several aspects of natural killer cells, will give particular attention to: the rising role of natural killer cell therapies in patients with malignant hematological disorders, solid tumors and in recipients of stem cell therapies; preparation and manufacture of natural killer cell products; challenges facing the utilization of this form of cellular therapy including evolution of resistance; and maneuvers that can be employed to enhance the efficacy of natural killer cell therapies as well as suggested solutions to resolve the remaining challenges.
Infantile cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disease leading to end stage kidney disease at early ages. There is no effective treatment and patients require long term dialysis or kidney transplant for survival. We present our experience on three affected children who received HLA matched allogeneic stem cell transplant. The protocol used was novel and designed to promote engraftment. The primary endpoint was safety for treatment related mortality or morbidity; All three children survived without serious adverse effects during extended follow up for over 4 years. Although we could not prove engraftment, all three children met secondary end point of sustained target functions over a 6 month follow-up. Further studies are warranted to further evaluate safety and efficacy of MSC treatment for infantile cystinosis.
Brain stem death is when a person has permanently lost the potential for consciousness and the capacity to breathe. When this happens, a machine called a ventilator keeps oxygen circulating through the person’s bloodstream - a person confirmed as being dead when their brain stem function is permanently lost .
62-year-old female with a history of arterial hypertension, attended the emergency department due to pain in the left flank. On physical examination no showed signs of peritoneal irritation. Urinalysis was indicated, that reported microscopic hematuria and negative abdominal ultrasound.
We wish to present our case of the rare Meckel-Gruber syndrome, diagnosed prenatally at 18 weeks’ gestation. Informed consent was obtained from both parents for publishing this case and including photos.
Experience with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome (MF/SS) is limited to a small number of case reports and case series [1,2]. The advantage of allogeneic HSCT has been indicated in progressive disease in the review of CIBMTR study groups . A consensus is still not available about the intensity and the content of the conditioning regimen due to the rarity of the disease and heterogeneous patient groups.
Background: With the advancement of cell therapy research, there is an increasing need for healthy volunteers (HV) to donate small volumes (30 ml) of human bone marrow (BM). The BM procedure required to procure small volumes is invasive, although short-lived (25 seconds), is not without risk. To ensure a sustainable supply of BM for research and cell therapy, greater information of the risks and factors that motivate HV to donate small volumes of BM will help optimize the procedure and HV enrolment, ensuring donors are fully informed of the potential risks.
Objective: To identify the adverse events (AE) experienced by HV during and after small volume BM procedure and understand the motivating factors that influence HV to donate BM for research.
Method: HV (n = 55) who donated BM (30 ml) for scientific research and provided informed consent were administered a questionnaire to identify the type, duration and severity of AE experienced during and post-BM aspiration; and to determine the motivating factors that influenced their willingness to donate BM.
Results: Pain was experienced by 89% of participants during the BM procedure with moderate grade reported by 40%. One/more of the following AE were experienced by 73% of the volunteers post-BM procedure: pain, fatigue, site reaction, nausea and transient hypotension. AE resolved within an average of three days. The reported motivational factors ranked in the following order: first, to advance research for the benefit of future patients; compensation for participation; free medical check-up; lastly, the research question was interesting.
Conclusion: Young HV, motivated primarily by altruism and financial compensation, risk the occurrence of transient AE following donation of small-volume BM for research.
Introduction: Fluid management is the cornerstone of treatment for acute pancreatitis (AP), but the proper rate and volume is still controversial. We aim to evaluate the role of aggressive hydration in AP patients.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 279 hospitalized patients of AP. Severity was determined by the Revised Atlanta classification; validated clinical scores were also calculated based on clinical information upon presentation. We extracted amount of fluid received by at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after presentation. Aggressive hydration was defined as amount higher than 10 ml/kg bolus followed by infusion at 1.5 ml/kg/h. After direct comparison between aggressive versus non-aggressive hydration groups, propensity-score match was performed to control severity, APACHE II and BISAP score. Post-match comparison as well as a subgroup comparison were conducted.
Results: At 24 hours, 125 (44.8%) patients received aggressive hydration averaged at 5.1 L (2-18 L), while 154 (55.2%) patients received non-aggressive hydration averaged at 2.5 L. Post-match comparison showed that aggressive hydration group had longer hospital stay (MAP: 5.3 vs 4.5, p = 0.145, MSAP/SAP: 8.3 vs 4.8 d, p = 0.007), and higher rate of intensive care unit admission (mild: 12.9% vs 4.4%, p = 0.042, moderately severe or severe: 36.8% vs 3.1%, p = 0.001), while showed no difference in rate of mortality or re-admission by 1 year. In patients who presented without organ failure, aggressive hydration did not change the rate of development of organ failure (14.1% vs 12.5%, p = 0.731), but the aggressive hydration group had a trend towards longer hospital stay (5.5 vs 4.6 d, p = 0.083) and higher rate of MICU admission (12.1% vs 4.8%, p = 0.051)
Introduction: Desmoplastic Malignant Mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare histological subtype of sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma arising most frequently in the pleura or peritoneum and less frequently in the lung parenchyma.
Patient concerns: A 52-year-old female with no apparent asbestos exposure was referred for consultation in our center after 1 month of cough and no concomitant symptoms of chest.
Diagnosis: Chest computed Tomography (CT) revealed a localized mass measuring 4.5 x 3.9 cm in the right lung middle lobe with inhomogeneous enhancement following injection of contrast, and without pleural lesions, considered a primary intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma.
Interventions: Surgical intervention was performed.
Outcomes: Following complete tumor resection, the patient declined to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The final diagnosis of intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. In addition, no local tumor recurrence was observed within 10 months of follow-up.
Conclusion: Even elderly female patients with localized pulmonary masses without significant pleural lesions should not excluded the possibility of malignant mesothelioma in the lungs.
Introduction: Contact of health care workers and patient at health facility lead to the transmission of pathogenic organisms to each other. Hospital acquired infection prevention is standardized guide lines contain multitude protocols needed to be implemented by health care workers to reduce hospital acquired infections.
Objective: To assess health care workers knowledge, attitude and practice towards hospital acquired infection prevention at Dessie referral hospital.
Method: Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted among health care workers. The subjects were selected by proportional allocation in each respective department and simple random sampling method was employed. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data and presented in frequency tables and graph.
Results: 191 study subjects were participated in the study which gives a response rate of 90.5% from 211 total sample sizes. The study subjects had given their response according to self-administered questioner. The result indicates that 86.4%, 76.4% and 77% of respondents had good knowledge and favorable attitude and poor practice towards hospital acquired infection prevention respectively.
Conclusion: Even though the majority of the health care workers had good knowledge and favorable attitude, more than two third of them had poor practice towards hospital acquired infection prevention. Therefore health workers should strictly follow hospital acquired infection prevention guidelines. Improving sustainable supplies like personal protective equipment, water supply and hand washing facilities at patient care site is vital to correct the poor practice of infection prevention.
The demand for materials and devices that are capable of controlling heat flux has attracted many interests due to desire to attain new sources of energy and on-chip cooling. Excellent properties of DNA make it as an interesting nanomaterial in future technologies. In this paper, we aim to investigate the thermal flow through two sequence combinations of DNA, e.g, (AT)4 (CG)4 (AT)4 (CG)4 and (CG)8 (AT)8. Two interesting phenomena have been observed respectively. In the first configuration, an oscillatory thermal flux is observed. In this way, an oscillating heat flux from a stationary spatial thermal gradient is provided by varying the gate temperature. In the second configuration, the system behaves as a constant heat current source. The physical mechanism behind each phenomenon is identified. In the first case, it was shown that the transition between thermal positive conductance and negative differential conductance implies oscillatory heat current. In the latter, the discordance between the phonon bands of the two coupled sequences results in constant thermal flow despite of increasing in temperature gradient.
The incidence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is extremely high. RVVC is likely to have a greater impact on patients. The aim of the study was to explore the risk factors of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) in the tropical coastal area. In this case-control study, a questionnaire survey was conducted in patients with VVC in the Sanya area from July 2014 to December 2016. The data included demographic characteristics, host factors, and behavioural characteristics. According to the maximum number of symptomatic episodes per year, the participants were classified into a non-recurrent VVC (NRVVC; < 4 episodes/year, including the current one) group or a RVVC group (≥ 4 episodes/year, including the current one). Crude odds ratios were calculated for potential risk factors and were adjusted using logistic regression. All vaginal secretions of patients with RVVC were cultured. Of the 728 cases of VVC, 69.0% (502/728) were NRVVC, and 31.0% (226/728) were RVVC. Previous antibiotic treatment (adjusted OR: 4.41, p < 0.01), repeat abortion (p < 0.05), and vaginal lavage (adjusted OR: 1.62, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with RVVC. A total of 230 yeasts isolates were obtained from 226 patients. C. albicans were the predominant Candida species (194 strains) in all patients of VVC. Our results demonstrate that in the tropical coastal area, a significant association was found between previous antibiotic treatment and incident RVVC. Host factors may be the most important factors in the occurrence of RVVC.
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory and antifibrotic properties, and therefore used for treatment of many of chronic liver disease . Although there are many reports on the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and chronic liver diseases, but the relationship between hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) and vitamin D level is still unclear.
The modification and prevention of vitamin D deficiency needs an accurate illustration of the current position in each region. Vitamin D level in patients with HBV is relatively an important issue, which has been studied in many researches. As different papers published in national and international journals.
Microchimerism is a bidirectional exchange of fetal and maternal cells during pregnancy (Figure 1). Pregnancy is the most common and natural cause of chimerism, and bi-directional trafficking of hematopoietic cells occurs through the placenta. Therefore, we are all born as microchimera [1,2]. Although there are many unanswered questions it is thought that chimerism has an important role in human health. For many years, the clinical effects of maternal microchimeric cells (MMcCs) in organ repair and cancer therapy have just begun to be understood. While the mission of chimerism is straight forward, the subject is profound. Chimerism carries the potential for disease as well as for health benefits. Recent studies have shown that maternal stress and infections in pregnancy affect fetal neuro development and increased the risk of neurological or psychiatric disorders in the future life of the fetus. This article describes the role of Mc in the etiology of psychotic disorders.
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